Interpreting services -- Legal interpreting -- Requirements

This document establishes the basic principles and practices of legal interpreting services, and specifies the competences of legal interpreters. It also describes the various legal settings and provides recommendations for the corresponding interpreting modes. It is applicable to all parties involved in facilitating communication between users of legal services using a spoken or signed language.

Services d'interprétation -- Interprétation juridique et judiciaire -- Exigences

Le présent document spécifie les principes et les pratiques fondamentaux des prestations d'interprétation juridique et judiciaire et précise les compétences attendues des interprčtes juridiques et judiciaires. Elle décrit également les différents cadres juridiques et judiciaires et fournit des recommandations relatives aux modes d'interprétation correspondants. Elle s'applique ŕ toutes les parties œuvrant ŕ faciliter la communication entre les utilisateurs des services juridiques et judiciaires communiquant en langue parlée ou en langue signée.

Storitve tolmačenja - Pravno tolmačenje - Zahteve

Ta dokument določa osnovna načela in prakse storitev pravnega tolmačenja ter kompetence pravnih tolmačev. Prav tako opisuje različna pravna okolja in daje priporočila za ustrezne načine tolmačenja.
Uporablja se za vse, ki omogočajo lažjo komunikacijo med uporabniki pravnih storitev v govorjenem ali znakovnem jeziku.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Apr-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
30-Jan-2019
Completion Date
11-Apr-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 20228:2019
01-oktober-2019
Storitve tolmačenja - Pravno tolmačenje - Zahteve
Interpreting services — Legal interpreting — Requirements
Interprétation judiciaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 20228:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
03.080.99 Druge storitve Other services
SIST ISO 20228:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 20228:2019
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20228
First edition
2019-04
Interpreting services — Legal
interpreting — Requirements
Services d'interprétation — Interprétation juridique et judiciaire —
Exigences
Reference number
ISO 20228:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to interpreting — Modes of interpreting and persons involved .............................. 1

3.2 Terms related to language and qualifications .............................................................................................................. 4

4 Basic principles of legal interpreting .............................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Nature of legal interpreting ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 The work of legal interpreters ................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 End-users of legal interpreting services ........................................................................................................................... 6

5 Competences and qualifications of legal interpreters .................................................................................................. 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Domain competences related to legal interpreting ................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Linguistic competences ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Interpreting competences ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5 Intercultural competences ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.6 Interpersonal competences ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.7 Technical competences .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.8 Evidence of legal interpreting qualifications ................................................................................................................ 9

5.9 Continuing training/education ................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.10 Authorization as legal interpreter .......................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Settings with legal interpreting .........................................................................................................................................................10

7 Interpreting modes .........................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Working conditions ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Legal interpreting and legal interpreters — Non-exhaustive list of

international and national documents ......................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Examples of settings in which legal interpreting services are provided ........15

Annex C (informative) Recommendations for interpreting mode ......................................................................................18

Annex D (informative) Workflow — Legal interpreting assignments .............................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www .iso .org/directives.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www .iso .org/patents.

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary

information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 5, Translation, interpreting and related technology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)
Introduction

This document was developed in response to a worldwide and growing need to accommodate the

interpreting needs of persons deprived of liberty, suspects, accused, defendants, plaintiffs, claimants,

complainants, witnesses, victims, parties in different legal settings during spoken and signed

communication as well as judicial stakeholders such as judges, lawyers, prosecutors, police officers,

court administrative staff, notaries as well as private persons requiring interpreting services during

communicative events related to the law.

The right to legal interpreting services has been enshrined in several international documents (see

Annex A). Legal interpreting needs to be of a sufficiently high quality to ensure equal access to justice

to all persons as well as fair trials.

Legal interpreting has become established as interpreting services provided by professional

interpreters. There are various codes and standards (protocols) for specific settings (e.g. for the

police or in court) but they vary from country to country, and there are no universally agreed rules or

standards for the provision of legal interpreting services.

NOTE For the purposes of this document, a professional legal interpreter is an individual that meets the

requirements of Clause 5.

Legal interpreting is distinct from legal translation and involves the communication of spoken or signed

messages in real time.

Standards of legal interpreting training and practice vary widely, and are subject to change with

remarkable fluidity. In practice, current trends in several countries go in the direction of de-

professionalism due to shortage of financial means, absence of specialized training and lack of

awareness of the risks of using non-professional legal interpreters.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20228:2019(E)
Interpreting services — Legal interpreting —
Requirements
1 Scope

This document establishes the basic principles and practices of legal interpreting services, and

specifies the competences of legal interpreters. It also describes the various legal settings and provides

recommendations for the corresponding interpreting modes.

It is applicable to all parties involved in facilitating communication between users of legal services

using a spoken or signed language.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 20108, Simultaneous interpreting — Quality and transmission of sound and image input —

Requirements
ISO 20109, Simultaneous interpreting — Equipment — Requirements
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms related to interpreting — Modes of interpreting and persons involved
3.1.1
interpret

render spoken or signed information from a source language (3.2.5) to a target language (3.2.7) in

spoken or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.2.6)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.1, modified - “in oral or signed form” is replaced with “in spoken or

signed form”.]
3.1.2
interpreting
interpretation

rendering of spoken or signed information from a source language (3.2.5) to a target language (3.2.7) in

spoken or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.2.6)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.2, modified - “in oral or signed form” is replaced with “in spoken or

signed form”.]
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)
3.1.3
legal interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) at communicative settings (3.1.23) related to the law
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.3.4]
3.1.4
interpreter
person who interprets (3.1.1)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.3]
3.1.5
legal interpreter

interpreter (3.1.4) who is qualified to provide legal interpreting (3.1.3) services

Note 1 to entry: Legal interpreters can be required to be authorized by law.
3.1.6
translate

render source language content (3.2.6) into target language content (3.2.8) in written form

[SOURCE: ISO 17100:2015, 2.1.1]
3.1.7
translation

rendering source language content (3.2.6) into target language content (3.2.8) in written form

[SOURCE: ISO 17100:2015, 2.1.2, modified - “set of processes to render” replaced with “rendering”.]

3.1.8
translation output
result of translation (3.1.7)
3.1.9
translator
person who translates (3.1.6)
[SOURCE: ISO 17100:2015, 2.4.4]
3.1.10
legal translator

translator (3.1.9) who is qualified to provide translation (3.1.7) services related to the law

Note 1 to entry: Legal translators can be required to be authorized by law.
3.1.11
speaker

person addressing others, using either spoken language (3.2.3) or sign language (3.2.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.7]
3.1.12
spoken language interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) between two spoken languages (3.2.3)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.8]
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
3.1.13
sign language interpreting
signed language interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) between two sign languages (3.2.2) or between a sign language (3.2.2) and a spoken

language (3.2.3)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.9]
3.1.14
mode

established method for the delivery of spoken language interpreting (3.1.12) or sign language interpreting

(3.1.13)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.11]
3.1.15
consecutive interpreting

mode (3.1.14) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed after the speaker (3.1.11) pauses

Note 1 to entry: Interpreters (3.1.4) can use special note-taking (3.1.19) techniques to help in rendering lengthy

passages.
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.12]
3.1.16
simultaneous interpreting

mode (3.1.14) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed while a speaker (3.1.11) is still speaking or signing

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.13]
3.1.17
chuchotage
whispered interpreting

simultaneous interpreting (3.1.16) where the interpreter (3.1.4) speaks very quietly

Note 1 to entry: Chuchotage/whispered interpreting is used for smaller audiences of one, two or a maximum of

three persons.

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.16, modified - Definition and Note 1 entry slightly reworded.]

3.1.18
sight translation

rendering written source language content (3.2.6) to the target language (3.2.7), in the form of spoken

language (3.2.3) or sign language (3.2.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.14]
3.1.19
note-taking

technique in consecutive interpreting (3.1.15) used by interpreters (3.1.4) for remembering,

conceptualizing and summarizing information

Note 1 to entry: Note-taking is highly individual and can involve a mixture of symbols, abbreviations, words and

diagrams.
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.15]
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)
3.1.20
distance interpreting
remote interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) of a speaker (3.1.11) in a different location from that of the interpreter (3.1.4), enabled

by information and communications technology
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.10]
3.1.21
relay interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) that occurs when an interpreter’s (3.1.4) input comes from another interpreter’s

rendition and not directly from the speaker (3.1.11)

Note 1 to entry: When a speech, spoken or signed, is to be interpreted (3.1.1) into three or more target languages

(3.2.7) and the interpreters of those languages do not all understand the language of the speaker (e.g. Urdu), a

source language (3.2.5) interpreter renders the speech to a language common to other interpreters at the event

(e.g. from Urdu to English) who then interpret into their respective target language (e.g. from English to French,

German, Italian, Nahuatl, Spanish, Welsh, etc.).
3.1.22
communicative event
encounter between two or more parties during which information is transmitted

Note 1 to entry: The speaker’s intention, as well as the gestures, pauses, silences and tone the speaker uses can

affect the transmitted information.
3.1.23
communicative setting
environment where an interaction between interlocutors takes place
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.3.1]
3.2 Terms related to language and qualifications
3.2.1
language
systematic use of sounds, characters, symbols or signs by which to communicate
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.1]
3.2.2
sign language
signed language

language (3.2.1) which uses a combination of hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands,

arms or body, and facial expressions
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.12, modified - Note to entry is deleted.]
3.2.3
spoken language
language (3.2.1) based on vocal expression
3.2.4
content
information in any form
EXAMPLE Text, audio, video, etc.
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.3]
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)
3.2.5
source language

language (3.2.1) from which content (3.2.4) is interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.1.6)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.4]
3.2.6
source language content
content (3.2.4) to be interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.1.6)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.5]
3.2.7
target language

language (3.2.1) into which content (3.2.4) is translated (3.1.6) or interpreted (3.1.1)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.6]
3.2.8
target language content

content (3.2.4) that has been interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.1.6) from a source language (3.2.5)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.7]
3.2.9
language proficiency
ability of a person to understand or communicate in a specified language (3.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: Language proficiency generally refers to speaking, listening, reading and writing skills.

3.2.10
authorization
third-party attestation of a person’s right to provide a specialized service

Note 1 to entry: Authorization for legal interpreters (3.1.5) and legal translators (3.1.10) is conferred by a

recognized authoritative body.

