Industrial automation systems and integration — Physical device control — Data model for computerized numerical controllers — Part 10: General process data

ISO 14649-10:2004 specifies the process data which is generally needed for NC-machining and therefore common to several machining technologies. These data elements describe the interface between the programming system (i.e. CAM system or shop-floor programming system) and a computerized numerical controller. The programme for the numerical controller includes geometric and technological information. It can be described using ISO 14649-10:2004 together with the technology-specific parts (ISO 14649-11, ISO 14649-12, etc.). ISO 14649-10:2004 provides the control structures for the sequence of programme execution, mainly the sequence of working steps and associated machine functions. The "machining_schema" defined in ISO 14649-10:2004 contains the definition of data types which are generally relevant for different technologies (e.g. milling, turning, grinding). It includes: the general executables, including workplan, workingsteps and NC-functions; the definition of the workpiece; a feature catalogue containing features which might be referenced by several technologies; the basis for an operation definition. Not included in this schema are the following: geometric items; representations, which are referenced from ISO 10303's generic resources; the technology-specific definitions, which are defined in separate parts of ISO 14649. ISO 14649-10:2004 cannot stand alone. An implementation needs in addition at least one technology-specific part (e.g. ISO 14649-11 for milling, ISO 14649-12 for turning). Additionally, the schema uses machining features similar to ISO 10303-224 and ISO 10303-214. The description of process data is done using the EXPRESS language as defined in ISO 10303-11. The encoding of the data is done using ISO 10303-21.

Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Commande des dispositifs physiques — Modèle de données pour les contrôleurs numériques informatisés — Partie 10: Données des procédés généraux

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Dec-2004
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Completion Date
07-Jan-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14649-10
Second edition
2004-12-15
Industrial automation systems and
integration — Physical device control —
Data model for computerized numerical
controllers —
Part 10:
General process data
Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Commande
des dispositifs physiques — Modèle de données pour les contrôleurs
numériques informatisés —
Partie 10: Données des procédés généraux
Reference number
ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

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shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

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accepts no liability in this area.
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© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword .............................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction........................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

4 General Process data............................................................................................................................3

4.1 Header and references..........................................................................................................................3

4.2 General types and definitions ..............................................................................................................4

4.2.1 Measure units ........................................................................................................................................4

4.2.2 Other general types...............................................................................................................................6

4.3 Where to start: Project..........................................................................................................................6

4.3.1 Person and address ..............................................................................................................................7

4.4 What to machine: Workpiece and manufacturing feature.................................................................7

4.4.1 Workpiece ..............................................................................................................................................7

4.4.2 Manufacturing feature...........................................................................................................................9

4.5 Catalogue of manufacturing features................................................................................................10

4.5.1 Region ..................................................................................................................................................10

4.5.2 Two5D manufacturing feature............................................................................................................12

4.5.3 Machining feature................................................................................................................................12

4.5.4 Planar face ...........................................................................................................................................13

4.5.5 Pocket...................................................................................................................................................14

4.5.6 Slot........................................................................................................................................................17

4.5.7 Step.......................................................................................................................................................21

4.5.8 Profile feature ......................................................................................................................................22

4.5.9 Round hole...........................................................................................................................................27

4.5.10 Toolpath feature ..................................................................................................................................31

4.5.11 Boss......................................................................................................................................................31

4.5.12 Spherical cap .......................................................................................................................................32

4.5.13 Rounded end........................................................................................................................................33

4.5.14 Compound feature...............................................................................................................................33

4.5.15 Replicate feature..................................................................................................................................35

4.5.16 Transition feature ................................................................................................................................40

4.5.17 Thread...................................................................................................................................................42

4.5.18 Profile ...................................................................................................................................................45

4.5.19 Travel path ...........................................................................................................................................52

4.5.20 Surface texture parameter..................................................................................................................53

4.6 To make things happen: Executables...............................................................................................54

4.6.1 Executable............................................................................................................................................54

4.6.2 Workingstep.........................................................................................................................................55

4.6.3 NC function ..........................................................................................................................................61

4.6.4 Program structure ...............................................................................................................................62

4.7 How to machine: Operations..............................................................................................................71

4.7.1 Operation..............................................................................................................................................72

4.7.2 Machining operation ...........................................................................................................................73

4.8 To be in full control: Explicit toolpath definition .............................................................................76

4.8.1 Toolpath ...............................................................................................................................................76

4.8.2 Feedstop...............................................................................................................................................79

4.8.3 Trajectory .............................................................................................................................................79

4.8.4 Cutter location trajectory....................................................................................................................79

4.8.5 Cutter contact trajectory.....................................................................................................................80

