Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties — Amendment 1: Projectiles, rotors and propellers

Sécurité des jouets — Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et physiques — Amendement 1: Projectiles, rotors et propulseurs

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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAmd 1 - Projectiles, rotors and propellers
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FINAL
ISO
AMENDMENT
DRAFT
8124-1:2012
FDAM 1
ISO/TC 181
Safety of toys —
Secretariat: DS
Voting begins on:
Part 1:
2014-03-13
Safety aspects related to mechanical
Voting terminates on:
and physical properties
2014-05-13
AMENDMENT 1: Projectiles, rotors and
propellers
Sécurité des jouets —
Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et
physiques
AMENDEMENT 1: Projectiles, rotors et propulseurs
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2014
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
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ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 181, Safety of toys.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
Safety of toys —
Part 1:
Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical
properties
AMENDMENT 1: Projectiles, rotors and propellers
Page 9, Clause 3
Amend the existing definitions with the following:
3 Terms and definitions
3.47
projectile

object without capacity for self-propulsion, intended to be launched into free flight

Note 1 to entry: The definition does not include self-propelled flying toys such as remote control helicopters and

wind-up airplanes unless the capacity for self-propulsion is from self-contained compressed gas and/or liquid

(e.g. rockets).
3.48
projectile toy with stored energy

toy with a projectile launched by means of a discharge mechanism capable of storing energy independent

of the user and incorporating a release mechanism

Note 1 to entry: Release mechanisms should operate following at least one single discrete activation by the user.

Note 2 to entry: Toy rockets and similar toys propelled by a chemical reaction or compressed gasses (e.g. air)

where the energy can be stored independent of the user are considered as projectile toys with stored energy. For

example, in a rocket propelled by a mixture of vinegar and baking soda, the user initiates the reaction by mixing

the two substances but no longer has control of the actual launching. The rocket will launch when the pressure

build up overcomes the force that holds the rocket onto the launch platform.
3.49
projectile toy without stored energy

toy with a projectile propelled by energy imparted by the user or by means of a discharge mechanism

incapable of storing energy independent of the user
Page 12, Clause 3
Add the following new definitions:
3.71
free flight
unconstrained travel through the air

Note 1 to entry: to entry:This includes projectiles that are ultimately restrained by means of a non-rigid tether

(e.g. a pop-gun).
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
3.72
arrow

projectile in the form of a shaft with a length of 150 mm or more, intended to be discharged from a bow

held by the user
3.73
discharge mechanism

a component of the toy, separate from the projectile, which releases or propels the projectile into free

flight
3.74
dart

a projectile in the form of a shaft less than 150 mm in length that is intended to be thrown or blown

3.75
leading edge

an area of the projectile (e.g. tips, edges or protrusions) which would be expected to make contact with

the eyeball in the event of launching towards the eye

Note 1 to entry: This includes all areas on projectiles that travel in unpredictable orientations (e.g. tumbling) that

could reasonably be expected to strike the eyeball.
Page 29, Subclause 4.18
Replace the existing Subclause 4.18 with the following:
4.18 Projectile toys
See E.32.
4.18.1 General

a) The requirements of 4.18.2 a), b), c), 4.18.3 b) to e) and 4.18.5 do not apply to projectiles that have

a maximum range of 300 mm or less when measured in accordance with 5.35 (determination of

projectile range).

b) The requirements of 4.18.3 a) do not apply to projectile toys for children 3 years and above with

a range of 100 mm or less when measured in accordance with 5.35 (determination of projectile

range).
c) The requirements of 4.18.2, 4.18.3, 4.18.4 do not apply to

— components that function as projectiles which are permanently enclosed within a toy unless

they are liberated when the outer container is tested according to 5.24 (reasonably foreseeable

abuse tests);
— ground based toys propelled along a track or launched onto another surface;

NOTE These are not considered to be projectile toys even if they include an element of motion in free flight,

for example leaps between tracks or surfaces.
— rotors and propellers.
4.18.2 Projectiles
Projectile toys shall conform to the following requirements.

