Space systems -- Space debris mitigation requirements

This document defines the primary space debris mitigation requirements applicable to all elements of unmanned systems launched into, or passing through, near-Earth space, including launch vehicle orbital stages, operating spacecraft and any objects released as part of normal operations. The requirements contained in this document are intended to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbit lifetime. The requirements are also intended to reduce the casualty risk on ground associated with atmospheric re-entry of space objects. This document is the top-level standard in a family of standards addressing space debris mitigation. It is the main interface for the user, bridging between the primary space debris mitigation objectives and a set of lower level standards and technical reports that support conformance. The lower level documents contain detailed requirements and implementation measures associated with the high-level requirements in this document.

Systèmes spatiaux -- Exigences de mitigation des débris spatiaux

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Jul-2019
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
01-Sep-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 24113
Third edition
2019-07
Space systems — Space debris
mitigation requirements
Systèmes spatiaux — Exigences de mitigation des débris spatiaux
Reference number
ISO 24113:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 24113:2019(E)
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© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24113:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Protected regions ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 LEO protected region ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 GEO protected region ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Technical requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6.1 Avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal

operations ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.1.2 Space debris from pyrotechnics and solid rocket motors ............................................................ 6

6.2 Avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit .......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.1 Intentional break-up ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.2 Accidental break-up caused by an on-board source of energy ................................................ 7

6.2.3 Accidental break-up caused by a collision ................................................................................................. 7

6.3 Disposal of a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage after the end of mission so

as to minimize interference with the protected regions ..................................................................................... 7

6.3.1 Provisions for successful disposal .................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.2 Disposal to minimize interference with the GEO protected region ..................................... 8

6.3.3 Disposal to minimize interference with the LEO protected region ...................................... 8

6.3.4 Re-entry ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Planning requirements .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Space debris mitigation plan ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Post-launch life cycle phases of a launch vehicle or spacecraft ...............................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 24113:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 24113:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— many of the existing requirements and terminology definitions have been modified, and new

requirements have been added for the purpose of:

— limiting the total number of launch vehicle orbital stages and space debris objects left in Earth

orbit by a launch vehicle during normal operations,

— limiting the ejection of slag debris from solid rocket motors in low Earth orbit,

— avoiding accidental break-up caused by a collision, and

— limiting the total probability of successful disposal of a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital

stage to be at least 0,9;

— a note has also been added advising of the existence of a commonly-used threshold for the expected

number of casualties during a re-entry.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24113:2019(E)
Introduction

Space debris comprises all objects of human origin in Earth orbit or re-entering the atmosphere,

including fragments and elements thereof, that no longer serve a useful purpose. The growing

population of these objects poses an increasing hazard to mankind’s use of space. In response to this

problem, there is international consensus that space activities need to be managed to minimize collision

risks among space objects and casualty risks associated with atmospheric re-entry. This consensus is

embodied in space debris mitigation guidelines published by organizations such as the International

[1] [2]

Telecommunication Union (ITU) , the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC)

[3] [4]

and the United Nations (UN) . The transformation of debris mitigation guidelines into engineering

practice is a key purpose of this document.
[5]

The importance of this document can be seen within the context of four UN treaties that were

established under the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) to

govern the involvement of nations in space activities. These are the Outer Space Treaty, the Liability

Convention, the Registration Convention and the Rescue Agreement. Through some of these treaties, a

Launching State has total liability for damage caused by its spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stages

(or any parts thereof) on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft in flight, as well as in outer space where

fault can be proven.

All countries are encouraged to abide by these international agreements in order not to endanger or

constrain existing and future activities in space. A Launching State can choose to appoint licensing or

regulatory authorities to administer its approach for complying with the above-mentioned UN treaties.

In several Launching States, these authorities have implemented national legislation to enforce the

UN treaties. Such legislation can include the mitigation of space debris. Some Launching States meet

their obligations by appointing non-regulatory government bodies, such as national space agencies, to

provide the necessary guidelines or requirements, including those for space debris mitigation.

The general aim of space debris mitigation is to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that

spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated and disposed of in a manner that

prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbit lifetime. Another aim of space debris

mitigation is to ensure that space objects re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere cause no harm. These

aims are achieved by the following actions:

a) avoiding the intentional release of space debris into Earth orbit during normal operations;

b) avoiding break-ups in Earth orbit;

c) removing spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages from protected orbital regions after the end

of mission;

d) performing the necessary actions to minimize the risk of collision with other space objects;

e) reducing the risks associated with re-entry, e.g. to people, property and the Earth's environment.

Such actions are especially important for a spacecraft or launch vehicle orbital stage that has one or

more of the following characteristics:
— has a large collision cross-section;
— remains in orbit for many years;
— operates near manned mission orbital regions;
— operates in highly utilized regions, such as protected regions;
— operates in regions of high debris population.