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14649-10:2004(E)

4.8.6 Axis trajectory..................................................................................................................................... 81

4.8.7 Parameterised path ............................................................................................................................ 82

4.8.8 Connector............................................................................................................................................ 82

4.8.9 Approach and lift path........................................................................................................................ 83

4.9 Rules .................................................................................................................................................... 85

4.9.1 dependent_instantiable_representation_item................................................................................. 85

4.9.2 dependent_instantiable_shape_representation.............................................................................. 85

4.9.3 geometric_representation_item_3d.................................................................................................. 86

4.10 End of schema .................................................................................................................................... 86

5 Conformance requirements............................................................................................................... 86

5.1 Conformance class 1 entities............................................................................................................ 87

5.2 Conformance class 2 entities............................................................................................................ 87

5.3 Conformance class 3 entities............................................................................................................ 89

5.4 Conformance class 4 entities............................................................................................................ 91

5.5 Conformance class 5 entities............................................................................................................ 93

5.6 Conformance class 6 entities............................................................................................................ 96

Annex A (normative) EXPRESS expanded listing ........................................................................................ 99

Annex B (normative) Short names of entities ............................................................................................. 125

Annex C (normative) Implementation method specific requirements...................................................... 133

Annex D (informative) EXPRESS-G figures ................................................................................................. 134

Annex E (informative) Computer-interpretable listings.............................................................................. 150

Index................................................................................................................................................................ 151

iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 14649-10 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Industrial automation systems and

integration, Subcommittee SC 1, Physical device control.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14649-10:2003), of which it constitutes a minor

revision.

ISO 14649 consists of the following parts, under the general title Industrial automation systems and

integration — Physical device control — Data model for computerized numerical controllers:

 Part 1: Overview and fundamental principles
 Part 10: General process data
 Part 11: Process data for milling
 Part 12: Process data for turning
 Part 111: Tools for milling machines
 Part 121: Tools for turning

Gaps in the numbering of parts were left to allow further additions. The future Parts 2 and 3 will be for

language bindings according to ISO 10303 methods. Part 10 is the ISO 10303 Application Reference Model

(ARM) for process-independent data. ISO 10303 ARMs for specific technologies are added after Part 10. The

future Part 50 will be the ISO 10303 Application Interpreted Model (AIM) for process-independent data.

ISO 10303 AIMs for specific technologies are added after Part 50.

ISO 14649 is harmonised with ISO 10303 in the common field of Product Data over the whole life cycle.

Figure 1 of ISO 14649-1 shows the different fields of standardisation between ISO 14649, ISO 10303 and CNC

manufacturers with respect to implementation and software development.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
Introduction

Modern manufacturing enterprises are built from facilities spread around the globe, which contain equipment

from hundreds of different manufacturers. Immense volumes of product information must be transferred

between the various facilities and machines. Today’s digital communications standards have solved the

problem of reliably transferring information across global networks. For mechanical parts, the description of

product data has been standardised by ISO 10303. This leads to the possibility of using standard data

throughout the entire process chain in the manufacturing enterprise. Impediments to realising this principle are

the data formats used at the machine level. Most computer numerical control (CNC) machines are

programmed in the ISO 6983 “G and M code” language. Programs are typically generated by computer-aided

manufacturing (CAM) systems that use computer-aided design (CAD) information. However, ISO 6983 limits

program portability for three reasons. First, the language focuses on programming the tool center path with

respect to machine axes, rather than the machining process with respect to the part. Second, the standard

defines the syntax of program statements, but in most cases leaves the semantics ambiguous. Third, vendors

usually supplement the language with extensions that are not covered in the limited scope of ISO 6983.

ISO 14649 is a new model of data transfer between CAD/CAM systems and CNC machines, which replaces

ISO 6983. It remedies the shortcomings of ISO 6983 by specifying machining processes rather than machine

tool motion, using the object-oriented concept of Workingsteps. Workingsteps correspond to high-level

machining features and associated process parameters. CNCs are responsible for translating Workingsteps to

axis motion and tool operation. A major benefit of ISO 14649 is its use of existing data models from ISO

10303. As ISO 14649 provides a comprehensive model of the manufacturing process, it can also be used as

the basis for a bi- and multi-directional data exchange between all other information technology systems.

ISO 14649 represents an object oriented, information and context preserving approach for NC-programming,

that supersedes data reduction to simple switching instructions or linear and circular movements. As it is

object- and feature oriented and describes the machining operations executed on the workpiece, and not

machine dependent axis motions, it will be running on different machine tools or controllers. This compatibility

will spare all data adaptations by postprocessors, if the new data model is correctly implemented on the NC-

controllers. If old NC programs in ISO 6983 are to be used on such controllers, the corresponding interpreters

shall be able to process the different NC program types in parallel.

