Intelligent transport systems — Partially automated parking systems (PAPS) — Performance requirements and test procedures

This document addresses light vehicles[1], e.g. passenger cars, pick-up trucks, light vans and sport utility vehicles (motorcycles excluded), equipped with partially automated parking systems (PAPS). This document establishes minimum functionality requirements that the driver can expect and the manufacturer needs to take into account. Possible system configuration includes the following two types: — Type 1: System supervised by the conventional driver located in the driver's seat; — Type 2: System supervised by the remote driver (present within or outside the vehicle) that is not necessarily located in the driver's seat. The vehicle remains in the line of sight of the remote driver. For both types, minimum requirements and conditions of safety, system performance and function including HMI information content and description of system operating states are addressed. The requirements include the driver who supervises the safety throughout the system manoeuvres. System test requirements are also addressed including test criteria, method, and conditions.

Systèmes intelligents de transport — Systèmes de stationnement partiellement automatisés — Exigences de performance et modes opératoires d'essai

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Publication Date
12-May-2019
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
28-Apr-2021
Completion Date
28-Apr-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 20900
First edition
2019-05
Intelligent transport systems —
Partially automated parking systems
(PAPS) — Performance requirements
and test procedures
Systèmes intelligents de transport — Systèmes de stationnement
partiellement automatisés — Exigences de performance et modes
opératoires d'essai
Reference number
ISO 20900:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 20900:2019(E)
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© ISO 2019

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20900:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Definition of PAPS types and requirements ............................................................................................................................. 2

4.1 PAPS types ......... .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Basic system functionality ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2.1 Type 1 — System supervised by a conventional driver located in the

driver’s seat .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.2 Type 2 — System supervised by a remote driver ................................................................................ 4

4.3 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.1 Maximum speed during operation ................................................................................................................... 5

4.3.2 PAPS termination conditions ................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.3 User’s manual ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Functional and performance requirements for PAPS .................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Supported parking types ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.1.1 Parallel parking space ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.2 Parallel parking slot ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.3 Perpendicular parking space ................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1.4 Perpendicular parking slot ..................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1.5 Garage parking space ................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 States of operation and user interface .............................................................................................................................11

5.2.1 Parking manoeuvre ....................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.2 Leaving manoeuvre for Type 2 .........................................................................................................................14

5.3 Information strategy .......................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.3.2 Information in “Search state” .............................................................................................................................16

5.3.3 Information during “Found state” until “Waiting for authorization state” .................16

5.3.4 Information in “Waiting for authorization state” .............................................................................16

5.3.5 Information during “Parking/Leaving manoeuvre state” .........................................................16

6 Performance test requirements ........................................................................................................................................................16

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Environmental conditions ..........................................................................................................................................................16

6.3 Test object ................................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.3.1 Bordering vehicle .........................................................................................................................................................17

6.3.2 Reference kerb ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.3.3 Slot lines ...............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.4 Test criteria .............................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.5 Performance test ................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.5.1 Parallel parking space ..............................................................................................................................................18

6.5.2 Parallel parking slots .................................................................................................................................................20

6.5.3 Perpendicular parking space .............................................................................................................................20

6.5.4 Perpendicular parking slot ..................................................................................................................................22

6.5.5 Garage parking space ................................................................................................................................................24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 20900:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20900:2019(E)
Introduction

Partially Automated Parking Systems (PAPS) perform parking manoeuvres controlling both

longitudinal and lateral movement of the vehicle to mitigate the driver’s burden. Information about

the intended parking space should be available by on-board sensors and potentially from external

infrastructural information sources prior to starting the system operation to determine the strategic

path to follow.

The system consists of driver command input device(s) and non-contact sensors to acquire external

information. In addition, the system consists of automatic control of propulsion, brake, transmission

and steering which manoeuvre the vehicle into intended relative position and stop within certain

tolerances without the driver’s direct manipulations.

A human machine interface (HMI) provides system information to the driver. The system function

is initiated by a driver command. The system monitors the vicinity of the vehicle to detect and avoid

hazards. The vehicle behaviour and safety conditions are supervised by the driver.

The driver is able to cancel / halt the system operation at any time necessary.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 20900:2019(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Partially automated
parking systems (PAPS) — Performance requirements and
test procedures
1 Scope
[1]

This document addresses light vehicles , e.g. passenger cars, pick-up trucks, light vans and sport

utility vehicles (motorcycles excluded), equipped with partially automated parking systems (PAPS).