Note 2 to entry: In some countries, state/official authorization is referred to as accreditation, certification,

credentialing, etc.
3.2.11
protocol

rule, official procedure or common practice that guides the conduct of members of a profession

EXAMPLE Taking an oath in court to perform accurate interpreting (3.1.2), using direct speech when

interpreting, or adhering to the code of ethics of a professional association.
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.17]
4 Basic principles of legal interpreting
4.1 General

Legal interpreting shall be performed by legal interpreters meeting the requirements of Clause 5,

following a relevant code of professional ethics and adhering to accepted professional practices, so-called

professional interpreting protocols, which can vary by interpreting setting, and by country or region.

4.2 Nature of legal interpreting

As a specialization of interpreting, legal interpreting contributes to equal access to the law for all

parties by facilitating communication between users of legal services who do not share the same

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)

language — either spoken languages or sign languages. It occurs mainly in different legal settings such

as police stations, court rooms, lawyer’s offices, prisons, etc. (Annex B lists the different settings). Legal

interpreting can involve the transfer of signed, verbal and/or non-verbal messages in real time usually

in both directions.

There are certain areas of overlap with community interpreting/public service interpreting concerning

interpreting communicative events. See 3.1.22 and Figure B.1 for details.

NOTE Non-verbal messages can include tone, body language, facial expressions and (explanatory) gestures.

Legal interpreting takes place between at least three participants:

1) a user of a language other than the language of service who needs to communicate with a speaker

of the language of service;

2) a user of the language of service who needs to communicate with a speaker of a language other

than the language of service; and
3) a legal interpreter.

NOTE In some countries “language of service” is also referred to as “official language”, “language of the

court” or “language of proceedings”.

Annex A gives an overview of national and international documents pertaining to the right to

interpretation in legal proceedings.
4.3 The work of legal interpreters

Legal interpreters engage in interactive types of communication that usually follow a bi-directional

pattern. Such individuals are proficient in at least two languages (spoken languages or sign languages)

and so are able to facilitate interpreted communication between two or more languages regarding legal

topics. Legal interpreters can work in a mixed mode switching between consecutive and simultaneous

mode, with sound transmission equipment when working with large groups or without sound

transmission equipment (chuchotage [whispered interpreting]). Sometimes they work face-to-face

and sometimes remotely using technology such as video- or tele-conferencing (distance interpreting

[remote interpreting]). Legal interpreters must adapt their working mode to the specific situation or

communicative setting (in and out of court). Annex C provides more details.

NOTE Annex D describes the typical steps of an interpreting assignment by way of example.

4.4 End-users of legal interpreting services

The end-users of legal interpreting services belong to two distinct groups. Legal service providers

are the first group. They must be able to understand and communicate with the persons who are

not sufficiently proficient in the language of service used in order to solve legal issues. Legal service

providers are speakers of the language of service used in legal settings. They shall ensure that the

services of qualified legal interpreters are retained in order to avoid delays in proceedings and errors/

mistakes in communication which can lead to legally effective but erroneous decisions. The other group

is generally made up of persons who are not sufficiently proficient in the language of service used in the

specific legal setting and who need to communicate with speakers of the language of service in order

to solve legal issues. Speakers of other languages than the language of service used in legal settings can

only have access to fair-trial standards when legal interpreting services of a sufficiently high quality

are systematically provided.

NOTE Relay interpreting (see 3.1.21) is sometimes used and acceptable for the provision of interpreting

services for which no or only a few qualified interpreters are available.
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 20228:2019
ISO 20228:2019(E)
5 Competences and qualifications of legal interpreters
5.1 General

Legal interpreters shall have competences based on domain expertise, professional practice and

qualifications abiding by a code of professional ethics and observing one or several protocols.

NOTE For examples of codes of professional ethics see e.g. EULITA (European Legal Interpreters and

Translators Association) website (https: //eulita .eu/wp/).

Legal interpreters shall also demonstrate a commitment to life-long learning in the pursuit of updating

their knowledge and the skills critical to effective linguistic decision-making and interpreting within

legal settings.

Legal interpreters shall have comprehensive knowledge of the structure of the legal system(s) and

administration of justice in the countries where their source and target languages are used.

They shall have an understanding of the relevant fields of law (substantive, procedural, criminal, civil,

administrative, etc.).

They shall demonstrate a thorough understanding of the roles of lawyers, judges, judicial officers,

prosecutors, and interpreters.

Judicial and other authorities as well as clients in general are encouraged to provide legal interpreters

access to case-related and other reference materials in order to enable them to prepare for the

interpreting service.
5.2 Domain competences related to legal interpreting

Legal interpreters shall have the ability to convey a message from the source language into the target

language (whether spoken languages or sign languages) in an interpreting mode appropriate for a

given legal setting. They shall accurately, faithfully, and impartially interpret the substance of all

statements without any additions, omissions, or other misleading factors that could alter the intended

meaning of the speaker’s message. Legal interpreters shall maintain confidentiality of the information

that they are party to during assignments unless disclosure is required by law or by a court order.

Legal interpreters shall demonstrate mastery of the various interpreting techniques (modes) and the

appropriate supportive strategies. Such mastery involves consecutive, simultaneous, and whispered

simultaneous interpreting as well as relay interpreting along with sight translation and the support

techniques such as memory skills, note-taking, and stress management.

Their competences required for interpreting in legal settings shall also include:

a) full understanding and mastery of the legal systems involved in the interpreted communicative event,

b) high language proficiency in the working languages to the level of legal discourse,

c) ability to accurately and idiomatically turn the message from the source language into the target

language,

d) ability to make quick linguistic decisions regarding word choice or terminology and register

selection,

e) awareness that linguistic, stylistic and vocabulary choices convey information about the client’s

socio-economic, educational and cultural background,

f) ability to conserve para-linguistic features (non-verbal features) of the original speech such as

hesitations, false starts and repetitions,

g) ability to excel consistently at interpreting in the mode required by the setting and to provide

accurate renditions of informal, formal, and highly formal discourse.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
5.3 Linguistic competences

For their working languages, legal interpreters shall have linguistic competences based on accepted

standards of language proficiency.

Language proficiency shall include speaking, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension

skills (i.e. to be able to comprehend various regional accents and/or dialectal differences, recognize

various language registers, including formal and informal, be familiar with subject-specific vocabulary,

idiomatic expressions, colloquialisms, and slang). They shall have an ability to move easily between

formal and informal speech levels and to interpret accurately for speakers with different educational

backgr
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20228
First edition
2019-04
Interpreting services — Legal
interpreting — Requirements
Services d'interprétation — Interprétation juridique et judiciaire —
Exigences
Reference number
ISO 20228:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20228:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 20228:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to interpreting — Modes of interpreting and persons involved .............................. 1

3.2 Terms related to language and qualifications .............................................................................................................. 4

4 Basic principles of legal interpreting .............................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Nature of legal interpreting ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 The work of legal interpreters ................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 End-users of legal interpreting services ........................................................................................................................... 6

5 Competences and qualifications of legal interpreters .................................................................................................. 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Domain competences related to legal interpreting ................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Linguistic competences ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Interpreting competences ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.5 Intercultural competences ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.6 Interpersonal competences ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.7 Technical competences .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.8 Evidence of legal interpreting qualifications ................................................................................................................ 9

5.9 Continuing training/education ................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.10 Authorization as legal interpreter .......................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Settings with legal interpreting .........................................................................................................................................................10

7 Interpreting modes .........................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Working conditions ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Legal interpreting and legal interpreters — Non-exhaustive list of

international and national documents ......................................................................................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Examples of settings in which legal interpreting services are provided ........15

Annex C (informative) Recommendations for interpreting mode ......................................................................................18

Annex D (informative) Workflow — Legal interpreting assignments .............................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www .iso .org/directives.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www .iso .org/patents.

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO

principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary

information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content

resources, Subcommittee SC 5, Translation, interpreting and related technology.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
Introduction

This document was developed in response to a worldwide and growing need to accommodate the

interpreting needs of persons deprived of liberty, suspects, accused, defendants, plaintiffs, claimants,

complainants, witnesses, victims, parties in different legal settings during spoken and signed

communication as well as judicial stakeholders such as judges, lawyers, prosecutors, police officers,

court administrative staff, notaries as well as private persons requiring interpreting services during

communicative events related to the law.

The right to legal interpreting services has been enshrined in several international documents (see

Annex A). Legal interpreting needs to be of a sufficiently high quality to ensure equal access to justice

to all persons as well as fair trials.

Legal interpreting has become established as interpreting services provided by professional

interpreters. There are various codes and standards (protocols) for specific settings (e.g. for the

police or in court) but they vary from country to country, and there are no universally agreed rules or

standards for the provision of legal interpreting services.

NOTE For the purposes of this document, a professional legal interpreter is an individual that meets the

requirements of Clause 5.

Legal interpreting is distinct from legal translation and involves the communication of spoken or signed

messages in real time.

Standards of legal interpreting training and practice vary widely, and are subject to change with

remarkable fluidity. In practice, current trends in several countries go in the direction of de-

professionalism due to shortage of financial means, absence of specialized training and lack of

awareness of the risks of using non-professional legal interpreters.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20228:2019(E)
Interpreting services — Legal interpreting —
Requirements
1 Scope

This document establishes the basic principles and practices of legal interpreting services, and

specifies the competences of legal interpreters. It also describes the various legal settings and provides

recommendations for the corresponding interpreting modes.

It is applicable to all parties involved in facilitating communication between users of legal services

using a spoken or signed language.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 20108, Simultaneous interpreting — Quality and transmission of sound and image input —

Requirements
ISO 20109, Simultaneous interpreting — Equipment — Requirements
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms related to interpreting — Modes of interpreting and persons involved
3.1.1
interpret

render spoken or signed information from a source language (3.2.5) to a target language (3.2.7) in

spoken or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.2.6)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.1, modified - “in oral or signed form” is replaced with “in spoken or

signed form”.]
3.1.2
interpreting
interpretation

rendering of spoken or signed information from a source language (3.2.5) to a target language (3.2.7) in

spoken or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.2.6)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.2, modified - “in oral or signed form” is replaced with “in spoken or

signed form”.]
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
3.1.3
legal interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) at communicative settings (3.1.23) related to the law
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.3.4]
3.1.4
interpreter
person who interprets (3.1.1)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.3]
3.1.5
legal interpreter

interpreter (3.1.4) who is qualified to provide legal interpreting (3.1.3) services

Note 1 to entry: Legal interpreters can be required to be authorized by law.
3.1.6
translate

render source language content (3.2.6) into target language content (3.2.8) in written form

[SOURCE: ISO 17100:2015, 2.1.1]
3.1.7
translation

rendering source language content (3.2.6) into target language content (3.2.8) in written form

[SOURCE: ISO 17100:2015, 2.1.2, modified - “set of processes to render” replaced with “rendering”.]