ISO TC184/SC1/WG7 envisions a gradual evolution from ISO 6983 programming to portable feature-based

programming. Early adopters of ISO 14649 will certainly support data input of legacy “G and M codes”

manually or through programs, just as modern controllers support both command-line interfaces and graphical

user interfaces. This will likely be made easier as open-architecture controllers become more prevalent.

Therefore, ISO 14649 does not include legacy program statements, which would otherwise dilute the

effectiveness of the standard.
vi © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
Industrial automation systems and integration — Physical
device control — Data model for computerized numerical
controllers —
Part 10:
General process data
1 Scope

This part of ISO 14649 specifies the process data which is generally needed for NC-programming within all

machining technologies. These data elements describe the interface between a computerised numerical

controller and the programming system (i.e. CAM system or shop-floor programming system). On the

programming system, the programme for the numerical controller is created. This programme includes

geometric and technological information. It can be described using this part of ISO 14649 together with the

technology-specific parts (ISO 14649-11, etc.). This part of ISO 14649 provides the control structures for the

sequence of programme execution, mainly the sequence of working steps and associated machine functions.

The “machining_schema” defined in this part of ISO 14649 contains the definition of data types which are

generally relevant for different technologies (e.g. milling, turning, grinding). The features for non-milling

technologies like turning, EDM, etc. will be introduced when the technology specific parts like ISO 14649-12

for turning, ISO 14649-13 for EDM, and ISO 14649-14 for contour cutting of wood and glass are published. It

includes the definition of the workpiece, a feature catalogue containing features which might be referenced by

several technologies, the general executables and the basis for an operation definition. Not included in this

schema are geometric items and representations, which are referenced from ISO 10303’s generic resources,

and the technology-specific definitions, which are defined in separate parts of ISO 14649.

This part of ISO 14649 cannot stand alone. An implementation needs in addition at least one technology-

specific part (e.g. ISO 14649-11 for milling, ISO 14649-12 for turning).

Additionally, the schema uses machining features similar to ISO 10303-224 and ISO 10303-214. The

description of process data is done using the EXPRESS language as defined in ISO 10303-11. The encoding

of the data is done using ISO 10303-21.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 286-1:1988, ISO system of limits and fits — Part 1: Bases of tolerances, deviations and fits

ISO 10303-11, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and exchange —

Part 11: Description methods: The EXPRESS language reference manual

ISO 10303-21, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and exchange —

Part 21: Implementation methods: Clear text encoding of the exchange structure

ISO 10303-41, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and exchange —

Part 41: Integrated generic resource: Fundamentals of product description and support

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 14649-10:2004(E)

ISO 10303-42, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and exchange —

Part 42: Integrated generic resource: Geometric and topological representation

ISO 10303-43, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and exchange —

Part 43: Integrated generic resource: Representation structures

ISO 10303-214, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and

exchange — Part 214: Application protocol: Core data for automotive mechanical design processes

ISO 10303-224:2001, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and

exchange — Part 224: Application protocol: Mechanical product definition for process planning using machining

features

ISO 10303-514:1999, Industrial automation systems and integration — Product data representation and

exchange — Part 514: Application interpreted construct: Advanced boundary representation

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1

Geometry in a xy-plane, where all the geometry’s points have only x and y coordinates.

3.2
2½D machining

Machining of a prismatic part. Typically, the workpiece is processed in several layers which are located

perpendicular to the tool axis. In the EXPRESS listing of ISO14649, the term "two5D" is used for entity and

attribute names.
3.3

Geometry in three-dimensional space, where all points have x, y, and z coordinates.

3.4
freeform machining

Machining of freeform surfaces. For this kind of machining, the tool has to move in at least three axes

simultaneously while processing the workpiece. Sometimes five-axes milling machines are used to reach an

optimised angle between the tool and the workpiece surface.
3.5
CAM
Computer Aided Manufacturing
3.6
CNC
Computer Numerical Control
3.7
EDM
Electrical Discharge Machining
3.8
EXPRESS
The language described in ISO10303-11
2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
3.9
EXPRESS-G
The graphic representation of the EXPRESS language as described in ISO10303-11
3.10
Feature

A geometric entity of a workpiece which has semantic significance. In the context of ISO 14649,

manufacturing features are used
3.11
International system of units
4 General Process data
4.1 Header and references

The following listing gives the header and the list of entities which are referenced within this schema.

