Paper and board -- Determination of resistance to bending

This document specifies procedures to measure the bending resistance of paper and paperboard using a Taber-type tester. This document is used to determine the bending moment required to deflect the free end of a 38 mm wide vertically clamped specimen by 15° when the load is applied at a bending length of 50 mm. For boards that tend to be permanently deformed if bent through 15°, the half bending angle, i.e. 7,5°, can be used. The bending resistance is expressed in terms of the bending moment and parameters set by the manufacturer of the Taber-type tester. The method is primarily used for papers with a high grammage. NOTE This document does not cover the low-range version of the Taber-type instrument that uses a bending length of 10 mm (see Reference [5]).

Papier et carton -- Détermination de la résistance à la flexion

Le présent document spécifie des modes opératoires de mesure de la résistance ŕ la flexion des papiers et des cartons au moyen d'un rigidimčtre Taber. Le présent document est utilisé pour déterminer le moment de flexion nécessaire pour fléchir d'un angle de 15° l'extrémité libre d'une éprouvette de 38 mm de large, fixée verticalement, lorsque la charge est appliquée ŕ une longueur de flexion de 50 mm. Pour les cartons qui ont tendance ŕ se déformer de façon permanente s'ils sont pliés ŕ 15°, la moitié de l'angle de flexion peut ętre utilisée, c'est-ŕ-dire 7,5°. La résistance ŕ la flexion est exprimée en termes de moment de flexion et de paramčtres fixés par le fabricant du rigidimčtre Taber. La méthode est principalement utilisée pour des papiers de grammage élevé. NOTE Le présent document ne couvre pas la version échelle basse de l'instrument Taber qui utilise une longueur de flexion de 10 mm (voir référence[5]).

Papir, karton in lepenka - Ugotavljanje upogibne odpornosti

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Feb-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
11-Jan-2020
Completion Date
17-Feb-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020
01-julij-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST ISO 2493-2:2013
Papir, karton in lepenka - Ugotavljanje upogibne odpornosti
Paper and board -- Determination of resistance to bending
Papier et carton -- Détermination de la résistance à la flexion
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 2493-2:2020
ICS:
85.060 Papir, karton in lepenka Paper and board
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2493-2
Second edition
2020-02
Paper and board — Determination of
resistance to bending —
Part 2:
Taber-type tester
Papier et carton — Détermination de la résistance à la flexion —
Partie 2: Rigidimètre Taber
Reference number
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

9 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

11.1 Bending moment ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

11.2 Bending resistance index ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee

SC 2, Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 2493-2:2011), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— additional data to be reported in Clause 12;
— several editorial updates.
A list of all parts in the ISO 2493 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Paper and board — Determination of resistance to
bending —
Part 2:
Taber-type tester
1 Scope

This document specifies procedures to measure the bending resistance of paper and paperboard using

a Taber-type tester.

This document is used to determine the bending moment required to deflect the free end of a 38 mm

wide vertically clamped specimen by 15° when the load is applied at a bending length of 50 mm. For

boards that tend to be permanently deformed if bent through 15°, the half bending angle, i.e. 7,5°, can be

used. The bending resistance is expressed in terms of the bending moment and parameters set by the

manufacturer of the Taber-type tester.
The method is primarily used for papers with a high grammage.

NOTE This document does not cover the low-range version of the Taber-type instrument that uses a bending

length of 10 mm (see Reference [5]).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bending moment

torque required to bend a rectangular test piece clamped at one end, measured under the conditions

specified in this document
Note 1 to entry: Bending moment is expressed in millinewton metres (mN·m).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 2493-2:2020
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
3.2
bending resistance

mean bending moment (3.1) required to bend a rectangular test piece fastened at one end in a clamp, the

bending moment being measured under the conditions specified in this document
Note 1 to entry: Bending resistance is expressed in millinewton metres (mN·m).
3.3
bending angle

angle through which the clamp rotates while moving from its initial position to the position at which

the bending resistance (3.2) is measured
Note 1 to entry: The bending angle is 15° or 7,5° (see Clause 10).
3.4
bending length

constant radial distance between the clamp and the position on the test piece at which the force is applied

3.5
bending resistance index
bending resistance (3.2) divided by the grammage to the third power
4 Principle

A test piece of defined dimensions is bent through a specified bending angle (3.3) using a specific type

of testing instrument. The resulting bending moment is read from the instrument scale.