3.1.8
translation output
result of translation (3.1.7)
3.1.9
translator
person who translates (3.1.6)
[SOURCE: ISO 17100:2015, 2.4.4]
3.1.10
legal translator

translator (3.1.9) who is qualified to provide translation (3.1.7) services related to the law

Note 1 to entry: Legal translators can be required to be authorized by law.
3.1.11
speaker

person addressing others, using either spoken language (3.2.3) or sign language (3.2.2)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.7]
3.1.12
spoken language interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) between two spoken languages (3.2.3)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.8]
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
3.1.13
sign language interpreting
signed language interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) between two sign languages (3.2.2) or between a sign language (3.2.2) and a spoken

language (3.2.3)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.9]
3.1.14
mode

established method for the delivery of spoken language interpreting (3.1.12) or sign language interpreting

(3.1.13)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.11]
3.1.15
consecutive interpreting

mode (3.1.14) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed after the speaker (3.1.11) pauses

Note 1 to entry: Interpreters (3.1.4) can use special note-taking (3.1.19) techniques to help in rendering lengthy

passages.
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.12]
3.1.16
simultaneous interpreting

mode (3.1.14) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed while a speaker (3.1.11) is still speaking or signing

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.13]
3.1.17
chuchotage
whispered interpreting

simultaneous interpreting (3.1.16) where the interpreter (3.1.4) speaks very quietly

Note 1 to entry: Chuchotage/whispered interpreting is used for smaller audiences of one, two or a maximum of

three persons.

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.16, modified - Definition and Note 1 entry slightly reworded.]

3.1.18
sight translation

rendering written source language content (3.2.6) to the target language (3.2.7), in the form of spoken

language (3.2.3) or sign language (3.2.2)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.14]
3.1.19
note-taking

technique in consecutive interpreting (3.1.15) used by interpreters (3.1.4) for remembering,

conceptualizing and summarizing information

Note 1 to entry: Note-taking is highly individual and can involve a mixture of symbols, abbreviations, words and

diagrams.
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.15]
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
3.1.20
distance interpreting
remote interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) of a speaker (3.1.11) in a different location from that of the interpreter (3.1.4), enabled

by information and communications technology
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.10]
3.1.21
relay interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) that occurs when an interpreter’s (3.1.4) input comes from another interpreter’s

rendition and not directly from the speaker (3.1.11)

Note 1 to entry: When a speech, spoken or signed, is to be interpreted (3.1.1) into three or more target languages

(3.2.7) and the interpreters of those languages do not all understand the language of the speaker (e.g. Urdu), a

source language (3.2.5) interpreter renders the speech to a language common to other interpreters at the event

(e.g. from Urdu to English) who then interpret into their respective target language (e.g. from English to French,

German, Italian, Nahuatl, Spanish, Welsh, etc.).
3.1.22
communicative event
encounter between two or more parties during which information is transmitted

Note 1 to entry: The speaker’s intention, as well as the gestures, pauses, silences and tone the speaker uses can

affect the transmitted information.
3.1.23
communicative setting
environment where an interaction between interlocutors takes place
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.3.1]
3.2 Terms related to language and qualifications
3.2.1
language
systematic use of sounds, characters, symbols or signs by which to communicate
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.1]
3.2.2
sign language
signed language

language (3.2.1) which uses a combination of hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands,

arms or body, and facial expressions
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.12, modified - Note to entry is deleted.]
3.2.3
spoken language
language (3.2.1) based on vocal expression
3.2.4
content
information in any form
EXAMPLE Text, audio, video, etc.
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.3]
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
3.2.5
source language

language (3.2.1) from which content (3.2.4) is interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.1.6)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.4]
3.2.6
source language content
content (3.2.4) to be interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.1.6)
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.5]
3.2.7
target language

language (3.2.1) into which content (3.2.4) is translated (3.1.6) or interpreted (3.1.1)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.6]
3.2.8
target language content

content (3.2.4) that has been interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.1.6) from a source language (3.2.5)

[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.7]
3.2.9
language proficiency
ability of a person to understand or communicate in a specified language (3.2.1)

Note 1 to entry: Language proficiency generally refers to speaking, listening, reading and writing skills.

3.2.10
authorization
third-party attestation of a person’s right to provide a specialized service

Note 1 to entry: Authorization for legal interpreters (3.1.5) and legal translators (3.1.10) is conferred by a

recognized authoritative body.

Note 2 to entry: In some countries, state/official authorization is referred to as accreditation, certification,

credentialing, etc.
3.2.11
protocol

rule, official procedure or common practice that guides the conduct of members of a profession

EXAMPLE Taking an oath in court to perform accurate interpreting (3.1.2), using direct speech when

interpreting, or adhering to the code of ethics of a professional association.
[SOURCE: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.17]
4 Basic principles of legal interpreting
4.1 General

Legal interpreting shall be performed by legal interpreters meeting the requirements of Clause 5,

following a relevant code of professional ethics and adhering to accepted professional practices, so-called

professional interpreting protocols, which can vary by interpreting setting, and by country or region.

4.2 Nature of legal interpreting

As a specialization of interpreting, legal interpreting contributes to equal access to the law for all

parties by facilitating communication between users of legal services who do not share the same

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ISO 20228:2019(E)

language — either spoken languages or sign languages. It occurs mainly in different legal settings such

as police stations, court rooms, lawyer’s offices, prisons, etc. (Annex B lists the different settings). Legal

interpreting can involve the transfer of signed, verbal and/or non-verbal messages in real time usually

in both directions.

There are certain areas of overlap with community interpreting/public service interpreting concerning

interpreting communicative events. See 3.1.22 and Figure B.1 for details.

NOTE Non-verbal messages can include tone, body language, facial expressions and (explanatory) gestures.

Legal interpreting takes place between at least three participants:

1) a user of a language other than the language of service who needs to communicate with a speaker

of the language of service;

2) a user of the language of service who needs to communicate with a speaker of a language other

than the language of service; and
3) a legal interpreter.

NOTE In some countries “language of service” is also referred to as “official language”, “language of the

court” or “language of proceedings”.

Annex A gives an overview of national and international documents pertaining to the right to

interpretation in legal proceedings.
4.3 The work of legal interpreters

Legal interpreters engage in interactive types of communication that usually follow a bi-directional

pattern. Such individuals are proficient in at least two languages (spoken languages or sign languages)

and so are able to facilitate interpreted communication between two or more languages regarding legal

topics. Legal interpreters can work in a mixed mode switching between consecutive and simultaneous

mode, with sound transmission equipment when working with large groups or without sound

transmission equipment (chuchotage [whispered interpreting]). Sometimes they work face-to-face

and sometimes remotely using technology such as video- or tele-conferencing (distance interpreting

[remote interpreting]). Legal interpreters must adapt their working mode to the specific situation or

communicative setting (in and out of court). Annex C provides more details.

NOTE Annex D describes the typical steps of an interpreting assignment by way of example.

4.4 End-users of legal interpreting services

The end-users of legal interpreting services belong to two distinct groups. Legal service providers

are the first group. They must be able to understand and communicate with the persons who are

not sufficiently proficient in the language of service used in order to solve legal issues. Legal service

providers are speakers of the language of service used in legal settings. They shall ensure that the

services of qualified legal interpreters are retained in order to avoid delays in proceedings and errors/

mistakes in communication which can lead to legally effective but erroneous decisions. The other group

is generally made up of persons who are not sufficiently proficient in the language of service used in the

specific legal setting and who need to communicate with speakers of the language of service in order

to solve legal issues. Speakers of other languages than the language of service used in legal settings can

only have access to fair-trial standards when legal interpreting services of a sufficiently high quality

are systematically provided.

NOTE Relay interpreting (see 3.1.21) is sometimes used and acceptable for the provision of interpreting

services for which no or only a few qualified interpreters are available.
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
5 Competences and qualifications of legal interpreters
5.1 General

Legal interpreters shall have competences based on domain expertise, professional practice and

qualifications abiding by a code of professional ethics and observing one or several protocols.

NOTE For examples of codes of professional ethics see e.g. EULITA (European Legal Interpreters and

Translators Association) website (https: //eulita .eu/wp/).

Legal interpreters shall also demonstrate a commitment to life-long learning in the pursuit of updating

their knowledge and the skills critical to effective linguistic decision-making and interpreting within

legal settings.

Legal interpreters shall have comprehensive knowledge of the structure of the legal system(s) and

administration of justice in the countries where their source and target languages are used.

They shall have an understanding of the relevant fields of law (substantive, procedural, criminal, civil,

administrative, etc.).

They shall demonstrate a thorough understanding of the roles of lawyers, judges, judicial officers,

prosecutors, and interpreters.

Judicial and other authorities as well as clients in general are encouraged to provide legal interpreters

access to case-related and other reference materials in order to enable them to prepare for the

interpreting service.
5.2 Domain competences related to legal interpreting

Legal interpreters shall have the ability to convey a message from the source language into the target

language (whether spoken languages or sign languages) in an interpreting mode appropriate for a

given legal setting. They shall accurately, faithfully, and impartially interpret the substance of all

statements without any additions, omissions, or other misleading factors that could alter the intended

meaning of the speaker’s message. Legal interpreters shall maintain confidentiality of the information

that they are party to during assignments unless disclosure is required by law or by a court order.

Legal interpreters shall demonstrate mastery of the various interpreting techniques (modes) and the

appropriate supportive strategies. Such mastery involves consecutive, simultaneous, and whispered

simultaneous interpreting as well as relay interpreting along with sight translation and the support

techniques such as memory skills, note-taking, and stress management.

Their competences required for interpreting in legal settings shall also include:

a) full understanding and mastery of the legal systems involved in the interpreted communicative event,

b) high language proficiency in the working languages to the level of legal discourse,

c) ability to accurately and idiomatically turn the message from the source language into the target

language,

d) ability to make quick linguistic decisions regarding word choice or terminology and register

selection,

e) awareness that linguistic, stylistic and vocabulary choices convey information about the client’s

socio-economic, educational and cultural background,

f) ability to conserve para-linguistic features (non-verbal features) of the original speech such as

hesitations, false starts and repetitions,

g) ability to excel consistently at interpreting in the mode required by the setting and to provide

accurate renditions of informal, formal, and highly formal discourse.
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ISO 20228:2019(E)
5.3 Linguistic competences

For their working languages, legal interpreters shall have linguistic competences based on accepted

standards of language proficiency.

