Plastics — Joining of thermoplastic moulded components — Specification of variables for thermal joining processes

This document specifies the minimum essential variables in order to produce a component of the required consistency and quality for the following thermal joining processes: — ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding; — infrared welding; — hot gas convection welding; — linear vibration welding; — orbital vibration welding; — spin welding; — laser welding; — hot plate welding; — heat staking: hot air; — heat staking: electrical; and — heat staking: infrared (IR). This document defines the thermal joining process specification (TJPS) for each of the thermal joining processes listed above, to ensure that all the essential variables are properly considered, including the qualified range of each variable, in order to establish and maintain component quality at an acceptable level. NOTE Standards on joining of plastic pipes, fittings, valves and/or auxiliary equipment, and the assessment of the properties of the resulting joints are developed and maintained by ISO/TC 138.

Plastiques — Assemblage de composants thermoplastiques moulés — Spécification de variables pour les procédés d'assemblage thermique

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
07-Mar-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
08-Mar-2021
Completion Date
08-Mar-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23512
First edition
2021-03
Plastics — Joining of thermoplastic
moulded components — Specification
of variables for thermal joining
processes
Plastiques — Assemblage de composants thermoplastiques moulés —
Spécification de variables pour les procédés d'assemblage thermique
Reference number
ISO 23512:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23512:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23512:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Technical content of thermal joining process specification (TJPS) ................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Related to the joining organization ....................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Related to the sub-component(s) ........................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4 Common to all joining processes ............................................................................................................................................. 3

4.5 Specific to a joining process ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5.1 Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding ................................................................................................ 4

4.5.2 Infrared welding ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5.3 Hot gas convection welding .................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.4 Linear vibration welding .......................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.5 Orbital vibration welding ......................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.6 Spin welding ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5.7 Laser welding...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.8 Hot plate welding ............................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.5.9 Heat staking – hot air ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5.10 Heat staking – electrical ............................................................................................................................................ 7

4.5.11 Heat staking – infrared ............................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Template for TJPS: Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding ....................................9

Annex B (informative) Template for TJPS: Infrared welding ....................................................................................................11

Annex C (informative) Template for TJPS: Hot gas convection welding ........................................................................13

Annex D (informative) Template for TJPS: Linear vibration welding..............................................................................15

Annex E (informative) Template for TJPS: Orbital vibration welding .............................................................................17

Annex F (informative) Template for TJPS: Spin welding ...............................................................................................................19

Annex G (informative) Template for TJPS: Laser welding ...........................................................................................................21

Annex H (informative) Template for TJPS: Hot plate welding .................................................................................................23

Annex I (informative) Template for TJPS: Heat staking – hot air .........................................................................................25

Annex J (informative) Template for TJPS: Heat staking – electrical ..................................................................................27

Annex K (informative) Template for TJPS: Heat staking – infrared ...................................................................................29

Annex L (informative) Worked example for TJPS: Hot plate welding ..............................................................................30

Annex M (informative) Worked example for TJPS: Heat staking – electrical ..........................................................33

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Introduction

This document has been developed to help organizations better understand and implement controls

with thermal joining processes through the use of thermal joining process specifications.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23512:2021(E)
Plastics — Joining of thermoplastic moulded components
— Specification of variables for thermal joining processes
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum essential variables in order to produce a component of the

required consistency and quality for the following thermal joining processes:
— ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding;
— infrared welding;
— hot gas convection welding;
— linear vibration welding;
— orbital vibration welding;
— spin welding;
— laser welding;
— hot plate welding;
— heat staking: hot air;
— heat staking: electrical; and
— heat staking: infrared (IR).

This document defines the thermal joining process specification (TJPS) for each of the thermal joining

processes listed above, to ensure that all the essential variables are properly considered, including

the qualified range of each variable, in order to establish and maintain component quality at an

acceptable level.