This document establishes minimum functionality requirements that the driver can expect and the

manufacturer needs to take into account.
Possible system configuration includes the following two types:

— Type 1: System supervised by the conventional driver located in the driver’s seat;

— Type 2: System supervised by the remote driver (present within or outside the vehicle) that is not

necessarily located in the driver’s seat. The vehicle remains in the line of sight of the remote driver.

For both types, minimum requirements and conditions of safety, system performance and function

including HMI information content and description of system operating states are addressed.

The requirements include the driver who supervises the safety throughout the system manoeuvres.

System test requirements are also addressed including test criteria, method, and conditions.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:/ /www. iso. org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:/ /www.e lectropedia. org/
3.1
partially automated parking system
PAPS

system capable of measuring the dimensions of a parking space (3.2)/slot (3.3)/garage (3.4), calculating

an applicable trajectory, performing lateral and longitudinal (longitudinal in both directions) control of

the vehicle while manoeuvring into the space/slot/garage and providing needed instructions to the driver

3.2
parking space
area which exists between two bordering vehicles and is available for parking
3.3
parking slot

allotted place which is delineated by lines or markings and is available for parking

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 20900:2019(E)
3.4
garage

parking space (3.2) of adequate size for a single vehicle enclosed with walls or other structure

3.5
parking manoeuvre
operation to move a vehicle to a parking space (3.2)/slot (3.3)/garage (3.4)
3.6
leaving manoeuvre
operation to move a vehicle out from a space (3.2)/slot (3.3)/garage (3.4)
3.7
conventional driver

driver who is seated in the driver’s seat and capable of the supervision of the safe operation of the vehicle

3.8
remote driver
driver who operates PAPS (3.1) using a remote control device
Note 1 to entry: The remote driver may be seated in the vehicle.
3.9
automated parking manoeuvre

automated lateral and longitudinal motion control of the vehicle by the PAPS (3.1) during the parking

manoeuvre while the driver supervises
3.10
automated leaving manoeuvre

automated lateral and longitudinal motion control of the vehicle by the PAPS (3.1) during the leaving

manoeuvre while the driver supervises
3.11
system activation

action of transitioning the system operation from a system ready state to an active state

3.12
test object

object with a specific material, geometry and surface for testing the monitoring range

3.13
bordering vehicle
vehicle that delimits the parking space (3.2)
3.14
PAPS vehicle
vehicle which is equipped with PAPS (3.1)
4 Definition of PAPS types and requirements
4.1 PAPS types

For PAPS, the driver operates the vehicle until the parking location is determined.

Following this, until the parking operation is completed, the system performs all operations necessary

to park the vehicle such as steering, acceleration, braking, transmission shifting and applying the

parking brake.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20900:2019(E)

The following two types of PAPS are defined in this document based on the scenarios in which the

system is supervised by an on-board conventional driver or controlled remotely by a remote driver

who is not necessarily located in the driver’s seat.
4.2 Basic system functionality

4.2.1 Type 1 — System supervised by a conventional driver located in the driver’s seat

— The system shall be supervised by a conventional driver seated in the car.
— The conventional driver shall request automated parking manoeuvres.
— The system searches for parking spaces/slots/garages.
— The search may be initiated automatically or by a conventional driver.

— In both cases, the system shall inform the conventional driver that it has identified a possible

parking space/slot/garage.

— If multiple possible parking spaces/slots/garages are identified, the system shall present the

candidates and the conventional driver may select one from the candidates.

— In the case where the conventional driver does not select any of the options from the multiple

parking spaces/slots/garages identified by the PAPS, the search may continue.

With its automatic control of propulsion, brake, transmission and steering, the system shall move the

vehicle, park the vehicle in the target parking space/ slot/ garage within the specified location accuracy

limits, and finally release control.
4.2.1.1 System reactions for Type 1

System reactions corresponding to conventional driver intervention are specified in Table 1.