SCHEMA machining_schema;
Version of April 30, 2004
Author: ISO TC184/SC1/WG7
REFERENCE FROM approval_schema (*ISO 10303-41e3*)
( approval,
approval_status);
REFERENCE FROM date_time_schema (*ISO 10303-41e3*)
( date_and_time,
date);
REFERENCE FROM person_organization_schema (*ISO10303-41e3*)
( person,
address);
REFERENCE FROM support_resource_schema (*ISO10303-41e3*)
( bag_to_set,
identifier,
label,
text);
REFERENCE FROM measure_schema (*ISO10303-41e3*)
( length_measure,
parameter_value,
plane_angle_measure,
positive_length_measure);
REFERENCE FROM product_property_representation_schema (*ISO10303-41e3*)
( shape_representation);
REFERENCE FROM representation_schema (*ISO10303-43e2*)
( definitional_representation);
REFERENCE FROM geometry_schema (*ISO10303-42e3*)
( trimming_select,
trimming_preference,
transition_code,
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
trimmed_curve,
composite_curve,
composite_curve_segment,
axis2_placement_3d,
bounded_curve,
bounded_surface,
cartesian_point,
circle,
conic,
curve,
direction,
elementary_surface,
plane,
polyline
);
REFERENCE FROM topology_schema (*ISO10303-42e3*)
( edge, edge_curve, edge_loop, face, loop);
REFERENCE FROM geometric_model_schema (*ISO10303-42e3*)
( block,
right_circular_cylinder
);
REFERENCE FROM aic_advanced_brep (*ISO10303-514*)
(advanced_brep_shape_representation
);
4.2 General types and definitions
4.2.1 Measure units

The types of units supported by ISO 14649 are SI units as well as derived or conversion based units as

defined in ISO 10303-41. If no units are given then, the following units are assumed:

length_measure millimetres [mm],
time_measure seconds [s],
plane_angle_measure degrees [°],
pressure_measure Pascal [pa],
speed_measure meters per second [m/sec],
rot_speed_measure revolutions per second [1/sec].
4.2.1.1 Toleranced length measure
Length measure with tolerance.
ENTITY toleranced_length_measure; (* m1 *)
theoretical_size: positive_length_measure;
implicit_tolerance: tolerance_select;
END_ENTITY;
4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
theoretical_size: The theoretical length.
implicit_tolerance: The type of tolerance to apply to theoretical_size.

Note that all geometric properties of the workpiece are specified using toleranced_length_measure. If the NC

controller has the ability to generate toolpaths or to make decisions about the tool used, it is the controller's

responsibility to meet these tolerance requirements. On the other hand, data provided to the NC controller for

explicit specification of movements will have no tolerances as the controller cannot do more than try to follow

the given theoretical values to the best of its abilities. The same is true for offsets and other data referring to

already toleranced dimensions.
4.2.1.1.1 Tolerance select
Select type offering different etities to describe tolerances for scalar values.
TYPE tolerance_select = SELECT(plus_minus_value, limits_and_fits);
END_TYPE;
4.2.1.1.2 Plus minus value

The plus_minus_value describes the upper and lower limits valid for a scalar dimension referencing this entity.

ENTITY plus_minus_value; (* m1 *)
upper_limit: positive_length_measure;
lower_limit: positive_length_measure;
significant_digits: INTEGER;
END_ENTITY;

upper_limit: The value of the tolerance that shall be added to the exact value to establish

the maximum allowed value.

lower_limit: the value of the tolerance that shall be subtracted from the exact value to

establish the minimum allowed value.

significant_digits: The number of decimal digits indicating the accuracy of the lower_bound

and upper_bound values.
4.2.1.1.3 Limits and fits

A limits_and_fits contains the necessary information to express a tolerance of the limits-and-fits system

standardised by ISO 286.
ENTITY limits_and_fits; (* m1 *)
deviation: length_measure;
grade: length_measure;
its_fitting_type: OPTIONAL fitting_type;
END_ENTITY;
deviation: The difference between a measured actual size and the correspon
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14649-10
Second edition
2004-12-15
Industrial automation systems and
integration — Physical device control —
Data model for computerized numerical
controllers —
Part 10:
General process data
Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Commande
des dispositifs physiques — Modèle de données pour les contrôleurs
numériques informatisés —
Partie 10: Données des procédés généraux
Reference number
ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 14649-10:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

This CD-ROM contains:

1) the publication ISO 14649-10:2004 in portable document format (PDF), which can be viewed using

Adobe® Acrobat® Reader;
2) VISIO files of the EXPRESS G diagrams for ISO 14649-10:2004.
Adobe and Acrobat are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incor
...

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