This document transforms these objectives into a set of high-level debris mitigation requirements.

Methods and processes to enable conformance with these requirements are provided in a series of

lower-level implementation standards.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 24113:2019(E)
Space systems — Space debris mitigation requirements
1 Scope

This document defines the primary space debris mitigation requirements applicable to all elements

of unmanned systems launched into, or passing through, near-Earth space, including launch vehicle

orbital stages, operating spacecraft and any objects released as part of normal operations.

The requirements contained in this document are intended to reduce the growth of space debris by

ensuring that spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated and disposed of in a

manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbit lifetime. The requirements

are also intended to reduce the casualty risk on ground associated with atmospheric re-entry of space

objects.

This document is the top-level standard in a family of standards addressing space debris mitigation.

It is the main interface for the user, bridging between the primary space debris mitigation objectives

and a set of lower level standards and technical reports that support conformance. The lower level

documents contain detailed requirements and implementation measures associated with the high-level

requirements in this document.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
approving agent

entity from whom approval is sought for the implementation of space debris (3.23) mitigation

requirements with respect to the procurement of a spacecraft (3.25), or its launch, or its operations in

outer space, or its safe re-entry (3.22), or a combination of those activities

EXAMPLE Regulatory or licensing authorities; national or international space agencies; other delegated

organizations.
3.2
break-up

event that completely or partially destroys an object and generates space debris (3.23)

3.3
casualty risk
expected number of casualties

situation expressed by the probability that at least one person is killed or seriously injured as a

consequence of an event

Note 1 to entry: The medical profession has defined a number of different injury scoring systems to distinguish

the severity of an injury. Broadly, a serious injury is one of such severity that hospitalisation is required.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 24113:2019(E)

Note 2 to entry: The re-entry (3.22) of a spacecraft (3.25) is an example of an event.

3.4
controlled re-entry

type of re-entry (3.22) where the time of re-entry is sufficiently controlled so that the impact of any

surviving debris on the surface of the Earth is confined to a designated area

Note 1 to entry: The designated area is usually an uninhabited region such as an ocean.

3.5
disposal

actions performed by a spacecraft (3.25) or launch vehicle orbital stage (3.13) to permanently reduce

its chance of accidental break-up (3.2) and to achieve its required long-term clearance of the protected

regions (3.21)

Note 1 to entry: Actions can include removing stored energy and performing post-mission orbital manoeuvres.

3.6
disposal manoeuvre

action of moving a spacecraft (3.25) or launch vehicle orbital stage (3.13) to a different orbit as part of its

disposal (3.5)
3.7
disposal phase

interval during which a spacecraft (3.25) or launch vehicle orbital stage (3.13) performs its disposal (3.5)

3.8
Earth orbit

bounded or unbounded Keplerian orbit with Earth at a focal point, or Lagrange point orbit which

includes Earth as one of the two main bodies

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this document, it is not necessary to consider space objects (3.24) in

unbounded Keplerian orbits if their probability of interference with the LEO and GEO (3.11) protected regions

(3.21) is negligible.
3.9
end of life
instant when a spacecraft (3.25) or launch vehicle orbital stage (3.13):

a) is permanently turned off (nominally as it completes its disposal phase (3.7)),

b) re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere, or
c) can no longer be controlled by the operator
Note 1 to entry: See Annex A.
3.10
end of mission
instant when a spacecraft (3.25) or launch vehicle orbital stage (3.13):

a) completes the tasks or functions for which it has been designed, other than its disposal (3.5),

b) becomes non-functional as a consequence of a failure, or
c) is permanently halted through a voluntary decision
Note 1 to entry: See Annex A.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 24113:2019(E)
3.11
geostationary Earth orbit
GEO

Earth orbit (3.8) having zero inclination, zero eccentricity, and an orbital period equal to the Earth's

sidereal rotation period
3.12
launch vehicle
DEPRECATED: launcher
system designed to transport one or more payloads into outer space
3.13
launch vehicle orbital stage

complete element of a launch vehicle (3.12) that is designed to deliver a defined thrust during a dedicated

phase of the launch vehicle’s operation and achieve orbit

Note 1 to entry: Non-propulsive elements of a launch vehicle, such as jettisonable tanks, multiple payload

structures or dispensers, are considered to be part of a launch vehicle orbital stage while they are attached.

3.14
Launching State

State that launches or procures the launching of a spacecraft (3.25), or State from whose territory or

facility a spacecraft is launched
[5]

Note 1 to entry: This definition is consistent with the definition in the UN Liability Convention and the UN

[6]
General Assembly’s Resolution 59/115 on the notion of the Launching State .
3.15
mission
set of tasks or
...

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