Language proficiency shall include speaking, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension

skills (i.e. to be able to comprehend various regional accents and/or dialectal differences, recognize

various language registers, including formal and informal, be familiar with subject-specific vocabulary,

idiomatic expressions, colloquialisms, and slang). They shall have an ability to move easily between

formal and informal speech levels and to interpret accurately for speakers with different educational

backgrounds.

NOTE For further information about linguistic competences for interpreting services refer to ISO 18841.

Signed language interpreters shall also have skills to receive and produce signed messages.

5.4 Interpreting competences

Legal interpreters shall have acquired and be able to demonstrate mastery of the various interpreting

techniques (modes) and the appropriate supportive strategies. Such mastery involves consecutive,

simultaneous, and chuchotage (whispered interpreting) as well as relay interpreting along with sight

translation and the support techniques such as memory skills, note-taking, and stress management.

The interpreting competences shall also include:

a) mastery of the role of the legal interpreter (introduction, positioning, turn-taking, when and how

to ask for clarification, as appropriate),

b) ability to work in various legal settings, situations, or conditions, command of legal terminology

and its functional equivalents in the working languages,
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 20228
Première édition
2019-04
Services d'interprétation —
Interprétation juridique et judiciaire
— Exigences
Interpreting services — Legal interpreting — Requirements
Numéro de référence
ISO 20228:2019(F)
ISO 2019
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ISO 20228:2019(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2019

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20228:2019(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Termes relatifs à l’interprétation – Modes d’interprétation et personnes concernées ............ 1

3.2 Termes relatifs à la langue et aux qualifications ........................................................................................................ 4

4 Principes fondamentaux de l’interprétation juridique et judiciaire .............................................................5

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2 Nature de l’interprétation juridique et judiciaire ..................................................................................................... 6

4.3 Le travail des interprètes juridiques et judiciaires .................................................................................................. 6

4.4 Utilisateurs finaux des services d’interprétation juridique et judiciaire .............................................. 6

5 Compétences et qualifications des interprètes juridiques et judiciaires ..................................................7

5.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2 Domaines de compétences relatifs à l’interprétation juridique et judiciaire ................................... 7

5.3 Compétences linguistiques ........................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4 Compétences en interprétation ................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.5 Compétences interculturelles .................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.6 Compétences interpersonnelles .............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.7 Compétences techniques ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.8 Justificatifs des qualifications en interprétation juridique et judiciaire ............................................... 9

5.9 Formation continue .........................................................................................................................................................................10

5.10 Autorisation d’exercice de l’interprète juridique et judiciaire ...................................................................10

6 Contextes d’interprétation juridique et judiciaire .........................................................................................................10

7 Modes d’interprétation ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

7.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.2 Conditions de travail .......................................................................................................................................................................11

Annexe A (informative) Interprétation juridique et judiciaire et interprètes juridiques et

judiciaires — Liste non exhaustive de documents internationaux et nationaux ...........................12

Annexe B (informative) Exemples de contextes de prestations d'interprétation juridique et

judiciaire ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annexe C (informative) Recommandations relatives au mode d'interprétation ................................................18

Annexe D (informative) Marche à suivre dans le cadre de missions d’interprétation

juridique et judiciaire ..................................................................................................................................................................................20

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 20228:2019(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant : Avant-propos — Informations supplémentaires .

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 37, Langage et terminologie,

sous-comité SC5, Traduction, interprétation et technologies apparentées.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20228:2019(F)
Introduction

Le présent document a été élaboré en réponse à la nécessité accrue au niveau mondial de satisfaire

aux besoins en interprétation de personnes privées de liberté, suspects, accusés, prévenus, personnes

mises en examen, défendeurs, requérants, appelants, plaignants, témoins, victimes, parties dans

différents contextes juridiques et judiciaires lors de communications parlées ou signées, ainsi que les

professionnels de la justice tels que les magistrats, avocats, procureurs, officiers de police, personnels

administratifs des tribunaux, notaires, et également les particuliers qui doivent avoir recours à des

services d’interprétation lors d’événements de communication relatifs au droit.

Le droit de recourir à des services d’interprétation juridique et judiciaire est inscrit dans plusieurs

documents internationaux (voir Annexe A). L’interprétation juridique et judiciaire nécessite un niveau

de qualité suffisamment élevé pour garantir à toute personne l’égalité d’accès à la justice et un procès

équitable.

L’interprétation juridique et judiciaire s’impose désormais comme une prestation d’interprétation

assurée par des interprètes professionnels. S’il existe différents codes et normes (protocoles)

applicables à des contextes spécifiques (par exemple à la police ou à la justice), ils varient néanmoins

d’un pays à l’autre ; en outre, il n’existe pas de règles ou de normes universellement reconnues relatives

à la prestation d’interprétation juridique et judiciaire.

NOTE Pour les besoins du présent document, un interprète juridique et judiciaire professionnel est une

personne qui répond aux exigences de l’Article 5.

L’interprétation juridique et judiciaire, qui diffère de la traduction juridique et judiciaire, concerne la

communication de messages parlés ou signés en temps réel.

Les normes relatives à la formation et à la pratique de l’interprétation juridique et judiciaire varient

considérablement et sont particulièrement sujettes à modification. Dans la pratique, les tendances

actuelles vont dans le sens de la déprofessionnalisation dans plusieurs pays, en raison d’un manque

de moyens financiers, de l’absence de formations spécialisées et de la méconnaissance des risques

inhérents au recours à des interprètes juridiques et judiciaires non-professionnels.

© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 20228:2019(F)
Services d'interprétation — Interprétation juridique et
judiciaire — Exigences
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document spécifie les principes et les pratiques fondamentaux des prestations

d’interprétation juridique et judiciaire et précise les compétences attendues des interprètes juridiques

et judiciaires. Elle décrit également les différents cadres juridiques et judiciaires et fournit des

recommandations relatives aux modes d’interprétation correspondants.

Elle s’applique à toutes les parties œuvrant à faciliter la communication entre les utilisateurs des

services juridiques et judiciaires communiquant en langue parlée ou en langue signée.

2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants cités dans le texte constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur contenu, des

exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s'applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).

ISO 20108, Interprétation simultanée — Qualité et transmission des signaux audio-vidéo — Exigences

ISO 20109, Interprétation simultanée — Équipement — Exigences
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L'ISO et l'IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes :

— ISO Online browsing platform : disponible à l'adresse http: //www .iso .org/obp

— IEC Electropedia : disponible à l'adresse http: //www .electropedia .org/

3.1 Termes relatifs à l’interprétation – Modes d’interprétation et personnes concernées

3.1.1
interpréter

restituer une information parlée ou signée d’une langue source (3.2.5) vers une langue cible (3.2.7)

sous une forme parlée ou signée, en transmettant à la fois le sens et le registre du contenu en langue

source (3.2.6)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.1]
3.1.2
interprétation

restitution d’une information parlée ou signée d’une langue source (3.2.5) vers une langue cible (3.2.7)

sous une forme parlée ou signée, en transmettant à la fois le sens et le registre du contenu en langue

source (3.2.6)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.2]
© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 20228:2019(F)
3.1.3
interprétation juridique et judiciaire

interprétation (3.1.2) dans un contexte de communication (3.1.23) relatif au droit

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.3.4]
3.1.4
interprète
personne qui interprète (3.1.1)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.3]
3.1.5
interprète juridique et judiciaire

interprète (3.1.4) qualifié pour fournir des services d’interprétation juridique et judiciaire (3.1.3)

Note 1 à l'article: Une habilitation des interprètes juridiques et judiciaires peut être imposée par la loi.

3.1.6
traduire

transposer un contenu dans la langue source (3.2.6) en un contenu dans la langue cible (3.2.8) sous

forme écrite
[SOURCE: : ISO 17100:2015, 2.1.1]
3.1.7
traduction

transposition d’un contenu dans la langue source (3.2.6) en un contenu dans la langue cible (3.2.8) sous

forme écrite

[SOURCE: : ISO 17100:2015, 2.1.2, modifiée - « ensemble de processus permettant de transposer »

remplacé par « transposition ».]
3.1.8
texte résultant d’une traduction
résultat d’une traduction (3.1.7)
3.1.9
traducteur
personne qui traduit (3.1.6)
[SOURCE: : ISO 17100:2015, 2.4.4]
3.1.10
traducteur juridique et judiciaire

traducteur (3.1.9) qualifié pour fournir des services de traduction (3.1.7) en rapport avec le droit

Note 1 à l'article: Une habilitation des traducteurs juridiques et judiciaires peut être imposée par la loi.

3.1.11
orateur

personne s’adressant à d’autres personnes, en utilisant soit une langue parlée (3.2.3) soit une langue des

signes (3.2.2)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.7]
3.1.12
interprétation en langues parlées
interprétation (3.1.2) entre deux langues parlées (3.2.3)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.8]
2 © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20228:2019(F)
3.1.13
interprétation en langue(s) des signes
interprétation en langue(s) signée(s)

interprétation (3.1.2) entre deux langues des signes (3.2.2) ou entre une langue des signes (3.2.2) et une

langue parlée (3.2.3)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.9]
3.1.14
mode

méthode employée pour la prestation de l’interprétation en langues parlées (3.1.12) ou de l’interprétation

en langues des signes (3.1.13)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.11]
3.1.15
interprétation consécutive

mode (3.1.14) d’interprétation (3.1.2) pratiqué en respectant les temps de pause marqués par l’orateur

(3.1.11)

Note 1 à l'article: Les interprètes (3.1.4) peuvent utiliser des techniques particulières de prise de notes (3.1.19)

pour faciliter la restitution de passages longs.
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.12]
3.1.16
interprétation simultanée

mode (3.1.14) d’interprétation (3.1.2) pratiqué en même temps que le discours de l’orateur (3.1.11)

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.13]
3.1.17
chuchotage
interprétation chuchotée

interprétation simultanée (3.1.16) au cours de laquelle l’interprète (3.1.4) parle à voix basse

Note 1 à l'article: Le chuchotage ou interprétation chuchotée est utilisé pour des auditoires plus restreints,

composés d’une, de deux ou de trois personnes au maximum.

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.16, modifiée - La définition et la Note 1 ont été légèrement reformulées.]

