Earth-moving machinery -- Electrical safety of machines utilizing electric drives and related components and systems

ISO 14990-1:2016 specifies general safety requirements for the electrical equipment and its components incorporated into earth-moving machines (EMMs) as defined in ISO 6165, and addresses the safety of operators, technicians, service/maintenance personnel and bystanders. It is applicable to those machines using on-board voltages in the ranges of 50 V?36 kV AC r.m.s. at any frequency and 75 V?36 kV DC ? including any repetition rate of pulsating DC ? intended for outdoor use. It is applicable to both low and high voltages, except where its applicability to high- or low-voltage equipment only is indicated. Voltages occurring within devices are not considered to be on-board voltages and are thus not within its scope. NOTE 1 Special considerations typically apply at frequencies greater than 30 kHz. Where reference standards are limited to frequencies below those used on the EMM, it is the responsibility of the user to assess the risks and address them appropriately. ISO 14990-1:2016 covers all significant hazards, hazardous situations, and hazardous events relevant to the voltage range for earth-moving machinery within its scope when the machinery is used as intended or under conditions of misuse reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer. It specifies appropriate technical measures for eliminating or reducing risks arising from significant hazards, hazardous situations, or hazardous events during commissioning, operation, and maintenance. It is not applicable to machines manufactured before the date of its publication. It is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 14990-2 and ISO 14990-3, which give provisions specific to the machine's power source that take precedence over the requirements of this document for the machines covered. For multipurpose machinery, all those parts of ISO 14990 are applicable whose requirements cover the functions and applications of the machine. Even though this document addresses most hazards associated with the use of low- or high-voltage electrical systems in earth-moving machines, owing to the possible presence of additional electrical hazards, conformance with it cannot be taken as an absolute guarantee of electrical safety. Areas of concern are included in the list of significant hazards found in Annex A. ISO 14990-1:2016 specifies requirements for on-board generators, electrically isolated from other low-voltage systems and provided as power sources for general-purpose socket outlets installed on EMMs, and transformer or inverter power sources for general-purpose socket outlets. NOTE 2 Local or regional requirements may also apply to general-purpose socket outlet arrangements. Although nominal 12 V and 24 V (alternator/battery) systems are not addressed, the meeting of some of the requirements, including those of PELV, will ensure that the low-voltage system is sufficiently isolated from 12 V and 24 V systems. ISO 14990-1:2016 does not address risks associated with explosive atmospheres, which are sometimes found in mining and other EMM applications.

Engins de terrassement -- Sécurité électrique des machines utilisant des moteurs électriques et composants et systèmes connexes

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Oct-2016
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
23-Sep-2016
Completion Date
26-Oct-2016
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ISO 14990-1:2016 - Earth-moving machinery -- Electrical safety of machines utilizing electric drives and related components and systems
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14990-1
First edition
2016-11-01
Earth-moving machinery — Electrical
safety of machines utilizing electric
drives and related components and
systems —
Part 1:
General requirements
Engins de terrassement — Sécurité électrique des machines utilisant
des moteurs électriques et composants et systèmes connexes —
Partie 1: Exigences générales
Reference number
ISO 14990-1:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14990-1:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14990-1:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 3

3.1 Electric shock protection-related terms and definitions .................................................................................... 3

3.2 Control-related terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................ 5

3.3 Electrical infrastructure-related terms and definitions ...................................................................................... 6

3.4 Risk-related terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................................ 7

3.5 Miscellaneous terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8

3.6 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 General requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Provisions for handling .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.3 Provisions for transportation and storage ...................................................................................................................10

4.4 Components and devices.............................................................................................................................................................10

4.5 Intended operating environment .........................................................................................................................................10

4.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.5.2 Exposure ..............................................................................................................................................................................10

4.5.3 Altitude ..................................................................................................................................................................................11

4.5.4 Ingress protection ........................................................................................................................................................11

4.6 Electrical source ..................................................................................................................................................................................11

5 Protection against electric shock hazards ..............................................................................................................................11