NOTE Standards on joining of plastic pipes, fittings, valves and/or auxiliary equipment, and the assessment

of the properties of the resulting joints are developed and maintained by ISO/TC 138.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
3.1
dimensional report

full measurement report on product before welding including flatness at weld joint

3.2
essential variable

joining condition that influences the quality of the joint and requires qualification

3.3
joining organization

organization responsible for the serial production joining and maintenance of quality

3.4
joining procedure

specified course of action to be followed in making a joint, including the joining process(es) (3.5),

reference to materials, preparation, pre-heating (if necessary), control of process parameters and

necessary equipment to be used
3.5
joining process
method of softening or melting to obtain a permanent joint (3.7)
3.6
joining process qualification record
JPQR

record comprising all data of mechanical test results for the specified range of each essential variable

(3.2) needed for qualification of a TJPS, used by the joining organization (3.3) as part of the sign-off

documentation
3.7
joint
junction of two sub-components
3.8
moisture content
amount of moisture content in parent material at the time of welding (3.12)
3.9
process report

document confirming that the sub-component has been manufactured using the correct moulding

process parameters, conditions, material grade, masterbatch reference, masterbatch percentage, and

regrind percentage
3.10
thermal joining process specification
TJPS

document that has been qualified and provides the required variables of the joining procedure (3.4) to

ensure repeatability during production
3.11
visual examination acceptance criteria document

document specifying imperfections on sub-components that affect the functionality of the joint, such

as weld lines, burn marks, surface contamination
3.12
welding

process of uniting softened surfaces of materials, generally with the aid of heat

3.13
work instruction
simplified TJPS, suitable for joining process (3.5) owner
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
4 Technical content of thermal joining process specification (TJPS)
4.1 General

A TJPS shall provide the minimum information specified in 4.2 to 4.5 required to make a joint of

acceptable quality, as part of the component manufacturing quality agreement between the joining

organization and the customer.

TJPSs cover a certain range for each essential variable. The range of each essential variable shall

be qualified using a JPQR, and the procedure for measuring each variable shall conform to agreed

specifications.

When completing the TJPS the technical support/manual/documentation of the joining process

equipment manufacturer or service supplier may be consulted.

NOTE 1 Example templates of TJPSs are given in Annex A to Annex K. Worked example TJPSs for hot plate

welding and heat staking: electrical are given in Annex L and Annex M, respectively.

NOTE 2 A work instruction can be prepared for each specific, applicable TJPS as part of detailed production

planning.
4.2 Related to the joining organization
a) identification of the joining organization;
b) TJPS reference number/revision;

c) signature of the person responsible for approval, appointed by the joining organization.

NOTE The responsibilities, knowledge, skills and competence for the person responsible for approval are set

[1]
out in PD CEN/TR 16862 .
4.3 Related to the sub-component(s)
a) sub-component material:
1) material supplier name;

2) designation of the material(s) and reference standard(s), if any, or an alternative identification

if a reference standard does not exist;
3) moisture content;
4) regrind percentage;
5) masterbatch reference and masterbatch percentage;
b) dimensional report;
c) process report;
d) customer component/part number;
e) supplier component/part number;
f) visual examination acceptance criteria document number.
4.4 Common to all joining processes
a) joint preparation;
b) ambient temperature;
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
c) sub-component temperature;
d) joining process qualification record (JPQR).
4.5 Specific to a joining process
4.5.1 Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding
a) joining process(es): welding, staking or spot welding;
b) machine type (fixed or handheld);
c) frequency;
d) power rating;
e) maximum tool temperature;
f) tool face amplitude/amplitude profile;
g) down speed;
h) trigger force (if applicable)/(not handheld);
i) pre-trigger/touch (yes/no) (not handheld);
j) pre-trigger amplitude (if applicable)/(not handheld);
k) joining force/force profile (if applicable)/(not handheld);
l) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement (if applicable)/(not handheld);
m) joining or welding time;
n) hold/cooling time;
o) weld energy.

NOTE A template for the TJPS for ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding is given in Annex A.