Table 1 — System reactions corresponding to conventional driver intervention
Conventional driver intervention Corresponding system reactions
Main switch OFF
Shall cancel parking manoeuvre and inform conventional
driver, then should stop the vehicle
Shift transmission into Park
Should cancel parking manoeuvre. If cancelled, shall in-
Acceleration
form conventional driver of the cancellation
Other shift operations
Steering
Minimum torque to override the system applied by
Shall stop the vehicle and inform conventional driver
the conventional driver to the steering wheel shall
be defined by the vehicle manufacturer. Typical
value could be approximately 5 Nm.
When the amount of braking by a conventional driver ex-
ceeds the amount of braking generated by the system, the
Braking
system operates according to the amount of braking by the
conventional driver.

In this case, the system shall immediately stop vehicle movement and provide the conventional driver with information

which indicates both suspension of the system control and action for the conventional driver to take. After driver

compliance, depending on the concept of the vehicle manufacturer or the driver’s selection, the system can either re-start

the automatic control or terminate it.
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ISO 20900:2019(E)
4.2.2 Type 2 — System supervised by a remote driver
4.2.2.1 General

There are two main scenarios: entering a parking space/slot/garage and leaving a garage/ perpendicular

parking space/slot.
4.2.2.2 Entering a parking space/slot/garage

The system searches for parking spaces/slots/garages. The search may be initiated by the driver.

The system should inform the driver that it has identified one or more possible parking spaces/slots/

garages. The system may also be activated after the driver parks the car straight (e.g. 1 m) in front of

the garage/perpendicular parking slot/space.

If multiple possible parking spaces/slots/garages are identified, the system should present candidates.

The system proposes a parking space/slot/garage, but the driver shall be able to choose the intended

parking space/slot/garage from the candidates. The proposed parking space/slot/garage may be used if

the driver does not make a selection. The driver transfers the control method to the remote supervision

device while the vehicle is stopped. The remote driver then activates the parking manoeuvre using

the remote supervision device. Only while the remote driver is using the remote supervision device

to continuously give authorization for the vehicle to move, shall the system automatically operate and

park the vehicle in the target parking space/ slot/ garage within the specified location accuracy limits.

The vehicle is stopped when the final parking position is reached or when the remote driver deactivates

the system using the remote supervision device.
4.2.2.3 Leaving a garage/perpendicular parking space/slot

The system shall start the leaving manoeuvre when it receives and confirms a leaving manoeuvre

request from the remote driver. Only while the remote driver is using the remote supervision device

to continuously give authorization for the vehicle to move, shall the system automatically operate and

move the vehicle from the parking space/slot/garage within the specified location accuracy limits. The

vehicle is stopped when the specified position is reached or when the remote driver deactivates the

system using the remote supervision device.
4.2.2.4 System reactions for Type 2

System reactions corresponding to remote driver intervention and system failure are specified in

Tables 2 and 3.
Table 2 — System reactions corresponding to remote driver intervention
Remote driver intervention Corresponding system reactions
Main switch OFF
Shall stop the vehicle and cancel automatic control of
(if available on remote device)
the system
Ignition OFF
A door or trunk of the vehicle opens while the remote Shall stop the vehicle
driver is giving the command to move by the remote
When the condition is cleared, the system may contin-
supervision device.
ue the parking manoeuvre.

In this case, the system shall immediately stop vehicle movement and provide the remote driver with information

which indicates cancellation of the system control.

In this case, the system shall immediately stop vehicle movement and provide the remote driver with information

which indicates suspension of the system control. After driver compliance, depending on the concept of the vehicle

manufacturer or the driver's selection, the system can either re-start the automatic control or terminate it.

4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20900:2019(E)
Table 3 — System reactions corresponding to system failure
System failure Corresponding system reactions
The distance between the remote driver and the vehi-
Shall stop the vehicle
cle exceeds a threshold defined by the system designer.
When the condition is cleared, the system may contin-
The communication between the remote device and
ue the parking/leaving manoeuvre.
the system is interrupted or data is corrupted.

In this case, the system shall immediately stop vehicle movement and provide the remote driver with information

which indicates suspension of the system control. After driver compliance, depending on the concept of the vehicle

manufacturer or the driver’s selection, the system can either re-start the automatic control or terminate it.

4.3 General requirements
4.3.1 Maximum speed during operation
The system shall only operate up to 10 km/h (+2 km/h tolerance).
4.3.2 PAPS termination conditions

PAPS shall abort the automated parking/leaving manoeuvres if there is a system failure detected by

the PAPS.

The system shall cancel automated control and provide information to the driver upon detecting

malfunctions.
4.3.3 User’s manual

It is recommended that the vehicle user’s manual (owner’s manual) include an advisory note that

clearly indicates how to use the system, and include a description of abort or pause criteria, driver’s

responsibility and limitations of the system.

