Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery — Part 1: Principles for determining the dimensions required for openings for whole-body access into machinery
Conception ergonomique pour la sécurité des machines — Partie 1: Principes de détermination des dimensions requises pour les ouvertures destinées au passage de l'ensemble du corps dans les machines
Standards Content (Sample)
Ergonomic design for the safety of
Principles for determining the dimensions
required for openings for whole-body
access into machinery
Conception ergonomique pour la sécurité des machines —
Partie 1: Principes de détermination des dimensions requises pour les
ouvertures destinées au passage de l'ensemble du corps dans les
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1 Scope .1
2 Normative references .1
3 General requirements.2
4 Passage openings .2
4.1 Opening for horizontal forward movement in upright posture.3
4.2 Opening for horizontal sideways movement over short distances in upright posture.4
4.3 Vertical movement through a duct, using a ladder.5
4.4 Manhole through which rapid active movement needs to be possible .6
4.5 Opening for entry in kneeling posture.6
Annex A (normative) Application of the measurements in practice.7
Annex B (informative) Symbols for dimensions and anthropometric body measurements.10
© ISO 2000 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO
member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical
committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has
the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in
liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.
Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this part of ISO 15534 may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard ISO 15534-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics,
Subcommittee SC 3, Anthropometry and biomechanics.
ISO 15534 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery:
� Part 1: Principles for determining the dimensions required for openings for whole-body access into machinery
� Part 2: Principles for determining the dimensions required for access openings
� Part 3: Anthropometric data
Annex A forms a normative part of this part of ISO 15534. Annex B is for information only.
iv © ISO 2000 – All rights reserved
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This part of ISO 15534 is one of several ergonomics standards for the safety of machinery.
EN 614-1 ( in the Bibliography) describes the principles designers should adopt in order to take account of
ergonomic factors. This part of ISO 15534 describes how these principles should be applied to the design of
openings which will allow whole-body access.
This part of ISO 15534 is based on EN 547-1:1996 that was prepared as a harmonized standard conforming with
the Machinery Directive and associated European Free Trade Association (EFTA) regulations.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15534-1:2000(E)
Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery —
Principles for determining the dimensions required for openings
for whole-body access into machinery
This part of ISO 15534 specifies the dimensions of openings for whole-body access into machinery as defined in
ISO/TR 12100-1. It provides the dimensions to which the values given in ISO 15534-3 are applicable. Values for
additional space requirements are given in annex A. This part of ISO 15534 has been prepared primarily for non-
mobile machinery; there may be additional specific requirements for mobile machinery.
Dimensions for passages are based on the values for either the 95th or the 99th percentiles of the expected user
population. Values for the 99th percentile apply to emergency egress routes.
The anthropometric data given in ISO 15534-3 originate from static measurements of nude persons and do not
take into account body movements, clothing, equipment, machinery-operating conditions or environmental
This part of ISO 15534 shows how to combine the anthropometric data with suitable allowances to take these
factors into account.
Situations where people are to be prevented from reaching a hazard are dealt with in ISO 13852.
2 Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
this part of ISO 15534. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications
do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO 15534 are encouraged to investigate the
possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated
references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain
registers of currently valid International Standards.
ISO/TR 12100-1:1992, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 1: Basic
terminology, methodology. (EN 292-1:1991)
ISO 13852:1996, Safety of machinery — Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper
limbs. (EN 294:1992)
ISO 15534-3:2000, Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery — Part 3: Anthropometric data.
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3 General requirements
This part of ISO 15534 specifies the relevant dimensions of openings with respect to different body positions.
In arriving at values for these dimensions, in addition to the basic anthropometirc data, it is necessary to add
allowances to permit unhindered and safe entry and working, taking into account aspects specific to the operator
and to the operating conditions.
In this respect the following criteria are of particular significance:
a) ease of passage of a person is influenced by
� the type of clothing, e.g. light or heavy clothing,
� whether tools are being carried, e.g. for maintenance or repair purposes,
� whether additional equipment, such as personal protective equipment (including protective clothing), or
portable lighting, is being carried or worn,
� the demands of the task, e.g. posture, nature and speed of movement, lines of sight, application of force,
� frequency and duration of task,
� length of passage, e.g. through a relatively thin wall (wall of a vessel) where there is space for movement
at the exit or through a channel-type passage,
� amount of space available to allow for the dynamic nature of movement to escape from danger,
� the position and size of supports for the body, e.g. foot support, hand holds;
b) environmental conditions (e.g. darkness, heat, noise, moisture),
c) level of risk during the task.
The allowances to be made for these items will depend on the particular machinery concerned and its application.
Annex A provides the application on how to apply this part of ISO 15534 in practice.
Annex B gives information on the use of symbols for dimensions and anthropometric measurements.
4 Passage openings
A passage opening is an opening which allows the movement or the entry of a person’s entire body, to enable the
person to carry out measures such as operating of control actuators, monitoring of work processes and inspection
of work results. See Figures 1 to 6.
This part of ISO 15534 specifies minimum, not optimum, dimensions for openings.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS — Wherever possible, from the safety point of view, the dimensions should be
increased. Furthermore, passage openings should be sufficiently large to allow rapid egress in the event of
The allowances x and y in 4.1 to 4.5 are given in annex A. The values for a , h , etc. are given in ISO 15534-3.
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Symbol Explanation of measurement
A = h (P95 or P99 )+ x
4.1 Opening for horizontal forward
movement in upright posture
B = a (P95 or P