4.5.2 Infrared welding
a) emitter condition;
b) distance of sub-components from IR source;
c) pre-heat/soak temperature (or power);
d) pre-heat/soak time;
e) full heat temperature/power;
f) full heat time;
g) removal of heating to sub-component contact time/changeover time;
h) welding force;
i) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
j) cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for infrared welding is given in Annex B.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
4.5.3 Hot gas convection welding
a) gas flow rate;
b) gas temperature;
c) gas feed type;
d) distance between sub-components and tool;
e) heating time;
f) removal of heating to sub-component contact time/changeover time;
g) welding force;
h) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
i) cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for hot gas convection welding is given in Annex C.
4.5.4 Linear vibration welding
a) frequency;
b) amplitude/amplitude profile;
c) IR pre-heat time (if applicable);
d) IR pre-heat power (if applicable);
e) IR pre-heat changeover time (if applicable);
f) welding force/force profile;
g) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
h) welding time;
i) hold/cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for linear vibration welding is given in Annex D.
4.5.5 Orbital vibration welding
a) frequency;
b) amplitude/amplitude profile;
c) welding force/force profile;
d) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
e) welding time;
f) hold/cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for orbital vibration welding is given in Annex E.
4.5.6 Spin welding
a) machine type (servo-drive/inertia);
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
b) head mass (inertia machines only);
c) run-up time (inertia machines only);
d) rotational speed;
e) down speed;
f) welding force/force profile;
g) welding time;
h) number of rotations (if applicable);
i) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
j) hold/cooling time;
k) final angular position (if applicable).
NOTE A template for the TJPS for spin welding is given in Annex F.
4.5.7 Laser welding
a) wavelength;
b) laser power;
c) peak power (pulse lasers only);
d) pulse energy (pulse lasers only);
e) pulse duration and repetition rate (pulse lasers only);
f) beam delivery (contour);
g) focal length of focusing lens;
h) beam energy profile/dimensions;
i) power density;
j) laser transmission of lower sub-component;
k) laser transmission of upper sub-component;
l) laser absorber type (if applicable);
m) welding/clamping force;
n) scan speed (if applicable);
o) number of passes (if applicable);
p) weld time (if applicable);
q) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
r) temperature close/loop (if applicable);
s) power mapping/zoning (if applicable);
t) hold/cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for laser welding is given in Annex G.
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
4.5.8 Hot plate welding
a) plate temperature;
b) hot plate surface coating (if applicable);
c) melting force;
d) heating time;
e) meltdown/collapse/displacement;
f) removal of heating to part contact time/changeover time;
g) welding force;
h) weld collapse/displacement;
i) hold/cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for hot plate welding is given in Annex H.
4.5.9 Heat staking – hot air
a) hot air temperature;
b) airflow;
c) distance of stake pin from end of nozzle;
d) heating time;
e) changeover time;
f) cold stake tool/platen force;
g) cold stake tool contact time;
h) final cold tool position/dead stop (if applicable).
NOTE A template for the TJPS for heat staking - hot air is given in Annex I.
4.5.10 Heat staking – electrical
a) heated tool temperature/temperature profile;
b) heating time (if no temperature profile);
c) tool/platen force;
d) cooling time (if no temperature profile);
e) release temperature (if no temperature profile);
f) final tool position/dead stop (if applicable).
NOTE A template for the TJPS for heat staking - electrical is given in Annex J.
4.5.11 Heat staking – infrared
a) IR power;
b) distance of stake pin from heat source;
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
c) heating time;
d) cold stake tool/platen force;
e) cold stake tool contact time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for heat staking - infrared is given in Annex K.
8 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding

Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding

Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A : Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
* Sub-component A is the part in initial contact with the sonotrode/horn
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Joining process (welding/staking/spot welding):
Machine characteristics
Machine type (fixed/handheld):
Frequency (kHz):
Power rating (kW):
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub-component temperature (°C)
Tool temperature (°C)
Tool face amplitude (µm) / amplitude profile
Down speed (mm/s) (not handheld)
Trigger force (N) (if applicable) (not handheld)
Pre-trigger / touch (yes/no) (not handheld)
Pre-trigger amplitude (µm) (if applicable) (not handheld)
Joining force (N) / force profile (not handheld)
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm) (not handheld)
Joining or welding time (s)
Hold / cooling time (s)
Weld energy (J)
Compiled by: Signature:
Date:
Approved by: Signature:
Date:
Joint design
Provide the figure(s) of your joint design here.
Amplitude profile diagram (if applicable)
Provide diagram, if applicable.
Force profile diagram (if applicable)
Provide diagram, if applicable.
10 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Annex B
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Infrared welding
Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Infrared welding
Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A: Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
Machine characteristics
Machine identification:
Emitter type:
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub-component temperature (°C)
Emitter condition
Distance of sub-components from IR source (mm)
Pre-heat/soak temperature (°C) / power (%)
Pre-heat/soak time (s)
Full heat temperature (°C) / power (%)
Full heat time (s)
Removal of heating to sub-component contact time / changeo-
ver time (s)
Welding force (N)
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm)
Cooling time (s)
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 11
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Compiled by: Signature:
Date:
Approved by: Signature:
Date:
Joint design
Provide the figure(s) of your joint design here.
12 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Annex C
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Hot gas convection welding
Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Hot gas convection welding
Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A: Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
Machine characteristics
Machine identification:
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub-component temperature (°C)
Gas temperature (°C)
Gas flow rate (standard litres per minute)
Gas feed type
Distance between sub-components and tool (mm)
Heating time (s)
Removal of heating to sub-component contact time / changeo-
ver time (s)
Welding force (N)
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm)
Cooling time (s)
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 13
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Compiled by: Signature:
Date:
Approved by: Signature:
Date:
Joint design
Provide the figure(s) of your joint design here.
14 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Annex D
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Linear vibration welding
Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Linear vibration welding
Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A: Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub-component temperature (°C)
Frequency (Hz)
Amplitude (mm) / amplitude profile
IR pre-heat time (s) (if applicable)
IR pre-heat power (%) (if applicable)
IR pre-heat changeover time (s) (if applicable)
Welding force (N) / force profile
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm)
Welding time (s)
Hold/cooling time (s)
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Compiled by: Signature:
Date:
Approved by: Signature:
Date:
Joint design
Provide the figure(s) of your joint design here.
Amplitude profile diagram (if applicable)
Provide diagram, if applicable.
Force profile diagram (if applicable)
Provide diagram, if applicable.
16 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23512:2021(E)
Annex E
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Orbital vibration welding
Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Orbital vibration welding
Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A: Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub-component temperature (°C)
Frequency (Hz)
Amplitude (mm) / amplitude profile
Welding force (N) / force profile
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm)
Welding time (s)
Hold/cooling time (s)
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 17
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...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23512
ISO/TC 61
Plastics — Joining of thermoplastic
Secretariat: SAC
moulded components — Specification
Voting begins on:
2020­12­18 of variables for thermal joining
processes
Voting terminates on:
2021­02­12
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Technical content of thermal joining process specification (TJPS) ................................................................. 3

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Related to the joining organization ....................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Related to the sub­component(s) ........................................................................................................................................... 3

4.4 Common to all joining processes ............................................................................................................................................. 3

4.5 Specific to a joining process ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5.1 Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding ................................................................................................ 4

4.5.2 Infrared welding ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5.3 Hot gas convection welding .................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.4 Linear vibration welding .......................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.5 Orbital vibration welding ......................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5.6 Spin welding ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.5.7 Laser welding...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5.8 Hot plate welding ............................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.5.9 Heat staking – hot air ................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5.10 Heat staking – electrical ............................................................................................................................................ 7

4.5.11 Heat staking – infrared ............................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Template for TJPS: Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding ....................................9

Annex B (informative) Template for TJPS: Infrared welding ....................................................................................................11

Annex C (informative) Template for TJPS: Hot gas convection welding ........................................................................13

Annex D (informative) Template for TJPS: Linear vibration welding..............................................................................15

Annex E (informative) Template for TJPS: Orbital vibration welding .............................................................................17

Annex F (informative) Template for TJPS: Spin welding ...............................................................................................................19

Annex G (informative) Template for TJPS: Laser welding ...........................................................................................................21

Annex H (informative) Template for TJPS: Hot plate welding .................................................................................................23

Annex I (informative) Template for TJPS: Heat staking – hot air .........................................................................................25

Annex J (informative) Template for TJPS: Heat staking – electrical ..................................................................................27

Annex K (informative) Template for TJPS: Heat staking – infrared ...................................................................................29

Annex L (informative) Worked example for TJPS: Hot plate welding ..............................................................................30

Annex M (informative) Worked example for TJPS: Heat staking – electrical ..........................................................33

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Introduction

This document has been developed to help organizations better understand and implement controls

with thermal joining processes through the use of thermal joining process specifications.