3.1.18
traduction à vue

restitution d’un contenu écrit dans la langue source (3.2.6) en un contenu dans la langue cible (3.2.7)

sous forme de langue parlée (3.2.3) ou de langue des signes (3.2.2)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.14]
3.1.19
prise de notes

technique utilisée dans l’interprétation consécutive (3.1.15) par les interprètes (3.1.4) pour se rappeler,

conceptualiser et synthétiser l’information

Note 1 à l'article: à l’article : La prise de notes est éminemment individuelle et peut impliquer un mélange de

symboles, d’abréviations, de mots et de schémas.
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.15]
© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 20228:2019(F)
3.1.20
interprétation à distance

avec l’appui des technologies de l'information et de la communication, interprétation (3.1.2) des propos

d’un orateur (3.1.11) se trouvant en un endroit différent de celui où se trouve l’interprète (3.1.4)

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.10]
3.1.21
interprétation (en) relais

interprétation (3.1.2) lors de laquelle les informations transmises à l’interprète (3.1.4) proviennent d’un

autre interprète et non pas directement de l’orateur (3.1.11)

Note 1 à l'article: Lorsqu’un discours parlé ou signé doit être interprété (3.1.1) dans trois langues cibles (3.2.7) ou

plus et que les interprètes de ces langues ne comprennent pas tous la langue de l’orateur (par exemple, l’ourdou),

un interprète de la langue source (3.2.5) restitue le discours dans une langue commune aux autres interprètes

de l’événement (par exemple, de l’ourdou vers l’anglais) qui, alors, interprètent dans leur langue cible respective

(par exemple, de l’anglais vers l’allemand, l’espagnol, le français, le gallois, l’italien, le nahuatl, etc.).

3.1.22
événement de communication

rencontre entre au moins deux parties lors de laquelle des informations sont transmises

Note 1 à l'article: L’intention de l’orateur, tout autant que ses gestes, ses pauses, ses silences et l’intonation qu'il

utilise peuvent influer sur la transmission des informations
3.1.23
contexte de communication
environnement où se déroule une interaction entre des interlocuteurs
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.3.1]
3.2 Termes relatifs à la langue et aux qualifications
3.2.1
langue

utilisation systématique de sons, caractères, symboles ou signes permettant de communiquer

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.1]
3.2.2
langue des signes
langue signée

langue (3.2.1) utilisant une combinaison de positions des mains, de sens et de mouvement des mains,

des bras et du corps ainsi que les expressions faciales

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.12, modifiée - suppression de la Note à l’article.]

3.2.3
langue parlée
langue (3.2.1) basée sur l’expression vocale
3.2.4
contenu
information sous toutes ses formes
EXEMPLE Texte, audio, vidéo, etc.
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.3]
4 © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 20228:2019(F)
3.2.5
langue source

langue (3.2.1) à partir de laquelle le contenu (3.2.4) est interprété (3.1.1) ou traduit (3.1.6)

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.4]
3.2.6
contenu dans la langue source
contenu en langue source
contenu (3.2.4) devant être interprété (3.1.1) ou traduit (3.1.6)
[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.5]
3.2.7
langue cible

langue (3.2.1) dans laquelle le contenu (3.2.4) est interprété (3.1.1) ou traduit (3.1.6)

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.6]
3.2.8
contenu dans la langue cible
contenu en langue cible

contenu (3.2.4) qui a été interprété (3.1.1) ou traduit (3.1.6) à partir d’une langue source (3.2.5)

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.7]
3.2.9
compétences linguistiques

aptitude d’une personne à comprendre ou communiquer dans une langue (3.2.1) donnée

Note 1 à l'article: Les compétences linguistiques font généralement référence aux aptitudes en expression et en

compréhension orales et écrites.
3.2.10
autorisation

attestation délivrée par une tierce partie relative au droit d’une personne à dispenser une prestation de

service spécialisée

Note 1 à l'article: L’autorisation concernant les interprètes juridiques et judiciaires (3.1.5) et les traducteurs

juridiques et judiciaires (3.1.10) est conférée par un organisme compétent reconnu.

Note 2 à l'article: Dans certains pays, l’autorisation d’un État/officielle désigne l’accréditation, la certification,

l’attribution de titre de compétence, etc.
3.2.11
protocole

règle, procédure officielle ou pratique courante définissant la conduite des membres d’une profession

EXEMPLE Prêter serment au tribunal pour effectuer une interprétation (3.1.2) précise, en employant le style

direct lors de l’interprétation, ou adhérer au code de déontologie d’une association professionnelle.

[SOURCE: : ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.17]
4 Principes fondamentaux de l’interprétation juridique et judiciaire
4.1 Généralités

L’interprétation juridique et judiciaire doit être réalisée par des interprètes juridiques et judiciaires

répondant aux exigences de l’Article 5, respectant un code de déontologie approprié et se conformant

à des pratiques professionnelles reconnues, à savoir les protocoles d’interprétation professionnels, qui

peuvent varier en fonction du contexte d’interprétation, du pays ou de la région.

© ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 20228:2019(F)
4.2 Nature de l’interprétation juridique et judiciaire

En tant qu’interprétation spécialisée, l’interprétation juridique et judiciaire contribue à l’égalité de

l’accès au droit pour toutes les parties en facilitant la communication entre les utilisateurs de services

juridiques et judiciaires qui ne partagent pas la même langue, que ce soit une langue parlée ou une

langue signée. Elle se déroule pour l’essentiel dans différents contextes juridiques et judiciaires, tels que

les commissariats, les salles d’audience, les cabinets d’avocats, les prisons, etc. (En Annexe B figure une

liste des différents contextes). L’interprétation juridique et judiciaire peut porter sur la transmission en

temps réel de messages signés, verbaux et non verbaux, généralement dans les deux sens.

En ce qui concerne les événements de communication interprétés, certains sujets se recoupent avec

l’interprétation en milieu social - l’interprétation de service public. Pour de plus amples détails,

voir 3.1.22 et la Figure B.1.

NOTE Les messages non verbaux peuvent inclure l’intonation, le langage corporel, les expressions faciales et

les gestes (explicatifs).

L’interprétation juridique et judiciaire se déroule entre trois participants au moins :

1) un locuteur d’une langue autre que la langue usuelle, qui a besoin de communiquer avec un orateur

de la langue usuelle ;

2) un locuteur de la langue usuelle, qui a besoin de communiquer avec un orateur d’une langue autre

que la langue usuelle ; et
3) un interprète juridique et judiciaire.

NOTE Dans certains pays, le terme « langue usuelle » est également désigné par les termes « langue

officielle », « langue de la juridiction » ou « langue de procédure ».

L’Annexe A présente une vue d’ensemble des documents nationaux et internationaux concernant le droit

à l’interprétation dans les procédures juridiques et judiciaires.
4.3 Le travail des interprètes juridiques et judiciaires

Les interprètes juridiques et judiciaires s’engagent dans des types de communication interactive qui

suivent généralement un modèle bidirectionnel. Ces personnes maîtrisent au moins deux langues

(parlées ou signées) et sont donc en mesure de faciliter la communication interprétée en matière de

thèmes juridiques et judiciaires entre deux langues ou plus. Les interprètes peuvent travailler en

mode mixte, passant du mode consécutif au mode simultané et vice-versa, à l’aide d’un équipement

de transmission sonore, lorsqu’ils travaillent avec des groupes importants de personnes, ou sans

équipement de transmission sonore (chuchotage [interprétation chuchotée]). Ils travaillent parfois

en face à face et parfois à distance, en utilisant des technologies telles que la visioconférence ou la

téléconférence (interprétation à distance). Les interprètes doivent adapter leur mode de travail à la

situation donnée ou au contexte de communication (au tribunal et en dehors du tribunal). L’Annexe C

fournit de plus amples détails.

NOTE L’Annexe D décrit, à titre d’exemple, les étapes habituelles d’une mission d’interprétation.

4.4 Utilisateurs finaux des services d’interprétation juridique et judiciaire

Les utilisateurs finaux des services d’interprétation juridique et judiciaire appartiennent à deux

groupes distincts. Les prestataires de services juridiques et judiciaires constituent le premier groupe.

Ils doivent être en mesure de comprendre et de communiquer avec les personnes qui ne maîtrisent pas

suffisamment la langue usuelle utilisée pour résoudre des questions d’ordre juridique et judiciaire. Les

prestataires des services juridiques et judiciaires sont des orateurs de la langue usuelle utilisée dans

des contextes juridiques et judiciaires. Ils doivent veiller à s’assurer les services d’interprètes juridiques

et judiciaires qualifiés pour éviter des retards de procédure et des erreurs ou des méprises dans la

communication, susceptibles d’entraîner des décisions juridiquement applicables, mais erronées. L’autre

groupe est généralement constitué de personnes qui ne maîtrisent pas suffisamment la langue usuelle

6 © ISO 2019 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 20228:2019(F)

utilisée dans le contexte juridique et judiciaire particulier et qui ont besoin de communiquer avec des

orateurs de la langue usuelle, afin de résoudre des questions d’ordre juridique et judiciaire. Les orateurs

de langue autre que la langue usuelle utilisée dans les contextes juridiques et judiciaires ne peuvent

avoir un procès équitable selon les normes que si des services d’un niveau de qualité suffisamment

élevé sont systématiquement délivrés.

NOTE L’interprétation (en) relais (voir 3.1.21) est parfois utilisée et est acceptable en vue de la délivrance de

services d'interprétation pour lesquels il est difficile voire impossible de trouver des interprètes qualifiés.

5 Compétences et qualifications des interprètes juridiques et judiciaires
5.1 Généralités

Les interprètes juridiques et judiciaires doivent posséder des compétences en fonction de leur

spécialisation, une expérience et des qualifications professionnelles conformes à un code de déontologie

et respectant un ou plusieurs protocoles.

NOTE Pour des exemples de codes de déontologie, consulter, par exemple, le site Web EULITA (European

Legal Interpreters and Translators Association - Association européenne des interprètes et traducteurs

juridiques) (https: //eulita .eu/wp/).

Les interprètes doivent également démontrer qu’ils actualisent les connaissances et les compétences

sur lesquelles ils fondent leurs choix linguistiques et leur interprétation dans des contextes juridiques

et judiciaires par le biais de la formation professionnelle tout au long de la vie.

Ils doivent posséder des connaissances aussi exhaustives que possible du ou des systèmes juridiques

et judiciaires et de l’administration judiciaire en vigueur dans les pays où leur langue source et leur

langue cible sont parlées.

Les interprètes doivent avoir une bonne compréhension des domaines relevant du droit (droit

substantiel, procédural, pénal, civil, administratif, etc.).

Ils doivent faire preuve d’une connaissance approfondie des rôles du barreau (avocats), de la

magistrature (juges), des officiers judiciaires, des procureurs et des interprètes.