a) Tips or leading edges on rigid projectiles shall not protrude beyond the depth of the gauge shown in

Figure X(5) when tested according to 5.36 (tip assessment of rigid projectiles).

b) The leading edges of a projectile, as well as any corners that are adjacent to the leading edge(s) shall

be smooth and free of points, burrs, flash or similar projections.
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)

c) For rigid projectiles discharged by projectile toys with stored energy, the corners of the projectile

that are adjacent to the leading edge(s) shall have rounded edges. For purposes of this requirement

a radius of 0.25 mm shall be considered sufficient. This requirement does not apply to projectiles

made from paper or paperboard.

NOTE 1 There may be multiple leading edges that require evaluation, especially in situations where the

projectile may travel in irregular or unpredictable orientations (e.g. tumbling).

NOTE 2 To determine if a leading edge and/or adjacent corner can strike the eye, the spherical shape of the

eyeball should be considered, as well as the size and shape of the projectile relative to the eye, the regularity or

predictability of the flight path, and any other relevant factors.
See Figure X(1) for examples of corners adjacent to leading edges.
Key
1 corners adjacent to leading edges

Figure X — (1) — Examples of corners adjacent to leading edges on missile and disc-type

projectiles

d) Projectiles with a suction cup as a contact surface shall have a length of 57 mm or more when

measured according to 5.37 (length of suction cup projectiles) before and after testing according to

5.24.5 (torque test) and 5.24.6.5 (tension test for a projectile with a suction cup) unless:

— the suction cup does not pass entirely through template C when tested according to 5.4 (small

balls test), or

— the suction cup is on a foam shaft projectile (see Figure X(2) where the suction cup diameter

measured in the relaxed state, is less than or equal to the diameter of the foam shaft.

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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
Key
1 plastic collar
2 foam
3 suction cup

Figure X — (2) — Foam projectile with suction diameter less than or equal to the diameter of

foam shaft

NOTE The requirement of 4.18.2 d) applies to both suction cups that have been separately affixed to the shaft

and to those that are integral with the shaft (i.e. one-piece mouldings).

e) Suction cups on projectiles with a suction cup as a contact surface shall not detach when tested

according to 5.24 (reasonably foreseeable abuse tests) unless:

— the detached suction cup does not pass entirely through template C when tested according to

5.4 (small balls test), and the exposed shaft end complies with 4.8 projections, or

— the suction cup is on a foam projectile where the suction cup diameter, when measured in the

relaxed state, is less than or equal to the diameter of the foam shaft, see Figure X(2).

NOTE The requirement of 4.18.2 e) applies to both suction cups that have been separately affixed to the shaft

and to those that are integral with the shaft (i.e. one-piece mouldings).
4.18.3 Projectile toys with stored energy
Projectile toys with stored energy shall conform to the following requirements:

a) Projectiles shall not, whatever their orientation, fit entirely into the small parts cylinder when

tested in accordance with 5.2 (small parts test).

NOTE This requirement applies to projectile toys intended for children 3 years and above.

This requirement does not apply to:

— small parts that are released after testing in accordance with 5.24 (reasonably foreseeable abuse

testing) and 5.15.2 (wall impact test for projectiles) that cannot be launched or are unable to travel a

distance greater than 100 mm when measured in accordance with 5.35 (determination of projectile

range);
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)

— small parts of foam that are released from projectiles whose shafts are completely made of foam

following testing in accordance with 5.24 (reasonably foreseeable abuse testing) and 5.15.2 (wall

impact test for projectiles).

b) Projectiles with a kinetic energy greater than 0,08 J when tested according to 5.15.1 (kinetic energy

of projectiles) shall:
— have a contact surface(s) made of a resilient material, and

— be accompanied by a warning about aiming at the eyes or face (see B.2.15 a) for guidance). This

requirement only applies to projectiles that might reasonably be able to be aimed at the face

(see E.32.);