For details regarding the test method precision, see Annex A.
5 Apparatus

5.1 Bending resistance tester (see Figure 1), consisting of the following components.

5.1.1 Pendulum, P, rotating around a centre-point, CP, on low-friction bearings, carrying a clamp,

C, that has two screws for holding and centring the test piece, TP. At the high end, a centre-line, L, is

engraved. At the lower end of the pendulum on its centre-line is a stud, S1, to which weights may be

attached and that loads the pendulum at a distance of 100,0 mm ± 0,1 mm from the centre-point. Without

added weights, the loading is 10,000 g ± 0,001 g.

5.1.2 Vertical disc, VD, rotating around the centre-point, CP, and driven by a motor, carries two driving

arm attachments, DAA, so located as to provide the test piece, TP, with a cantilevered loading length via

two driving arms, DA. The bending length (3.4) is 50,0 mm ± 0,1 mm. The driving arms are adjustable

by means of screws which enables testing of test pieces of different thicknesses. The ends of the driving

arms have rollers as means of transmitting the force to the test piece. It is possible to adjust the length of

the arms so that the distance between the test piece and each roller is 0,33 mm ± 0,03 mm.

On the edge of the upper part of the disc, a centre-line mark is engraved. Two reference lines are

engraved on the periphery of the vertical disc, VD, at an angular distance of 7,5° and 15° on both sides

of the centre-line mark.

A driving mechanism drives the vertical disc, VD, at a nominal constant rate which is allowed to vary

between 170° and 210° per minute.

5.1.3 Fixed annular disc, FAD, located around the periphery of the vertical disc, VD. The fixed annular

disc has a scale from 0 to 100 on both sides of a centre-line mark, zero. The scale shows the bending

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
--------------------
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020
01-junij-2020
Papir, karton in lepenka - Ugotavljanje upogibne odpornosti
Paper and board -- Determination of resistance to bending
Papier et carton -- Détermination de la résistance à la flexion
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 2493-2:2020
ICS:
85.060 Papir, karton in lepenka Paper and board
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2493-2
Second edition
2020-02
Paper and board — Determination of
resistance to bending —
Part 2:
Taber-type tester
Papier et carton — Détermination de la résistance à la flexion —
Partie 2: Rigidimètre Taber
Reference number
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

9 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

11.1 Bending moment ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

11.2 Bending resistance index ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee

SC 2, Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 2493-2:2011), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— additional data to be reported in Clause 12;
— several editorial updates.
A list of all parts in the ISO 2493 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Paper and board — Determination of resistance to
bending —
Part 2:
Taber-type tester
1 Scope

This document specifies procedures to measure the bending resistance of paper and paperboard using

a Taber-type tester.

This document is used to determine the bending moment required to deflect the free end of a 38 mm

wide vertically clamped specimen by 15° when the load is applied at a bending length of 50 mm. For

boards that tend to be permanently deformed if bent through 15°, the half bending angle, i.e. 7,5°, can be

used. The bending resistance is expressed in terms of the bending moment and parameters set by the

manufacturer of the Taber-type tester.
The method is primarily used for papers with a high grammage.

NOTE This document does not cover the low-range version of the Taber-type instrument that uses a bending

length of 10 mm (see Reference [5]).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bending moment

torque required to bend a rectangular test piece clamped at one end, measured under the conditions

specified in this document
Note 1 to entry: Bending moment is expressed in millinewton metres (mN·m).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST ISO 2493-2:2020
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
3.2
bending resistance

mean bending moment (3.1) required to bend a rectangular test piece fastened at one end in a clamp, the

bending moment being measured under the conditions specified in this document
Note 1 to entry: Bending resistance is expressed in millinewton metres (mN·m).
3.3
bending angle

angle through which the clamp rotates while moving from its initial position to the position at which

the bending resistance (3.2) is measured
Note 1 to entry: The bending angle is 15° or 7,5° (see Clause 10).
3.4
bending length

constant radial distance between the clamp and the position on the test piece at which the force is applied

3.5
bending resistance index
bending resistance (3.2) divided by the grammage to the third power
4 Principle

A test piece of defined dimensions is bent through a specified bending angle (3.3) using a specific type

of testing instrument. The resulting bending moment is read from the instrument scale.