Les autorités judiciaires et autres ainsi que les utilisateurs de façon générale sont encouragés à présenter

à l’interprète juridique et judiciaire les différentes pièces du ou des dossiers et autres documents de

référence afin qu’il puisse se préparer pour la prestation d’interprétation.
5.2 Domaines de compétences relatifs à l’interprétation juridique e
...

SLOVENSKI SIST ISO 20228
STANDARD oktober 2019
Storitve tolmačenja – Pravno tolmačenje – Zahteve
Interpreting services – Legal interpreting – Requirements
Services d'interprétation – Interprétation juridique et judiciaire – Exigences
Referenčna oznaka
ICS 01.020; 03.080.99 SIST ISO 20228:2019 (sl)
Nadaljevanje na straneh 2 do 25

© 2020-01. Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20228 : 2019
NACIONALNI UVOD

Standard SIST ISO 20228 (sl), Storitve tolmačenja – Pravno tolmačenje – Zahteve, 2019, ima status

slovenskega standarda in je enakovreden mednarodnemu standardu ISO 20228 (en), Interpreting

services – Legal interpreting – Requirements, 2019-04.
NACIONALNI PREDGOVOR

Mednarodni standard ISO 20228:2019 je pripravil pododbor SC 5 Prevajanje, tolmačenje in s tem

povezana tehnologija pri tehničnem odboru ISO/TC 37 Terminologija in drugi jezikovni viri. Slovenski

standard SIST ISO 20228:2019 je prevod angleškega besedila mednarodnega standarda

ISO 20228:2019. V primeru spora glede besedila slovenskega prevoda v tem standardu je odločilen

izvirni standard v angleškem jeziku. Slovenski standard je pripravil SIST/TC IDT Informatika,

dokumentacija in splošna terminologija.

Odločitev za privzem tega standarda je 23. oktobra 2019 sprejel SIST/TC IDT Informatika,

dokumentacija in splošna terminologija.
ZVEZA S STANDARDI

S privzemom tega evropskega standarda veljajo za omejeni namen referenčnih standardov vsi

standardi, navedeni v izvirniku, razen tistih, ki so že sprejeti v nacionalno standardizacijo:

SIST EN ISO 20108 (en) Simultano tolmačenje – Kakovost in prenos zvoka in slike – Zahteve

(ISO 20108)
SIST EN ISO 20109 (en) Simultano tolmačenje – Oprema – Zahteve (ISO 20109)
OSNOVA ZA IZDAJO STANDARDA
– privzem standarda ISO 20228:2019
OPOMBE
– Nacionalni uvod in nacionalni predgovor nista sestavni del standarda.

– Povsod, kjer se v besedilu standarda uporablja izraz "mednarodni standard", v SIST ISO

20228:2019 to pomeni "slovenski standard".
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SIST ISO 20228 : 2019
VSEBINA Stran

Predgovor ............................................................................................................................................... 4

Uvod ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Področje uporabe ................................................................................................................................ 6

2 Zveza z drugimi standardi .................................................................................................................... 6

3 Izrazi in definicije .................................................................................................................................. 6

3.1 Izrazi, povezani s tolmačenjem – modusi tolmačenja in udeleženci tolmačenja .............................. 6

3.2 Izrazi, povezani z jezikom in kvalifikacijami....................................................................................... 9

4 Osnovna načela pravnega tolmačenja ............................................................................................... 10

4.1 Splošno ............................................................................................................................................ 10

4.2 Narava pravnega tolmačenja .......................................................................................................... 10

4.3 Delo pravnih tolmačev ..................................................................................................................... 11

4.4 Končni uporabniki storitev pravnega tolmačenja ............................................................................. 11

5 Kompetence in kvalifikacije pravnih tolmačev .................................................................................... 11

5.1 Splošno ............................................................................................................................................ 11

5.2 Področne kompetence, povezane s pravnim tolmačenjem ............................................................. 12

5.3 Jezikovne kompetence .................................................................................................................... 12

5.4 Tolmaške kompetence .................................................................................................................... 12

5.5 Medkulturne kompetence ................................................................................................................ 13

5.6 Medosebne kompetence ................................................................................................................. 13

5.7 Tehnične kompetence ..................................................................................................................... 13

5.8 Dokazila o kvalifikacijah za pravno tolmačenje ............................................................................... 13

5.9 Stalno usposabljanje/izobraževanje ................................................................................................ 14

5.10 Pooblastilo pravnega tolmača ....................................................................................................... 14

6 Okolja s pravnim tolmačenjem ........................................................................................................... 14

7 Modusi tolmačenja .............................................................................................................................. 14

7.1 Splošno ............................................................................................................................................ 14

7.2 Delovni pogoji .................................................................................................................................. 15

Dodatek A (informativni): Pravno tolmačenje in pravni tolmači – nepopoln seznam mednarodnih

in nacionalnih dokumentov ............................................................................................................... 16

Dodatek B (informativni): Primeri okolij, v katerih se zagotavljajo storitve pravnega tolmačenja ......... 18

Dodatek C (informativni): Priporočila za izbiro modusa tolmačenja ...................................................... 21

Dodatek D (informativni): Potek del – naloge pravnega tolmačenja ..................................................... 23

Literatura................................................................................................................................................ 25

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SIST ISO 20228 : 2019
Predgovor

Mednarodna organizacija za standardizacijo (ISO) je svetovna zveza nacionalnih organov za standarde

(članov ISO). Mednarodne standarde običajno pripravljajo tehnični odbori ISO. Vsak član, ki ga zanima

področje, za katero je bil ustanovljen tehnični odbor, ima pravico biti zastopan v tem odboru. Pri delu

sodelujejo tudi mednarodne vladne in nevladne organizacije, povezane z ISO. V vseh zadevah, ki se

nanašajo na standardizacijo s področja elektrotehnike, ISO tesno sodeluje z Mednarodno

elektrotehniško komisijo (IEC).

Postopki, uporabljeni pri razvoju tega dokumenta, in postopki, predvideni za njegovo nadaljnje

vzdrževanje, so opisani v Direktivah ISO/IEC, 1. del. Posebno pozornost je treba nameniti različnim

kriterijem odobritve, potrebnim za različne vrste dokumentov ISO. Ta dokument je bil pripravljen v skladu

z uredniškimi pravili Direktiv ISO/IEC, 2. del (glej www.iso.org/directives).

Opozoriti je treba na možnost, da za nekatere elemente tega dokumenta lahko veljajo patentne pravice.

ISO ne prevzema odgovornosti za identifikacijo katerihkoli ali vseh takih patentnih pravic. Podrobnosti

o katerihkoli patentnih pravicah, identificiranih med pripravo tega dokumenta, bodo navedene v uvodu

in/ali na seznamu patentnih izjav, ki jih je prejela organizacija ISO (glej www.iso.org/patents).

Vsakršno trgovsko ime, uporabljeno v tem dokumentu, je informacija za uporabnike in ne pomeni

podpore blagovni znamki.

Za razlago prostovoljne narave standardov, pomena posebnih izrazov ISO, povezanih z ugotavljanjem

skladnosti, ter informacij o tem, kako ISO spoštuje načela Mednarodne trgovinske organizacije (WTO)

v Tehničnih ovirah pri trgovanju, glej naslednji naslov URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

Za ta dokument je odgovoren tehnični odbor ISO/TC 37 Terminologija in drugi jezikovni viri, pododbor

SC 5 Prevajanje, tolmačenje in s tem povezana tehnologija.

Povratne informacije ali vprašanja o tem dokumentu je treba nasloviti na nacionalni organ za standarde.

Popoln seznam teh organov je na povezavi www.iso.org/members.html.
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SIST ISO 20228 : 2019
Uvod

Ta dokument je bil razvit kot odziv na globalno in rastočo potrebo po tolmačenju za osebe, ki jim je bila

odvzeta prostost, za osumljence, obtožence, tožene stranke, tožeče stranke, pritožnike, tožnike, priče,

žrtve, stranke v različnih pravnih okoljih v okviru govorjene komunikacije ali komunikacije v znakovnem

jeziku, ter tudi na potrebo po tolmačenju za pravosodne deležnike, kot so sodniki, odvetniki, tožilci,

policisti, sodno osebje, notarji, in tudi za zasebne subjekte, ki potrebujejo tolmačenje med

komunikacijskimi dogodki, povezanimi s pravom.

Pravica do storitev pravnega tolmačenja je zapisana v številnih mednarodnih dokumentih (glej dodatek

A). Pravno tolmačenje mora biti dovolj visoke kakovosti, da vsem osebam zagotavlja enak dostop do

pravnega varstva in pošteno sojenje.

Pravno tolmačenje se je uveljavilo kot storitve tolmačenja, ki jih izvajajo poklicni tolmači. Obstajajo

različni kodeksi in standardi (protokoli) za posamezna okolja (npr. za policijo ali na sodišču), a se

razlikujejo od države do države, tako da ni splošno sprejetih pravil ali standardov za zagotavljanje

storitev pravnega tolmačenja.

OPOMBA: V tem dokumentu je poklicni pravni tolmač posameznik, ki izpolnjuje zahteve iz točke 5.

Pravno tolmačenje se razlikuje od pravnega prevajanja in vključuje komuniciranje govorjenih sporočil

ali sporočil v znakovnem jeziku v dejanskem času.

Standardi usposabljanja in prakse pravnega tolmačenja so zelo različni in se zelo hitro spreminjajo. V

praksi je v številnih državah opaziti trend deprofesionalizacije kot posledice pomanjkanja finančnih

sredstev, neobstoja specializiranega usposabljanja in pomanjkljivega zavedanja o tveganjih uporabe

nepoklicnih pravnih tolmačev.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20228 : 2019
Storitve tolmačenja – Pravno tolmačenje – Zahteve
1 Področje uporabe

Ta dokument opredeljuje osnovna načela in prakse storitev pravnega tolmačenja ter določa kompetence

pravnih tolmačev. V njem so opisana različna pravna okolja in predstavljena priporočila glede uporabe

ustreznih modusov tolmačenja.