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2 Protection by enclosures .............................................................................................................................................................11

5.3 Protection by insulation ...............................................................................................................................................................12

5.4 Protection against residual voltages .................................................................................................................................13

5.5 Protection by barriers ....................................................................................................................................................................13

5.6 Protection by inaccessibility ....................................................................................................................................................13

5.7 Special considerations for low voltage energy storage devices and related buses...................13

5.8 Prevention of touch voltage ......................................................................................................................................................14

5.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.8.2 Protection by class II construction or equivalent .............................................................................14

5.8.3 Protection by electrical separation ...............................................................................................................14

5.9 Protection by automatic disconnection of source .................................................................................................15

5.10 Protection by equipotential bonding ................................................................................................................................15

5.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.10.2 Protective equipotential bonding circuit .................................................................................................16

5.10.3 Functional equipotential bonding..................................................................................................................18

5.10.4 Devices for earthing and short-circuiting live parts ......................................................................19

5.11 Protection by use of PELV ...........................................................................................................................................................19

5.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

5.11.2 Sources for PELV ...........................................................................................................................................................19

6 Protection against electrical fire hazards ...............................................................................................................................20

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 Fire hazard assessment ................................................................................................................................................................20

6.3 Prevention of ignition ....................................................................................................................................................................20

6.4 Minimizing the spread of fire ..................................................................................................................................................20

7 Protection against thermal hazards ..............................................................................................................................................20

8 Protection against mechanical hazards.....................................................................................................................................20

9 Protection against abnormal operation hazards .............................................................................................................20

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14990-1:2016(E)

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

9.2 Overcurrent protection (OCP) ................................................................................................................................................21

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.2.2 Transformers ...................................................................................................................................................................21

9.2.3 Overcurrent protection (OCP) implementation .................................................................................21

9.2.4 Rating and setting of overcurrent protective systems..................................................................21

9.2.5 Placement of overcurrent protective devices ......................................................................................21

9.3 Abnormal temperature protection .....................................................................................................................................22

9.4 Earth (or chassis in the case of self-powered machines) fault/residual

current protection .............................................................................................................................................................................22

9.5 Protection against overvoltages due to lightning and to switching surges .....................................22

9.6 Protection against other abnormal operation hazards .....................................................................................22

10 Electric power source ...................................................................................................................................................................................22

10.1 Disconnection of source ...............................................................................................................................................................22

10.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................22

10.1.2 Source disconnecting devices ............................................................................................................................23

10.1.3 Equipment disconnecting devices .................................................................................................................24

10.2 Prevention of unintended start-up .....................................................................................................................................24

10.3 External electrical charging ......................................................................................................................................................24

11 Wiring ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................24

11.2 Conductors ..............................................................................................................................................................................................25

11.3 Insulation ..................................................................................................................................................................................................25

11.4 Conductor and cable ampacity ...............................................................................................................................................25

11.5 Flexible cables.......................................................................................................................................................................................26

11.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................26

11.5.2 Mechanical rating .........................................................................................................................................................26

11.5.3 Ampacity of cables wound on reels ..............................................................................................................26

11.6 Assemblies having sliding contacts ....................................................................................................................................26

11.6.1 Accessibility of live parts .......................................................................................................................................26

11.6.2 Protective conductor circuit ................................................................................................................................27

11.6.3 Protective conductor current collectors ...................................................................................................27

11.6.4 Removable current collectors used for disconnection .................................................................27

11.6.5 Clearances ...........................................................................................................................................................................27

11.6.6 Creepage distances .....................................................................................................................................................27

11.6.7 Conductor system sectioning .............................................................................................................................28

11.6.8 Construction and installation ............................................................................................................................28

11.7 Connections and routing .............................................................................................................................................................28

11.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

11.7.2 Conductor and cable runs .....................................................................................................................................28

11.7.3 Conductors of different circuits .......................................................................................................................29

11.8 Identification of conductors .....................................................................................................................................................29