— have a kinetic energy per unit area not greater than 2 500 J/m when tested according to

5.15.1.3.2 (determination of kinetic energy per area of contact).
c) Where a protective cap, cover or tip is used it shall either:

— not become detached from the projectile when tested in accordance with 5.24.5 (torque test)

and 5.24.6.4 (tension test for protective components), or

— if the protective cap, cover or tip becomes detached and if any resulting component can still

be discharged from the discharge mechanism, the toy shall continue to comply with the

requirements of 4.18.3.

c) When tested in accordance with 5.15.2 (wall impact test for projectiles), projectiles shall not produce

a hazardous sharp edge or a hazardous sharp point and shall continue to meet the requirements of

4.18.3.

d) The discharge mechanism shall be designed so that it is unable to launch the improvised projectiles,

specified in Figure AA and Table AA, in a manner determined to be hazardous.

NOTE 1 The discharge mechanism shall be assessed in the form in which it is supplied in the toy, i.e. there shall

be no user modifications.

NOTE 2 Improvised projectiles that are discharged 300 mm or less are not considered to be hazardous [see

4.18.1 a)]

When evaluating the ability of a discharge mechanism to launch improvised projectiles in a hazardous

manner, consideration should be given to the following factors:

— the repeatability and ease of loading and then launching the improvised projectile;

— the orientation of the discharge mechanism;
— distance travelled by the improvised projectile;
— other factors considered to be relevant.
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
Key
1 cylindrical shaft
2 disc
3 sphere
Figure — AA — Improvised projectiles
6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
Table — AA — Dimensions of improvised projectiles shown in Figure AA
Dimensions in millimetres
Designation Name Material D X1 X2 R H
Shafts
A Pencil Hardwood 7 155 15 0,5
B Long nail / pen refill Aluminium 3 100 5 0,1
Z Pen refill Aluminium 3 50 5 0,1
C Short nail / toothpick Aluminium 1,5 50 2,3 0,05
D Toothpick Aluminium 1,5 25 2,3 0,05
Spheres
E Steel ball Steel 8
F Small marble Glass 16
G Large marble Glass 25
Discs
H Small coin Steel 15 1,5
I Medium coin Steel 20 2
J Medium/large coin Steel 25 3
K Large coin Steel 30 3
Radius on shaft tips are non-critical dimensions.
4.18.4 Projectile toys without stored energy

Projectile toys without stored energy that might reasonably be able to be launched at the face, should be

accompanied by instructions for use, which draw attention to the hazards of aiming at eyes or face [see

B.2.15 b)]. This requirement does not apply to projectile toys intended to be thrown towards people, e.g.

flying discs, balls and similar objects.
4.18.4.1 Mouth actuated projectile toys

Mouth actuated projectile toys shall comply with the requirements of 4.25 (mouth-actuated toys).

4.18.4.2 Projectiles in the form of a dart
Projectiles in the form of a dart shall conform to the following requirements:

a) When measured in accordance with 5.15.1.3.2 a) to f) (contact surface area), the contact area of the

dart shall be at least 3 cm
b) The dart shall either be:

— provided with a protective cap, cover or tip that is integral with the front end of the shaft, or

— have a blunted front end to which a protective cap, cover or tip is attached, or

— be made of a resilient material, unless it is reliant on magnetic forces.

c) After testing in accordance with 5.24.5 (torque test) and 5.24.6.4 (tension test for protective

components) projectiles in the form of a dart with a protective cap, cover or tip shall conform with

at least one of the following requirements:

— the protective cap, cover or tip shall not become detached from the projectile, or

— if the protective cap cover or tip becomes detached from the projectile, the projectile shall not

be capable of being launched by the discharge mechanism, or
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)

— if the projectile is made of a resilient material, it shall continue to have a contact area of at least

3 cm when measured in accordance with 5.15.1.3.2 a) to f) (contact surface area).