For details regarding the test method precision, see Annex A.
5 Apparatus

5.1 Bending resistance tester (see Figure 1), consisting of the following components.

5.1.1 Pendulum, P, rotating around a centre-point, CP, on low-friction bearings, carrying a clamp,

C, that has two screws for holding and centring the test piece, TP. At the high end, a centre-line, L, is

engraved. At the lower end of the pendulum on its centre-line is a stud, S1, to which weights may be

attached and that loads the pendulum at a distance of 100,0 mm ± 0,1 mm from the centre-point. Without

added weights, the loading is 10,000 g ± 0,001 g.

5.1.2 Vertical disc, VD, rotating around the centre-point, CP, and driven by a motor, carries two driving

arm attachments, DAA, so located as to provide the test piece, TP, with a cantilevered loading length via

two driving arms, DA. The bending length (3.4) is 50,0 mm ± 0,1 mm. The driving arms are adjustable

by means of screws which enables testing of test pieces of different thicknesses. The ends of the driving

arms have rollers as means of transmitting the force to the test piece. It is possible to adjust the length of

the arms so that the distance between the test piece and each roller is 0,33 mm ± 0,03 mm.

On the edge of the upper part of the disc, a centre-line mark is engraved. Two reference lines are

engraved on the periphery of the vertical disc, VD, at an angular distance of 7,5° and 15° on both sides

of the centre-line mark.

A driving mechanism drives the vertical disc, VD, at a nominal constant rate which is allowed to vary

between 170° and 210° per minute.

5.1.3 Fixed annular disc, FAD, located around the periphery of the vertical disc, VD. The fixed annular

disc has a scale from 0 to 100 on both sides of a centre-line mark, zero. The scale shows the bending

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 --
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 2493-2
Second edition
2020-02
Paper and board — Determination of
resistance to bending —
Part 2:
Taber-type tester
Papier et carton — Détermination de la résistance à la flexion —
Partie 2: Rigidimètre Taber
Reference number
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8 Conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

9 Preparation of test pieces ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

10 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

11.1 Bending moment ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

11.2 Bending resistance index ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Precision ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee

SC 2, Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 2493-2:2011), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— additional data to be reported in Clause 12;
— several editorial updates.
A list of all parts in the ISO 2493 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
Paper and board — Determination of resistance to
bending —
Part 2:
Taber-type tester
1 Scope

This document specifies procedures to measure the bending resistance of paper and paperboard using

a Taber-type tester.

This document is used to determine the bending moment required to deflect the free end of a 38 mm

wide vertically clamped specimen by 15° when the load is applied at a bending length of 50 mm. For

boards that tend to be permanently deformed if bent through 15°, the half bending angle, i.e. 7,5°, can be

used. The bending resistance is expressed in terms of the bending moment and parameters set by the

manufacturer of the Taber-type tester.
The method is primarily used for papers with a high grammage.

NOTE This document does not cover the low-range version of the Taber-type instrument that uses a bending

length of 10 mm (see Reference [5]).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 186, Paper and board — Sampling to determine average quality

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bending moment

torque required to bend a rectangular test piece clamped at one end, measured under the conditions

specified in this document
Note 1 to entry: Bending moment is expressed in millinewton metres (mN·m).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 2493-2:2020(E)
3.2
bending resistance

mean bending moment (3.1) required to bend a rectangular test piece fastened at one end in a clamp, the

bending moment being measured under the conditions specified in this document
Note 1 to entry: Bending resistance is expressed in millinewton metres (mN·m).
3.3
bending angle

angle through which the clamp rotates while moving from its initial position to the position at which

the bending resistance (3.2) is measured
Note 1 to entry: The bending angle is 15° or 7,5° (see Clause 10).
3.4
bending length

constant radial distance between the clamp and the position on the test piece at which the force is applied

3.5
bending resistance index
bending resistance (3.2) divided by the grammage to the third power
4 Principle

A test piece of defined dimensions is bent through a specified bending angle (3.3) using a specific type

of testing instrument. The resulting bending moment is read from the instrument scale.

