Paper and board -- Determination of water vapour transmission rate of sheet materials -- Dynamic sweep and static gas methods

This document describes general test methods for determining the water vapour transmission rate of sheet materials by means of a dynamic gas method or a static gas method. Depending on the method and specific apparatus employed, materials up to 38 mm thick and with water vapour transmission rates in the range from 0,05 g/(m2·d) to 65 g/(m2·d) can be tested. The basis of the function of the instrumental techniques is briefly described. Advice on calibration is given in Annex B.

Papier et carton -- Détermination du coefficient de transmission de la vapeur d'eau des matériaux en feuille -- Méthode dynamique par balayage de gaz et méthode statique

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Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Feb-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
02-Feb-2021
Completion Date
01-Feb-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 9932
Second edition
2021-03
Paper and board — Determination
of water vapour transmission rate of
sheet materials — Dynamic sweep and
static gas methods
Papier et carton — Détermination du coefficient de transmission de
la vapeur d'eau des matériaux en feuille — Méthode dynamique par
balayage de gaz et méthode statique
Reference number
ISO 9932:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 9932:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 9932:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Method A: Dynamic sweep gas method ......................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Method B: Static gas method .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1 Method A ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Method B ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.3 Barrier material having one face of uncoated paper .............................................................................................. 5

8.4 Creased material .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

10 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

10.1 General statement of the precision ....................................................................................................................................... 6

10.2 Method A ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

10.3 Method B ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (normative) Saturated saline solutions ..................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex B (normative) Calibration ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

Annex C (informative) Comparison of dynamic method with gravimetric method .............................................9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 9932:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee

SC 2, Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 9932:1990), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— update of the normative references;
— removal of footnotes listing instruments in Clauses 4 and 5;
— addition of a general statement of the precision.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 9932:2021(E)
Introduction

The rate of water vapour penetration through a barrier is an important property in many applications,

for example, in building and in packaging. ISO 2528 describes a dish method for the determination of

the transmission rate and this method has wide acceptance. It does, however, have three disadvantages.

Results take several days to obtain, it is not suitable for transmission rates less than 1 g/(m ·d) and it is

not recommended for materials thicker than 3 mm.

The methods described in this document can, depending on the material being tested, produce results

in a matter of hours and are suitable for materials with transmission rates considerably less than 1 g/

(m ·d). Depending on the specific apparatus, they are also suitable for materials up to 38 mm thick.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 9932:2021(E)
Paper and board — Determination of water vapour
transmission rate of sheet materials — Dynamic sweep and
static gas methods
1 Scope

This document describes general test methods for determining the water vapour transmission rate of

sheet materials by means of a dynamic gas method or a static gas method. Depending on the method

and specific apparatus employed, materials up to 38 mm thick and with water vapour transmission

2 2

rates in the range from 0,05 g/(m ·d) to 65 g/(m ·d) can be tested. The basis of the function of the

instrumental techniques is briefly described. Advice on calibration is given in Annex B.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186:2002, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 2528:2017, Sheet materials — Determination of water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) —

Gravimetric (dish) method
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
water vapour transmission rate

mass of water vapour transmitted through unit area in unit time under specified conditions of

temperature and humidity. It is expressed in grams per square metre per 24 h [g/(m ·d)]

3.2
dry side
side of the test cell which is exposed to low humidity
3.3
wet side
side of the test cell which is exposed to high humidity
4 Method A: Dynamic sweep gas method
4.1 Principle

The test piece is mounted between two chambers. One at a known relative humidity and the other

swept by a dry gas. The amount of water vapour picked up by the dry gas stream is detected by an

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 9932:2021(E)

electrical sensor and converted to a reading which directly, or after calculation, is a measure of the rate

of water vapour transmission through the test piece.
4.2 Apparatus

4.2.1 Test cell, designed to clamp a test piece having a defined area, between two chambers, one swept

by a dry gas (the dry side) and the other containing an atmosphere of high relative humidity (the wet

side) (see Figure 1).
Key
1 flowmeter 8 by-pass
2 desiccant column or electrolytic cell 9 recorder or display
3 test piece 10 sensor (infra-red, electrolytic cell or electrical
4 dry side resistance element)
5 test cell A gas recirculation in some systems
6 enclosure maintained at required temperature B dry gas in
7 water or saline solution
Figure 1 — Schematic diagram of dynamic system