4.18.4.3 Arrows (e.g. bow and arrow set)

Projectiles in the form of an arrow shall have a maximum kinetic energy per unit area of contact not

greater than 2500 J/m when determined in accordance with 5.15.1.3.2 (determination of kinetic energy

per area of contact).

After testing in accordance with 5.15.2 (wall impact test for projectiles), the projectiles in the form of

an arrow shall not produce a hazardous sharp edge or hazardous sharp point and shall continue to meet

the requirements of 4.18.4
Projectiles in the form of an arrow shall also:

a) be provided with a protective cap, cover or tip that is integral with the front end of the shaft, or

b) have a blunted front end to which a protective cap, cover or tip is attached, or

c) be made of a resilient material, unless it is reliant on magnetic forces.

After testing in accordance with 5.24.5 (torque test) and 5.24.6.4 (tension test for protective components)

projectiles in the form of an arrow with a protective cap, cover or tip shall conform to at least one of the

following requirements:

— the protective cap, cover or tip shall not become detached from the projectile, or

— if the protective cap cover or tip becomes detached from the projectile, the projectile shall not be

capable of being launched by the discharge mechanism, or

— if the projectile is made of a resilient material, it shall continue to have a maximum kinetic energy

per unit area of contact not greater than 2500 J/m when determined in accordance with 5.15.1.3.2

(determination of kinetic energy per area of contact).
4.18.5 Rotors and propellers

These requirements do not apply to propellers that normally rotate in the vertical plane, e.g. a propeller

on an aeroplane or remote controlled flying toy.

Rotors and propellers powered by electrical, spring or inertial energy and that take off into free flight

shall be designed to minimize the potential of rotating blades to cause injury. For example, this may be

accomplished by one or more of the following:

a) the design of the rotor or propeller shall prevent access to the blade ends during operation;

b) the blade ends shall be “clutched” or loosely attached to the rotor so that the ends are not directly

powered by the rotor drive;

c) rotors or propellers shall be designed so that the leading edges are protected with a resilient

material

Examples of designs that achieve these conditions are given in E.32 Figure X(10).

Page 49, Subclause 5.15
Replace the existing subclause 5.15 with the following:
5.15 Kinetic energy and wall impact test
5.15.1 Kinetic energy of projectiles
5.15.1.1 Principle
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)

Calculate the kinetic energy of the projectile, used under normal conditions, from the maximum of five

velocity readings. If more than one type of projectile is supplied with the toy, the kinetic energy of each

type of projectile shall be calculated.
5.15.1.2 Apparatus

5.15.1.2.1 Means for determining the velocity, to give a calculated kinetic energy to an

accuracy of 0,005 J
5.15.1.3 Procedure
5.15.1.3.1 Determination of kinetic energy

Determine the maximum kinetic energy E , of the projectile in free flight using Formula 1:

Formula 1
E = mv /2
where
m is the mass of the projectile, in kilograms;

v is the maximum velocity of the projectile, in metres per second measured according to

5.15.1.3.1.1
E is the maximum kinetic energy, in joules.
5.15.1.3.1.1 Determination of velocity
Measure the velocity of the projectile using Formula 2:
Formula 2
v = d/t
where
d is the distance in metres;
t is the time in seconds.

Position the discharge mechanism so that the projectile is launched in its intended manner e.g. vertically

for a rocket, through a suitable timing device (e.g. a chronoscope or ballistic screen). Measure the time, t,

over a distance, d, of not more than 300 mm, measured from the contact surface of the projectile as soon

as it has entered free flight. See Figure X(7).

The measurement distance, d, must be reduced if necessary to ensure that the entire measurement is

done with the projectile in free flight.

NOTE The natural deceleration of the projectile once it has left the discharge mechanism may cause different

results to be obtained depending on the measurement distance.
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ISO 8124-1:2012/FDAM 1:2014(E)
Key
1 discharge mechanism
2 first screen
3 second screen
4 projectile at the point of horizontal free flight
Figure X — (3) — Example of determination of velocity using ballistic screens
Discharge the pro
...

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