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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Plastics — Joining of thermoplastic moulded components
— Specification of variables for thermal joining processes
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum essential variables in order to produce a component of the

required consistency and quality for the following thermal joining processes:
— ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding;
— infrared welding;
— hot gas convection welding;
— linear vibration welding;
— orbital vibration welding;
— spin welding;
— laser welding;
— hot plate welding;
— heat staking: hot air;
— heat staking: electrical; and
— heat staking: infrared (IR).

This document defines the thermal joining process specification (TJPS) for each of the thermal joining

processes listed above, to ensure that all the essential variables are properly considered, including

the qualified range of each variable, in order to establish and maintain component quality at an

acceptable level.

NOTE Standards on joining of plastic pipes, fittings, valves and/or auxiliary equipment, and the assessment

of the properties of the resulting joints are developed and maintained by ISO/TC 138.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 472, Plastics — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 472and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
3.1
dimensional report

full measurement report on product before welding including flatness at weld joint

3.2
essential variable

joining condition that influences the quality of the joint and requires qualification

3.3
joining organization

organization responsible for the serial production joining and maintenance of quality

3.4
joining procedure

specified course of action to be followed in making a joint, including the joining process(es) (3.5),

reference to materials, preparation, pre-heating (if necessary), control of process parameters and

necessary equipment to be used
3.5
joining process
method of softening or melting to obtain a permanent joint (3.7)
3.6
joining process qualification record
JPQR

record comprising all data of mechanical test results for the specified range of each essential variable

(3.2) needed for qualification of a TJPS, used by the joining organization (3.3) as part of the sign­off

documentation
3.7
joint
junction of two sub­components
3.8
moisture content
amount of moisture content in parent material at the time of welding (3.12)
3.9
process report

document confirming that the sub-component has been manufactured using the correct moulding

process parameters, conditions, material grade, masterbatch reference, masterbatch percentage, and

regrind percentage
3.10
thermal joining process specification
TJPS

document that has been qualified and provides the required variables of the joining procedure (3.4) to

ensure repeatability during production
3.11
visual examination acceptance criteria document

document specifying imperfections on sub-components that affect the functionality of the joint, such

as weld lines, burn marks, surface contamination
3.12
welding

process of uniting softened surfaces of materials, generally with the aid of heat

3.13
work instruction
simplified TJPS, suitable for joining process (3.5) owner
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
4 Technical content of thermal joining process specification (TJPS)
4.1 General

A TJPS shall provide the minimum information specified in 4.2 to 4.5 required to make a joint of

acceptable quality, as part of the component manufacturing quality agreement between the joining

organization and the customer.

TJPSs cover a certain range for each essential variable. The range of each essential variable shall

be qualified using a JPQR, and the procedure for measuring each variable shall conform to agreed

specifications.

When completing the TJPS the technical support/manual/documentation of the joining process

equipment manufacturer or service supplier may be consulted.

NOTE 1 Example templates of TJPSs are given in Annex A to Annex K. Worked example TJPSs for hot plate

welding and heat staking: electrical are given in Annex L and Annex M, respectively.

NOTE 2 A work instruction can be prepared for each specific, applicable TJPS as part of detailed production

planning.
4.2 Related to the joining organization
a) identification of the joining organization;
b) TJPS reference number/revision;

c) signature of the person responsible for approval, appointed by the joining organization.