For details regarding the test method precision, see Annex A.
5 Apparatus

5.1 Bending resistance tester (see Figure 1), consisting of the following components.

5.1.1 Pendulum, P, rotating around a centre-point, CP, on low-friction bearings, carrying a clamp,

C, that has two screws for holding and centring the test piece, TP. At the high end, a centre-line, L, is

engraved. At the lower end of the pendulum on its centre-line is a stud, S1, to which weights may be

attached and that loads the pendulum at a distance of 100,0 mm ± 0,1 mm from the centre-point. Without

added weights, the loading is 10,000 g ± 0,001 g.

5.1.2 Vertical disc, VD, rotating around the centre-point, CP, and driven by a motor, carries two driving

arm attachments, DAA, so located as to provide the test piece, TP, with a cantilevered loading length via

two driving arms, DA. The bending length (3.4) is 50,0 mm ± 0,1 mm. The driving arms are adjustable

by means of screws which enables testing of test pieces of different thicknesses. The ends of the driving

arms have rollers as means of transmitting the force to the test piece. It is possible to adjust the length of

the arms so that the distance between the test piece and each roller is 0,33 mm ± 0,03 mm.

On the edge of the upper part of the disc, a centre-line mark is engraved. Two reference lines are

engraved on the periphery of the vertical disc, VD, at an angular distance of 7,5° and 15° on both sides

of the centre-line mark.

A driving mechanism drives the vertical disc, VD, at a nominal constant rate which is allowed to vary

between 170° and 210° per minute.

5.1.3 Fixed annular disc, FAD, located around the periphery of the vertical disc, VD. The fixed annular

disc has a scale from 0 to 100 on both sides of a centre-line mark, zero. The scale shows the bending

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 2493-2:2020(E)

moment required to bend the test piece to the right or to the left (for clarity, only the scale marks 0, 20

and 40 are shown in Figure 1).

5.1.4 Stand, to support the pendulum, P, the vertical disc, VD, and the fixed annular disc, FAD, equipped

...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 2493-2
Deuxième édition
2020-02
Papier et carton — Détermination de
la résistance à la flexion —
Partie 2:
Rigidimètre Taber
Paper and board — Determination of resistance to bending —
Part 2: Taber-type tester
Numéro de référence
ISO 2493-2:2020(F)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 2493-2:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 2493-2:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principe .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Appareillage .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Étalonnage .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Échantillonnage ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Conditionnement ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

9 Préparation des éprouvettes ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

10 Mode opératoire.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

11 Calculs .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

11.1 Moment de flexion ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

11.2 Indice de résistance à la flexion ................................................................................................................................................ 6

12 Rapport d’essai ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annexe A (informative) Fidélité................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 2493-2:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L’attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion

de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/ iso/ fr/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 6, Papiers, cartons et pâtes, sous-

comité SC 2, Méthodes d’essais et spécifications de qualité des papiers et cartons.

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 2493-2:2011), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision technique. Les principales modifications par rapport à l’édition précédente sont les suivantes:

— ajout, à l’Article 12, d’informations à consigner dans le rapport;
— mises à jour rédactionnelles diverses.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 2493 se trouve sur le site web de l’ISO.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 2493-2:2020(F)
Papier et carton — Détermination de la résistance à la
flexion —
Partie 2:
Rigidimètre Taber
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document spécifie des modes opératoires de mesure de la résistance à la flexion des papiers

et des cartons au moyen d’un rigidimètre Taber.

Le présent document est utilisé pour déterminer le moment de flexion nécessaire pour fléchir d’un

angle de 15° l’extrémité libre d’une éprouvette de 38 mm de large, fixée verticalement, lorsque la charge

est appliquée à une longueur de flexion de 50 mm. Pour les cartons qui ont tendance à se déformer de

façon permanente s’ils sont pliés à 15°, la moitié de l’angle de flexion peut être utilisée, c’est-à-dire 7,5°.

La résistance à la flexion est exprimée en termes de moment de flexion et de paramètres fixés par le

fabricant du rigidimètre Taber.
La méthode est principalement utilisée pour des papiers de grammage élevé.