Uporaben je za vse stranke, ki sodelujejo pri omogočanju komunikacije med uporabniki pravnih storitev

s pomočjo govorjenega ali znakovnega jezika.
2 Zveza z drugimi standardi

Za uporabo tega dokumenta so nujno potrebni spodaj navedeni referenčni dokumenti. Pri datiranih

sklicevanjih se uporablja le navedena izdaja. Pri nedatiranih sklicevanjih se uporablja zadnja izdaja

publikacije, na katero se sklicuje (skupaj z dopolnili).
ISO 20108 Simultano tolmačenje – Kakovost in prenos zvoka in slike – Zahteve
ISO 20109 Simultano tolmačenje – Oprema – Zahteve
3 Izrazi in definicije
V tem dokumentu se uporabljajo naslednji izrazi in definicije:

ISO in IEC vzdržujeta terminološki podatkovni bazi, ki se uporabljata v standardizaciji, na naslednjih

naslovih:
 Platforma ISO za brskanje po spletu: http://www.iso.org/obp
 IEC Electropedia: http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1 Izrazi, povezani s tolmačenjem – modusi tolmačenja in udeleženci tolmačenja
3.1.1
tolmačiti

prenesti govorjene ali znakovne informacije iz izhodiščnega jezika (3.2.5) v ciljni jezik (3.2.7) v govorjeni

ali znakovni obliki, pri čemer se preneseta tako register kot pomen vsebine v izhodiščnem jeziku (3.2.6)

[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.1, spremenjen – "v ustni ali znakovni obliki" nadomeščeno z "v govorjeni ali

znakovni obliki"]
3.1.2
tolmačenje

prenos govorjenih ali znakovnih informacij iz izhodiščnega jezika (3.2.5) v ciljni jezik (3.2.7) v govorjeni

ali znakovni obliki, pri čemer se preneseta tako register kot pomen vsebine v izhodiščnem jeziku (3.2.6)

[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.2, spremenjen – "v ustni ali znakovni obliki" nadomeščeno z "v govorjeni ali

znakovni obliki"]
3.1.3
pravno tolmačenje
tolmačenje (3.1.2) na komunikacijskih dogodkih (3.1.23), povezanih s pravom
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.3.4]
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SIST ISO 20228 : 2019
3.1.4
tolmač
oseba, ki tolmači (3.1.1)
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.3]
3.1.5
pravni tolmač

tolmač (3.1.4), ki je usposobljen za zagotavljanje storitev pravnega tolmačenja (3.1.3)

OPOMBA 1: Od pravnih tolmačev se lahko zahteva, da so pooblaščeni z zakonom.
3.1.6
prevajanje

prenos vsebine v izhodiščnem jeziku (3.2.6) v vsebino v ciljnem jeziku (3.2.8) v pisni obliki

[VIR: ISO 17100:2015, 2.1.1]
3.1.7
prevod

prenašanje vsebine v izhodiščnem jeziku (3.2.6) v vsebino v ciljnem jeziku (3.2.8) v pisni obliki

[VIR: ISO 17100:2015, 2.1.2, spremenjen – "sklop procesov za prenos" nadomeščeno s "prenašanje"]

3.1.8
translat
rezultat prevajanja (3.1.7)
3.1.9
prevajalec
oseba, ki prevaja (3.1.6)
[VIR: ISO 17100:2015, 2.4.4]
3.1.10
pravni prevajalec

prevajalec (3.1.9), ki je usposobljen za zagotavljanje storitev prevajanja (3.1.7), povezanih s pravom

OPOMBA 1: Od pravnih prevajalcev se lahko zahteva, da so pooblaščeni z zakonom.
3.1.11
govorec

oseba, ki nagovarja druge z uporabo govorjenega jezika (3.2.3) ali znakovnega jezika (3.2.2)

[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.7]
3.1.12
tolmačenje govorjenega jezika
tolmačenje (3.1.2) med dvema govorjenima jezikoma (3.2.3)
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.8]
3.1.13
tolmačenje znakovnega jezika

tolmačenje (3.1.2) med dvema znakovnima jezikoma (3.2.2) ali med znakovnim jezikom (3.2.2) in

govorjenim jezikom (3.2.3)
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.9]
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SIST ISO 20228 : 2019
3.1.14
modus

uveljavljena metoda za zagotavljanje tolmačenja govorjenega jezika (3.1.2) ali tolmačenja znakovnega

jezika (3.1.13)
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.11]
3.1.15
konsekutivno tolmačenje

modus (3.1.14) tolmačenja (3.1.2), ki se izvede, ko govorec (3.1.11) preneha govoriti

OPOMBA 1: Tolmači (3.1.4) lahko uporabljajo posebne tehnike zapisovanja (3.1.19), da si olajšajo prenos daljših delov govora.

[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.12]
3.1.16
simultano tolmačenje

modus (3.1.14) tolmačenja (3.1.2), ki se izvede, ko govorec (3.1.11) še vedno govori ali tolmači v

znakovnem jeziku
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.13]
3.1.17
chuchotage
šepetano tolmačenje
simultano tolmačenje (3.1.16), pri katerem tolmač (3.1.4) govori zelo tiho

OPOMBA 1: Chuchotage/šepetano tolmačenje se uporablja za manjše skupine z eno, dvema ali največ tremi osebami.

[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.16, spremenjen – definicija in opomba 1 sta nekoliko spremenjeni]

3.1.18
tolmačenje na pogled

prenos zapisane vsebine v izhodiščnem jeziku (3.2.6) v ciljni jezik (3.2.7) v obliki govorjenega jezika

(3.2.3) ali znakovnega jezika (3.2.2)
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.14]
3.1.19
zapisovanje

tehnika konsekutivnega tolmačenja (3.1.15), ki jo tolmači (3.1.4) uporabljajo za pomnjenje,

konceptualizacijo in povzemanje informacij

OPOMBA 1: Zapisovanje je zelo individualno in lahko vključuje mešanico simbolov, kratic, besed in diagramov.

[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.15]
3.1.20
tolmačenje na daljavo
oddaljeno tolmačenje

tolmačenje (3.1.2) govorca (3.1.11) na drugi lokaciji, kot je lokacija tolmača (3.1.14), s pomočjo

informacijske in komunikacijske tehnologije
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.10]
3.1.21
relejno tolmačenje

tolmačenje (3.1.2), kadar tolmač (3.1.4) tolmači tolmačenje drugega tolmača in ne tolmači govorca

(3.1.11) neposredno
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20228 : 2019

OPOMBA 1: Kadar je treba govor v govorjenem ali znakovnem jeziku tolmačiti (3.1.1) v tri ali več ciljnih jezikov (3.2.7) in vsi

tolmači teh jezikov ne razumejo jezika govorca (npr. jezika urdu), tolmač izhodiščnega jezika (3.2.5) prenese

govor v jezik, ki je skupen drugim tolmačem na dogodku (npr. iz jezika urdu v angleščino). Tega nato tolmačijo v

posamezne ciljne jezike (npr. iz angleščine v francoščino, nemščino, italijanščino, jezik nahuatl, španščino,

valižanščino itd.).
3.1.22
komunikacijski dogodek
srečanje med dvema ali več osebami, med katerimi se prenašajo informacije

OPOMBA 1: Na prenesene informacije lahko vplivajo namen govorca ter njegove kretnje, premori, tišina in ton glasu.

3.1.23
komunikacijsko okolje
okolje, v katerem teče interakcija med sogovorci
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.3.1]
3.2 Izrazi, povezani z jezikom in kvalifikacijami
3.2.1
jezik
sistematična uporaba zvokov, črk, simbolov ali znakov, s katerimi se komunicira
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.1]
3.2.2
znakovni jezik

jezik (3.2.1), pri katerem se uporabljajo kombinacija oblik dlani, usmerjenost in gibanje dlani, rok ali

telesa ter tudi obrazna mimika
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.1.12, spremenjen – opomba je zbrisana]
3.2.3
govorjeni jezik
jezik (3.2.1), ki temelji na govornem izražanju
3.2.4
vsebina
informacije v kakršnikoli obliki
PRIMER: Besedilo, avdio, video itd.
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.3]
3.2.5
izhodiščni jezik

jezik (3.2.1), iz katerega se vsebina (3.2.4) tolmači (3.1.1) ali prevaja (3.1.6)

[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.4]
3.2.6
vsebina v izhodiščnem jeziku
vsebina (3.2.4), ki jo je treba tolmačiti (3.1.1) ali prevesti (3.1.6)
3.2.7
ciljni jezik
jezik (3.2.1), v katerega se vsebina (3.2.4) prevaja (3.1.6) ali tolmači (3.1.1)
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.6]
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SIST ISO 20228 : 2019
3.2.8
vsebina v ciljnem jeziku

vsebina (3.2.4), ki je bila tolmačena (3.1.1) ali prevedena (3.1.6) iz izhodiščnega jezika (3.2.5)

[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.7]
3.2.9
znanje jezika
zmožnost osebe, da razume določen jezik (3.2.1) ali komunicira v njem

OPOMBA 1: Znanje jezika se na splošno nanaša na veščine govorjenja, poslušanja, branja in pisanja.

3.2.10
pooblastilo

potrditev tretje osebe, da ima oseba pravico zagotavljati specializirano storitev

OPOMBA 1: Pooblastilo za pravne tolmače (3.1.5) in pravne prevajalce (3.1.10) izda pristojni uradni organ.

OPOMBA 2: V nekaterih državah državno/uradno pooblastilo imenujejo akreditacija, certifikacija, licenca itd.

3.2.11
protokol
pravilo, uradni postopek ali običajna praksa, ki določa ravnanje članov poklica

PRIMER: Zaprisega na sodišču, da bo tolmačenje (3.1.2) točno, uporaba premega govora med tolmačenjem ali ravnanje v skladu

z etičnim kodeksom strokovnega združenja.
[VIR: ISO 18841:2018, 3.4.17]
4 Osnovna načela pravnega tolmačenja
4.1 Splošno

Pravno tolmačenje morajo opravljati pravni tolmači, ki izpolnjujejo zahteve iz točke 5 ter pri tem ravnajo

v skladu z ustreznim etičnim kodeksom in upoštevajo sprejete poklicne prakse, tako imenovane poklicne

protokole tolmačenja, ki se lahko razlikujejo glede na okolje tolmačenja in glede na državo oziroma

regijo.
4.2 Narava pravnega tolmačenja

Z zagotavljanjem komunikacije med uporabniki pravnih storitev, ki ne govorijo istega govorjenega ali

znakovnega jezika, pravno tolmačenje kot posebno področje tolmačenja prispeva k zagotavljanju

enakega dostopa do pravnega varstva vsem udeleženim stranem. Uporablja se predvsem v različnih

pravnih okoljih, kot so policijske postaje, sodne dvorane, odvetniške pisarne, zapori itd. (v dodatku B so

navedena različna okolja). Pravno tolmačenje lahko vključuje prenos znakovnih, verbalnih in/ali

neverbalnih sporočil v dejanskem času, navadno v obe smeri.