4.2.2 Clamping arrangements, to allow rapid insertion and removal of the test piece, equipped with

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 9932
ISO/TC 6/SC 2
Paper and board — Determination
Secretariat: SIS
of water vapour transmission rate of
Voting begins on:
2020­11­09 sheet materials — Dynamic sweep and
static gas methods
Voting terminates on:
2021­02-01
Papier et carton — Détermination du coefficient de transmission de
la vapeur d'eau des matériaux en feuille — Méthode dynamique par
balayage de gaz et méthode statique
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 9932:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 9932:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 9932:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Method A: Dynamic sweep gas method ......................................................................................................................................... 1

4.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Method B: Static gas method .................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.1 Method A ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

8.2 Method B ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.3 Barrier material having one face of uncoated paper .............................................................................................. 4

8.4 Creased material .................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

9 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

10 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10.1 General statement of the precision ....................................................................................................................................... 4

10.2 Method A ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

10.3 Method B ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (normative) Saturated saline solutions ..................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex B (normative) Calibration ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

Annex C (informative) Comparison of dynamic method with gravimetric method .............................................9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 9932:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6/SC 2, Test methods and quality

specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 9932:1990), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— changes to the table of contents;
— updating the normative references;
— removal of footnotes listing instruments in Clauses 4 and 5;
— added general statement of the precision.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 9932:2020(E)
Introduction

The rate of water vapour penetration through a barrier is an important property in many applications,

for example, in building and in packaging. ISO 2528 describes a dish method for the determination of

the transmission rate and this method has wide acceptance. It does, however, have three disadvantages.

Results take several days to obtain, it is not suitable for transmission rates less than 1 g/(m ·d). and it is

not recommended for materials thicker than 3 mm.

The methods described in this document can, depending on the material being tested, produce results

in a matter of hours and are suitable for materials with transmission rates considerably less than 1 g/

(m ·d). Depending on the specific apparatus, they are also suitable for materials up to 38 mm thick.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 9932:2020(E)
Paper and board — Determination of water vapour
transmission rate of sheet materials — Dynamic sweep and
static gas methods
1 Scope

This document describes general test methods for determining the water vapour transmission rate of

sheet materials by means of a dynamic gas method or a static gas method. Depending on the method and

specific apparatus employed, materials up to 38 mm thick and with water vapour transmission rates

2 2

in the range 0,05 g/(m ·d) to 65 g/(m ·d) can be tested. The basis of the function of the instrumental

techniques is briefly described. Advice on calibration is given in Annex B.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186:2002, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 2528:2017, Sheet materials — Determination of water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) —

Gravimetric (dish) method
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
water vapour transmission rate

mass of water vapour transmitted through unit area in unit time under specified conditions of

temperature and humidity. It is expressed in grams per square metre per 24 h [g/(m ·d)]

3.2
dry side
side of the lest cell which is exposed lo low humidity
3.3
wet side
side of the test cell which is exposed to high humidity
4 Method A: Dynamic sweep gas method
4.1 Principle

The test piece is mounted between two chambers. one at a known relative humidity and the other swept

by a dry gas. The amount of water vapour picked up by the dry gas stream is detected by an electrical

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 9932:2020(E)

sensor and converted to a reading which directly, or after calculation, is a measure of the rate of water

vapour transmission through the test piece.
4.2 Apparatus

4.2.1 Test cell, designed to clamp a test piece having a defined area, between two chambers. one swept

by a dry gas (the dry side) and the other containing an atmosphere of high relative humidity (the wet

side) (see Figure 1).

4.2.2 Clamping arrangements, to allow rapid insertion and removal of the test piece, equipped with

suitable gaskets against which the test piece is sealed by the clamping force.
4.2.
...

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