NOTE Le présent document ne couvre pas la version échelle basse de l’instrument Taber qui utilise une

[5]
longueur de flexion de 10 mm (voir référence ).
2 Références normatives

Les documents suivants cités dans le texte constituent, pour tout ou partie de leur contenu, des

exigences du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).
ISO 186, Papier et carton — Échantillonnage pour déterminer la qualité moyenne

ISO 187, Papier, carton et pâtes — Atmosphère normale de conditionnement et d’essai et méthode de

surveillance de l’atmosphère et de conditionnement des échantillons
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
moment de flexion

couple requis pour fléchir une éprouvette rectangulaire fixée à l’une de ses extrémités, mesuré dans les

conditions spécifiées dans le présent document

Note 1 à l'article: Le moment de flexion est exprimé en millinewtons mètres (mN·m).

© ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 2493-2:2020(F)
3.2
résistance à la flexion

moment de flexion (3.1) moyen requis pour fléchir une éprouvette rectangulaire fixée à l’une de ses

extrémités dans une mâchoire, le moment de flexion étant mesuré dans les conditions spécifiées dans

le présent document

Note 1 à l'article: La résistance à la flexion est exprimée en millinewtons mètres (mN·m).

3.3
angle de flexion

angle selon lequel la mâchoire tourne en se déplaçant de sa position initiale jusqu’à la position à laquelle

la résistance à la flexion (3.2) est mesurée
Note 1 à l'article: L’angle de flexion est 15° ou 7,5° (voir Article 10).
3.4
longueur de flexion

distance radiale constante entre la mâchoire et le point d’application de la force sur l’éprouvette

3.5
indice de résistance à la flexion
résistance à la flexion (3.2) divisée par le grammage à la puissance trois
4 Principe

Une éprouvette de dimensions définies est fléchie d’un angle de flexion (3.3) spécifié en utilisant un

type spécifique d’appareil d’essai. Le moment de flexion obtenu est lu sur l’échelle graduée de l’appareil.

Pour des informations détaillées concernant la fidélité de la méthode d’essai, voir l’Annexe A.

5 Appareillage

5.1 Appareil d’essai de résistance à la flexion (voir Figure 1), constitué des éléments suivants.

5.1.1 Pendule, P, tournant autour d’un point central, CP, sur des paliers à faible frottement, portant

une mâchoire, C, munie de deux vis pour maintenir et centrer l’éprouvette, TP. Au niveau de l’extrémité

supérieure, un axe, L, est gravé. Au niveau de l’extrémité inférieure du pendule, sur son axe, se trouve un

goujon, S1, permettant de fixer des masses et de charger le pendule à une distance de 100,0 mm ± 0,1 mm

du point central. En l’absence de masses additionnelles, la charge est de 10,000 g ± 0,001 g.

5.1.2 Disque vertical, VD, tournant autour du point central, CP, entraîné par un moteur, portant deux

fixations de bras de commande, DAA, positionnées de manière à conférer à l’éprouvette, TP, une longueur

de charge en porte-à-faux au moyen de deux bras de commande, DA. La longueur de flexion (3.4) est de

50,0 mm ± 0,1 mm. Les bras de commande sont réglables au moyen de vis afin de pouvoir soumettre à

essai des éprouvettes de différentes épaisseurs. Les extrémités des bras de commande sont munies de

galets pour transmettre la force à l’éprouvette. Il est possible de régler la longueur des bras de manière

que la distance entre l’éprouvette et chaque galet soit de 0,33 mm ± 0,03 mm.

Sur le bord de la partie supérieure du disque, une ligne médiane est gravée. Deux lignes de référence

sont gravées sur la périphérie du disque vertical, VD, à une distance angulaire de 7,5° et de 15° de

chaque côté du repère médian.

Un mécanisme d’entraînement entraîne le disque vertical, VD, à une vitesse nominale constante qui

peut varier de 170° à 210° par minute.
2 © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 2493-2:2020(F)

5.1.3 Disque annulaire fixe, FAD, situé à la périphérie du disque vertical, VD. Le disque annulaire fixe

est gradué de 0 à 100 de chaque côté d’un repère médian zéro. L’échelle graduée indique le moment de

flexion requis pour fléchir l’éprouvette vers la droite ou vers la gauche (pour plus de clarté, seules les

graduations 0, 20 et 40 sont représentées à la Figure 1).

5.1.4 Socle, pour supporter le pendule, P, le disque vertical, VD, et le disque annulaire fixe, FAD, équipé

d’un moyen permettant une mise à niveau de l’appareil.

5.1.5 Différentes masses de chargement, en unités de rigidité définies par le fabricant, devant être

montées sur le goujon, S1, pour obte
...

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