NOTE The responsibilities, knowledge, skills and competence for the person responsible for approval are set

[1]
out in PD CEN/TR 16862 .
4.3 Related to the sub-component(s)
a) sub­component material:
1) material supplier name;

2) designation of the material(s) and reference standard(s), if any, or an alternative identification

if a reference standard does not exist;
3) moisture content;
4) regrind percentage;
5) masterbatch reference and masterbatch percentage;
b) dimensional report;
c) process report;
d) customer component/part number;
e) supplier component/part number;
f) visual examination acceptance criteria document number
4.4 Common to all joining processes
a) joint preparation;
b) ambient temperature;
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
c) sub­component temperature;
d) joining process qualification record (JPQR)
4.5 Specific to a joining process
4.5.1 Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding
a) joining process(es): welding, staking or spot welding;
b) machine type (fixed or handheld);
c) frequency;
d) power rating;
e) maximum tool temperature;
f) tool face amplitude/amplitude profile;
g) down speed;
h) trigger force (if applicable)/(not handheld);
i) pre-trigger/touch (yes/no) (not handheld);
j) pre­trigger amplitude (if applicable)/(not handheld);
k) joining force/force profile (if applicable)/(not handheld);
l) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement (if applicable)/(not handheld);
m) joining or welding time;
n) hold/cooling time;
o) weld energy.

NOTE A template for the TJPS for ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding is given in Annex A.

4.5.2 Infrared welding
a) emitter condition;
b) distance of sub­components from IR source;
c) pre­heat/soak temperature (or power);
d) pre­heat/soak time;
e) full heat temperature/power;
f) full heat time;
g) removal of heating to sub­component contact time/changeover time;
h) welding force;
i) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
j) cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for infrared welding is given in Annex B.
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
4.5.3 Hot gas convection welding
a) gas flow rate;
b) gas temperature;
c) gas feed type;
d) distance between sub­components and tool;
e) heating time;
f) removal of heating to sub­component contact time/changeover time;
g) welding force;
h) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
i) cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for hot gas convection welding is given in Annex C.
4.5.4 Linear vibration welding
a) frequency;
b) amplitude/amplitude profile;
c) IR pre­heat time (if applicable);
d) IR pre­heat power (if applicable);
e) IR pre­heat changeover time (if applicable);
f) welding force/force profile;
g) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
h) welding time;
i) hold/cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for linear vibration welding is given in Annex D.
4.5.5 Orbital vibration welding
a) frequency;
b) amplitude/amplitude profile;
c) welding force/force profile;
d) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
e) welding time;
f) hold/cooling time
NOTE A template for the TJPS for orbital vibration welding is given in Annex E.
4.5.6 Spin welding
a) machine type (servo-drive/inertia);
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
b) head mass (inertia machines only);
c) run-up time (inertia machines only);
d) rotational speed;
e) down speed;
f) welding force/force profile;
g) welding time;
h) number of rotations (if applicable);
i) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
j) hold/cooling time;
k) final angular position (if applicable).
NOTE A template for the TJPS for spin welding is given in Annex F.
4.5.7 Laser welding
a) wavelength;
b) laser power;
c) peak power (pulse lasers only);
d) pulse energy (pulse lasers only);
e) pulse duration and repetition rate (pulse lasers only);
f) beam delivery (contour);
g) focal length of focusing lens;
h) beam energy profile/dimensions;
i) power density;
j) laser transmission of lower sub­component;
k) laser transmission of upper sub­component;
l) laser absorber type (if applicable);
m) welding/clamping force;
n) scan speed (if applicable);
o) number of passes (if applicable);
p) weld time (if applicable);
q) meltdown/collapse/weld displacement;
r) temperature close/loop (if applicable);
s) power mapping/zoning (if applicable);
t) hold/cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for laser welding is given in Annex G.
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
4.5.8 Hot plate welding
a) plate temperature;
b) hot plate surface coating (if applicable);
c) melting force;
d) heating time;
e) meltdown/collapse/displacement;
f) removal of heating to part contact time/changeover time;
g) welding force;
h) weld collapse/displacement;
i) hold/cooling time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for hot plate welding is given in Annex H.
4.5.9 Heat staking – hot air
a) hot air temperature;
b) airflow;
c) distance of stake pin from end of nozzle;
d) heating time;
e) changeover time;
f) cold stake tool/platen force;
g) cold stake tool contact time;
h) final cold tool position/dead stop (if applicable).
NOTE A template for the TJPS for heat staking - hot air is given in Annex I.
4.5.10 Heat staking – electrical
a) heated tool temperature/temperature profile;
b) heating time (if no temperature profile);
c) tool/platen force;
d) cooling time (if no temperature profile);
e) release temperature (if no temperature profile);
f) final tool position/dead stop (if applicable).
NOTE A template for the TJPS for heat staking - electrical is given in Annex J.
4.5.11 Heat staking – infrared
a) IR power;
b) distance of stake pin from heat source;
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
c) heating time;
d) cold stake tool/platen force;
e) cold stake tool contact time.
NOTE A template for the TJPS for heat staking - infrared is given in Annex K.
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding

Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Ultrasonic welding/staking/spot welding

Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A : Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
* Sub­component A is the part in initial contact with the sonotrode/horn
Joining process (welding/staking/spot welding):
Machine characteristics
Machine type (fixed/handheld):
Frequency (kHz):
Power rating (kW):
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub­component temperature (°C)
Tool temperature (°C)
Tool face amplitude (µm) / amplitude profile
Down speed (mm/s) (not handheld)
Trigger force (N) (if applicable) (not handheld)
Pre-trigger / touch (yes/no) (not handheld)
Pre­trigger amplitude (µm) (if applicable) (not handheld)
Joining force (N) / force profile (not handheld)
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm) (not handheld)
Joining or welding time (s)
Hold / cooling time (s)
Weld energy (J)
Compiled by: Signature:
Date:
Approved by: Signature:
Date:
Joint design
Provide the figure(s) of your joint design here.
Amplitude profile diagram (if applicable)
Provide diagram, if applicable.
Force profile diagram (if applicable)
Provide diagram, if applicable.
10 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Annex B
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Infrared welding
Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Infrared welding
Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A: Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
Machine characteristics
Machine identification:
Emitter type:
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub­component temperature (°C)
Emitter condition
Distance of sub­components from IR source (mm)
Pre­heat/soak temperature (°C) / power (%)
Pre­heat/soak time (s)
Full heat temperature (°C) / power (%)
Full heat time (s)
Removal of heating to sub­component contact time / changeo­
ver time (s)
Welding force (N)
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm)
Cooling time (s)
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Compiled by: Signature:
Date:
Approved by: Signature:
Date:
Joint design
Provide the figure(s) of your joint design here.
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Annex C
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Hot gas convection welding
Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Hot gas convection welding
Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A: Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
Machine characteristics
Machine identification:
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub­component temperature (°C)
Gas temperature (°C)
Gas flow rate (standard litres per minute)
Gas feed type
Distance between sub­components and tool (mm)
Heating time (s)
Removal of heating to sub­component contact time / changeo­
ver time (s)
Welding force (N)
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm)
Cooling time (s)
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Compiled by: Signature:
Date:
Approved by: Signature:
Date:
Joint design
Provide the figure(s) of your joint design here.
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Annex D
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Linear vibration welding
Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Linear vibration welding
Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A: Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional report number Dimensional report number
Process report number Process report number
Visual examination acceptance Visual examination acceptance
criteria document number criteria document number
Joining parameters Value/tolerance or range
Ambient temperature (°C)
Sub­component temperature (°C)
Frequency (Hz)
Amplitude (mm) / amplitude profile
IR pre­heat time (s) (if applicable)
IR pre­heat power (%) (if applicable)
IR pre­heat changeover time (s) (if applicable)
Welding force (N) / force profile
Meltdown / collapse / weld displacement (mm)
Welding time (s)
Hold/cooling time (s)
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Compiled by: Signature:
Date:
Approved by: Signature:
Date:
Joint design
Provide the figure(s) of your joint design here.
Amplitude profile diagram (if applicable)
Provide diagram, if applicable.
Force profile diagram (if applicable)
Provide diagram, if applicable.
16 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 23512:2020(E)
Annex E
(informative)
Template for TJPS: Orbital vibration welding
Thermal joining process specification (TJPS): Orbital vibration welding
Joining organization: TJPS reference number/revision:
Component name:
Customer component/ Supplier component/
part number part number
JPQR number:
Sub-component A: Sub-component B:
Material type/designation: Material type/designation:
Material supplier name Material supplier name
Material grade Material grade
Masterbatch reference Masterbatch reference
Masterbatch percentage Masterbatch percentage
Regrind (%) Regrind (%)
Moisture content range (%) Moisture content range (%)
Dimensional r
...

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