11.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................29

11.8.2 Protective conductor identification ..............................................................................................................29

11.8.3 Neutral conductor identification ....................................................................................................................29

11.8.4 Identification by colour ...........................................................................................................................................30

11.9 Wiring inside enclosures .............................................................................................................................................................31

11.10 Wiring outside enclosures .........................................................................................................................................................31

11.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................31

11.10.2 External ducts ...................................................................... ............................................................................................31

11.10.3 Connection to moving elements of the EMM ........................................................................................31

11.10.4 Interconnection of devices on the EMM ...................................................................................................32

11.10.5 Plug/socket combinations ....................................................................................................................................33

11.10.6 Dismantling for shipment .....................................................................................................................................34

11.10.7 Spare conductors ..........................................................................................................................................................34

11.11 Ducts and boxes...................................................................................................................................................................................34

11.11.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................34

iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14990-1:2016(E)

11.11.2 Rigid metal conduit and fittings ......................................................................................................................35

11.11.3 Flexible metal conduit and fittings ................................................................................................................35

11.11.4 Flexible nonmetallic conduit and fittings ................................................................................................35

11.11.5 Cable trunking systems ...........................................................................................................................................35

11.11.6 EMM compartments and cable trunking systems ............................................................................35

11.11.7 Boxes .......................................................................................................................................................................................35

11.11.8 Motor wiring boxes .....................................................................................................................................................35

12 Electric motors and generators..........................................................................................................................................................36

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.2 Enclosures ................................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.3 Dimensions ..............................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.4 Mounting and compartments ..................................................................................................................................................36

12.5 Criteria for motor selection or design ..............................................................................................................................36

12.6 Overheating protection .................................................................................................................................................................37

12.7 Overspeed protection .....................................................................................................................................................................37

13 Non-motor loads ................................................................................................................................................................................................37

13.1 Accessories ..............................................................................................................................................................................................37

13.2 Local lighting .........................................................................................................................................................................................38

13.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................38

13.2.2 Source .....................................................................................................................................................................................38

13.2.3 Protection ............................................................................................................................................................................38

13.2.4 Fittings ...................................................................................................................................................................................38

14 Controls .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

14.1 Control circuits.....................................................................................................................................................................................39

14.1.1 Control circuit voltages ...........................................................................................................................................39

14.1.2 Protection ............................................................................................................................................................................39

14.2 Control functions ................................................................................................................................................................................39

14.3 Protective interlocks .......................................................................................................................................................................39

14.3.1 Reclosing or resetting of an interlocking safeguard .......................................................................39

14.3.2 Operating limits, auxiliary functions, interlocks, and reverse current braking ......39

14.4 Control functions in the event of failure ........................................................................................................................39

14.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................40

14.4.2 Measures to minimize risk in the event of failure ............................................................................40

14.4.3 Protection against malfunction due to earth (or chassis in the case of self-

powered machines) faults, voltage interruptions and loss of continuity ....................41

14.5 Operator interface and machine-mounted control devices ..........................................................................42

14.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................42

14.5.2 Push-buttons ....................................................................................................................................................................42

14.5.3 Indicator lights and displays ...............................................................................................................................43

14.5.4 Illuminated push-buttons .....................................................................................................................................43

14.5.5 Rotary control devices .............................................................................................................................................43

14.5.6 Start devices ......................................................................................................................................................................43

14.5.7 Emergency stop devices .........................................................................................................................................43

14.5.8 Emergency switching off devices ...................................................................................................................43

14.5.9 Enabling control devices ........................................................................................................................................43

14.6 Controlgear: location, mounting, and enclosures ..................................................................................................43

14.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................43

14.6.2 Location and mounting ...........................................................................................................................................43

14.6.3 Degrees of protection................................................................................................................................................44

14.6.4 Enclosures, doors, and openings.....................................................................................................................45

14.6.5 Access to controlgear ................................................................................................................................................46

14.7 Access to low and high-voltage equipment .................................................................................................................46

15 Manuals and technical documentation .....
...

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