Na nekaterih področjih se prekriva s skupnostnim tolmačenjem/tolmačenjem za javni sektor glede

tolmačenih komunikacijskih dogodkov. Za podrobnosti glej 3.1.22 in sliko B1.

OPOMBA: Neverbalna sporočila lahko vključujejo ton glasu, govorico telesa, obrazno mimiko in (razlagalne) kretnje.

Pravno tolmačenje teče med vsaj tremi udeleženci:

1) uporabnikom, ki ne govori jezika postopka in mora komunicirati z govorcem jezika postopka,

2) uporabnikom jezika postopka, ki mora komunicirati z govorcem jezika, ki ni jezik postopka, in

3) pravnim tolmačem.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 20228 : 2019

OPOMBA: V nekaterih državah se "jezik postopka" imenuje tudi "uradni jezik", "jezik sodišča" ali "postopkovni jezik".

V dodatku A so predstavljeni nacionalni in mednarodni dokumenti o pravici do tolmačenja v pravnih

postopkih.
4.3 Delo pravnih tolmačev

Pravni tolmači sodelujejo v interaktivnih vrstah komunikacije, ki navadno poteka dvosmerno. Ti

posamezniki obvladajo vsaj dva jezika (govorjena jezika ali znakovna jezika) in lahko zato pomagajo

tolmačiti komunikacijo o pravnih temah med dvema ali več jeziki. Pravni tolmači lahko delajo s pristopom

mešanega modusa, menjaje med konsekutivnim in simultanim načinom, z opremo za prenos zvoka,

kadar delajo za velike skupine, ali brez opreme za prenos zvoka (chuchotage [šepetano tolmačenje]).

Lahko so osebno prisotni, lahko pa delajo na daljavo in uporabljajo tehnologijo za video ali

telekonferenco (tolmačenje na daljavo [oddaljeno tolmačenje]). Pravni tolmači morajo svoj način dela

prilagoditi posebnim okoliščinam ali komunikacijskemu okolju (na sodišču ali zunaj njega). Več

podrobnosti je v dodatku C.
OPOMBA V dodatku D so s primeri ponazorjeni tipični koraki tolmaške naloge.
4.4 Končni uporabniki storitev pravnega tolmačenja

Končni uporabniki storitev pravnega tolmačenja so iz dveh različnih skupin. V prvi skupini so izvajalci

pravnih storitev. Da bi rešili pravna vprašanja, morajo biti sposobni razumeti osebe, ki ne znajo dovolj

dobro jezika postopka, ki se uporablja, in z njimi komunicirati. Izvajalci pravnih storitev so govorci jezika

postopka, ki se uporablja v pravnem okolju. Zagotavljati morajo, da se najemajo storitve usposobljenih

pravnih tolmačev, s čimer se izognejo zamudam v postopkih in napakam/nepravilnostim v komunikaciji,

kar lahko privede do pravno veljavnih, a zmotnih odločitev. V drugi skupini so v glavnem osebe, ki ne

znajo dovolj dobro jezika postopka, ki se uporablja v posebnem pravnem okolju, in ki morajo komunicirati

z govorci jezika postopka, da bi rešili pravna vprašanja. Govorci drugih jezikov, ki niso jezik postopka,

uporabljen v pravnem okolju, imajo lahko dostop do standardov poštenega sojenja le, kadar so jim

sistematično zagotovljene storitve pravnega tolmačenja, ki so na dovolj visoki kakovostni ravni.

OPOMBA: Kadar usposobljenih tolmačev ni na voljo ali jih je malo, se za zagotavljanje tolmaških storitev kot sprejemljiva

tehnika včasih uporablja relejno oziroma posredno tolmačenje (3.1.21).
5 Kompetence in kvalifikacije pravnih tolmačev
5.1 Splošno

Pravni tolmači morajo imeti kompetence, ki temeljijo na poznavanju področja, poklicni praksi in

kvalifikacijah, in spoštovati kodeks poklicne etike in enega ali več protokolov.

OPOMBA: Glede kodeksov poklicne etike glej npr. spletno stran združenja EULITA (Evropsko združenje pravnih tolmačev

in prevajalcev) (https://eulita.eu/wp/).

Pravni tolmači morajo izkazovati tudi zavezanost vseživljenjskemu izobraževanju s ciljem

izpopolnjevanja svojega znanja in veščin, pomembnih za učinkovito sprejemanje jezikovnih odločitev in

tolmačenje v pravnih okoljih.

Pravni tolmači morajo celovito poznati strukturo pravnega sistema/pravnih sistemov in delovanje sodnih

sistemov v državah, kjer se uporabljata njihov izhodiščni in ciljni jezik.

Razumeti morajo ustrezna področja prava (materialno, postopkovno, kazensko, civilno, upravno pravo

itd.)

Izkazovati morajo temeljito razumevanje vloge odvetnikov, sodnikov, sodnega osebja, tožilcev in

tolmačev.
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Priporočljivo je, da sodni in drugi organi ter stranke omogočijo pravnim tolmačem dostop do gradiva,

povezanega z zadevo, in drugega referenčnega gradiva, s čimer jim omogočijo pripravo na tolmačenje.

5.2 Področne kompetence, povezane s pravnim tolmačenjem

Pravni tolmači morajo biti zmožni prenesti sporočilo iz izhodiščnega jezika v ciljni jezik (govorjeni ali

znakovni jezik) v tolmaškem modusu, ki je primeren za dano pravno okolje. Točno, zvesto in

nepristransko morajo tolmačiti vsebino vseh izjav brez dodajanja, izpuščanja ali drugih zavajajočih

dejavnikov, ki bi lahko spremenili nameravani pomen govorčevega sporočila. Pravni tolmači morajo

varovati zaupnost informacij, s katerimi se seznanijo med opravljanjem nalog, razen če njihovega

razkritja ne zahtevata zakon ali sodna odredba. Pravni tolmači morajo obvladati različne tehnike

tolmačenja (moduse) in ustrezne podporne strategije. Tako obvladovanje vključuje konsekutivno,

simultano in šepetano simultano tehniko ter tudi relejno tolmačenje, tolmačenje na pogled in podporne

tehnike, kot so veščine pomnjenja, zapisovanje in obvladovanje stresa.

Kompetence pravnih tolmačev, potrebne za tolmačenje v pravnih okoljih, morajo vključevati tudi:

a) polno razumevanje in obvladovanje pravnih sistemov, vključenih v tolmačeni komunikacijski

dogodek,
b) visoko stopnjo znanja delovnih jezikov na ravni pravnega diskurza,

c) zmožnost točno in idiomatsko ustrezno prenesti sporočilo iz izhodiščnega jezika v ciljni,

d) zmožnost sprejemati hitre jezikovne odločitve glede izbire besed ali terminologije in izbire registra,

e) zavedanje, da jezikovne, slogovne in besediščne izbire prenašajo informacije o strankinem

družbenoekonomskem, izobrazbenem in kulturnem ozadju,

f) zmožnost ohraniti para-jezikovne značilnosti (neverbalne značilnosti) izvirnega govora, kot so

obotavljanje, napačni začetki in ponavljanja,

g) zmožnost stalno odlično tolmačiti v modusu, ki ga zahteva okolje, in zagotavljati točen prenos

neformalnega, formalnega in zelo formalnega diskurza.
5.3 Jezikovne kompetence

Za svoje delovne jezike morajo imeti pravni tolmači jezikovne kompetence, ki temeljijo na sprejetih

standardih znanja jezika.

Znanje jezika mora vključevati veščine govorjenja, poslušanja, razumevanja in branja (tj. zmožnost

razumevanja različnih regionalnih naglasov in/ali razlik v narečjih, prepoznavanje različnih jezikovnih

registrov, vključno formalnega in neformalnega, poznavanje besedišča posameznega področja,

idiomatskih izrazov, kolokacij in slenga). Tolmači morajo biti zmožni z lahkoto prehajati med formalnimi

in neformalnimi ravnmi jezika in točno tolmačiti govorce z različno stopnjo izobrazbe.

OPOMBA: Za nadaljnje informacije o jezikovnih kompetencah pri tolmaških storitvah glej ISO 18841.

Tolmači znakovnega jezika morajo imeti tudi veščine za sprejemanje in ustvarjanje sporočil v

znakovnem jeziku.
5.4 Tolmaške kompetence

Pravni tolmači morajo osvojiti in biti zmožni pokazati, da obvladajo različne tehnike (moduse) tolmačenja

in ustrezne podporne strategije. Tako obvladovanje vključuje konsekutivno tolmačenje, simultano

tolmačenje, chuchotage (šepetano tolmačenje) ter tudi relejno tolmačenje, tolmačenje na pogled in

podporne tehnike, kot so veščine pomnjenja, zapisovanja in obvladovanja stresa.
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Tolmaške kompetence morajo vključevati tudi:

a) obvladovanje vloge pravnega tolmača (predstavitev, postavitev, menjavanje vlog, kdaj in kako

vprašati za pojasnilo, če je to ustrezno),

b) zmožnost delati v različnih pravnih okoljih, okoliščinah ali pogojih, poznavanje pravne terminologije

in njenih funkcionalnih ustreznic v delovnih jezikih,

c) zmožnost s tolmačenjem v ciljnem jeziku doseči enak učinek, kot ga ima izjava v izhodiščnem

jeziku,

d) poznavanje preiskovalnih tehnik v policijskem okolju, vključno s strategijami vzpostavljanja

odnosov, in zmožnost točne predstavitve teh strategij v ciljnem jeziku,

e) razumevanje diskurza sodne dvorane, vključno s strateško rabo vprašanj in zmožnostjo točne

predstavitve teh strategij v ciljnem jeziku, ter zmožnost komuniciranja v govorjenem ali znakovnem

jeziku in dobrega izražanja idej,
f) zmožnost samonadzora in samopopravkov,
g) zmožnost ustrezno nastopati,

h) visoko stopnjo zavedanja, integracije in uporabe najvišjih standardov poklicnega ravnanja in etike,

i) poznavanje in spoštovanje ustreznega kodeksa poklicne etike in standardov dobrih praks, ki veljajo

za posamezno pravno okolje (protokol).
5.5 Medkulturne kompetence

Pravni tolmači se morajo zavedati kulturnih razlik in biti z njimi seznanjeni ter jih prenesti v jezikovni

izdelek, kretnje in ton. Kadar je to potrebno, morajo pravni tolmači premostiti kulturne in konceptualne

vrzeli, ki ločujejo udeležence.
5.6 Medosebne k
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