The manual shall particularly emphasize the responsibility of the driver for safety while the system is

operating. This includes identifying obstructions and other possible hazards that may not be detected

by the PAPS. Especially in case of garage/perpendicular spaces/slots, the driver shall ensure the parking

space/slot/garage is of sufficient depth.
5 Functional and performance requirements for PAPS
5.1 Supported parking types
PAPS shall support one or more parking types of the following:
1. parallel parking space;
2. parallel parking slot;
3. perpendicular parking space;
4. perpendicular parking slot;
5. garage parking space.
5.1.1 Parallel parking space

As a minimum requirement the parking manoeuvre shall be performed with a parallel parking space

limited by either one or all of following definitions:
— Two bordering vehicles;
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ISO 20900:2019(E)
— (Option) kerb as lateral reference.

It is recommended that the system be able to detect a reference kerb, as described in Figure 9.

For this parking type, it is recommended that the bordering vehicles be properly parallel parked. The

standard parking space width, W, is defined as the length of the PAPS vehicle plus Δy and the space

depth, D, is defined as the width of the PAPS vehicle plus 0,2 m without regard of the side view mirrors.

Two parking scenarios are considered, either with or without a reference kerb. In the case with a

reference kerb the vehicles are parked with a fixed distance parallel to it. In a situation without kerb

the virtual connecting line between the outer borders (without regard of the side view mirrors) of the

two bordering parked vehicles projected onto the ground is the lateral reference line.

The parking space is defined by its width W and its depth D (as shown in Figure 1). W is the distance

between the two bordering vehicles. The depth D is the distance between the lateral reference line and

the width of the PAPS vehicle +0,2 m without regards of the side view mirrors.

For PAPS vehicle length between 4 m and 6 m, Δy = length of PAPS vehicle multiplied by 0,25. For small

vehicles, (≤4 m): Δy = 4 m × 0,25 = 1,0 m and for large vehicles (≥6 m) Δy = 6 m × 0,25 = 1,5 m.

The PAPS controlled vehicle is required to stay within the area where PAPS control is permitted as

indicated in Figure 1. It is also important to let users know how the system performs the parking

manoeuvre and its performance limit. The description of how the system works and possible

interference with surrounding objects shall at least be stated in the user’s manual.

Key
1 target parking area
2 lateral reference line
3 area where PAPS control is permitted
4 (option) kerb
W space width = length of PAPS vehicles + Δy

D space depth = width of PAPS vehicles + 0,2 m without regards of the side view mirrors

S width of area where PAPS control is permitted = 4,5 m
Figure 1 — Geometry of a parallel parking space
5.1.2 Parallel parking slot

As a minimum requirement the parking manoeuvre shall be performed with a parking slot limited by

the following definition:
— Contrastive markings on the ground surface.
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 20900:2019(E)

The contrastive markings should have a minimum contrast ratio of 5 (five). Recommended figure and

size of the markings are shown in Figure 2.

The PAPS controlled vehicle is required to stay within the area where PAPS control is permitted as

indicated in Figure 2. It is also important to let users know how the system performs the parking

manoeuvre and its performance limit. The description of how the system works and possible

interference with surrounding objects shall at least be stated in the user’s manual.

Key
1 target parking area 3 area where PAPS control is permitted
2 the edge of road 4 parking slot line
W width of the parking slot (=7,0 m) D depth of parking slot (=2,5 m)

A width of parking slot line (=0,15 m) S width of area where PAPS control is permitted (=4,5 m)

Figure 2 — Geometry of parallel parking slot
5.1.3 Perpendicular parking space

As a minimum requirement the parking/leaving manoeuvre shall be performed with a parking space

limited by the following definition:
— Two bordering vehicles.

For this parking type, it is recommended that the bordering vehicles be properly perpendicularly

parked. The standard parking space width W is defined as the width of the PAPS vehicle including side

view mirrors plus Δx (=1,2 m) as shown in Figure 3.

The PAPS controlled vehicle is required to stay within the area where PAPS control is permitted as

indicated in Figure 3. It is also important to let users know how the system performs the parking/

leaving manoeuvre and its performance limit. The description of how the system works and possible

interference with surrounding objects shall at least be stated in the user’s manual.

The details of the t
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