Personal equipment for protection against falls -- Descending devices

ISO 22159:2007 specifies requirements, test methods, marking and information to be supplied by the manufacturer for descending devices. It also specifies some basic requirements for the descent lines to be used with the descending devices. ISO 22159:2007 is applicable to automatic and manually operated descending devices intended for use in the workplace in access, egress, work positioning and rescue systems. Various types and classes of descending devices are defined according to function and performance. These descending devices can be used in situations other than the workplace if adequate training and/or supervision are provided. ISO 22159:2007 is not intended to apply to descending devices used in leisure activities such as recreational climbing and caving, although its requirements can be useful in specifying such equipment.

Équipement personnel de protection contre les chutes -- Dispositifs de descente

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-May-2007
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
27-Apr-2007
Completion Date
15-May-2007
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 22159:2007 - Personal equipment for protection against falls -- Descending devices
English language
50 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22159
First edition
2007-05-15
Personal equipment for protection
against falls — Descending devices
Équipement personnel de protection contre les chutes — Dispositifs de
descente
Reference number
ISO 22159:2007(E)
ISO 2007
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2007

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and classifications................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Classifications....................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 8

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Descent lines: basic requirements ..................................................................................................... 8

4.3 Descent line stopper............................................................................................................................. 9

4.4 Descent line residual static strength................................................................................................ 10

4.5 Rated loads.......................................................................................................................................... 10

4.6 Holding load ........................................................................................................................................ 11

4.7 Static strength..................................................................................................................................... 11

4.8 Dynamic performance ........................................................................................................................ 12

4.9 Descent energy ................................................................................................................................... 12

4.10 Descent velocity.................................................................................................................................. 13

4.11 Temperature rise................................................................................................................................. 13

4.12 Special requirements for descending devices class D................................................................... 14

4.13 Function............................................................................................................................................... 14

4.14 Corrosion resistance.......................................................................................................................... 14

4.15 Conditioning........................................................................................................................................ 15

4.16 Marking and information.................................................................................................................... 15

5 Test methods....................................................................................................................................... 15

5.1 Test apparatus .................................................................................................................................... 15

5.2 General................................................................................................................................................. 17

5.3 Conditioning........................................................................................................................................ 18

5.4 Examination of design........................................................................................................................ 18

5.5 Static tests........................................................................................................................................... 19

5.6 Dynamic performance ........................................................................................................................ 24

5.7 Descent energy, descent velocity, temperature rise....................................................................... 31

5.8 Function tests ..................................................................................................................................... 34

5.9 Corrosion resistance.......................................................................................................................... 41

6 Marking ................................................................................................................................................ 41

7 Information supplied by the manufacturer ...................................................................................... 42

7.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 42

7.2 Instructions for use ............................................................................................................................ 42

7.3 Instructions for maintenance ............................................................................................................ 45

7.4 Instructions for periodic detailed inspections................................................................................. 45

7.5 Instructions for repair......................................................................................................................... 46

7.6 Records................................................................................................................................................ 46

Annex A (informative) Packaging ................................................................................................................... 47

Annex B (informative) Functional recommendations for the use of descending devices in the

workplace ............................................................................................................................................ 48

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 50

© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 22159 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 94, Personal safety — Protective clothing and

equipment, Subcommittee SC 4, Personal equipment for protection against falls.
iv © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
Introduction

Descending devices conforming to this International Standard are intended to be used in conjunction with an

appropriate descent line and other equipment, e.g. an appropriate harness or rescue loop and a reliable

anchor, to enable a person to descend from one position to another, either on their own or assisted by another

person. Typical uses are emergency egress and work positioning. In addition to their primary function of

allowing access to a lower point, descending devices and descent lines have a fall protection function.

Descending devices in this International Standard have been divided into six types. Types 1 and 2 are further

divided into four classes.

Type 1 descending devices have an integrated descent line and are intended for multiple evacuations to a

safe lower place when users do not need to control their descent speed. The descent speed is automatically

controlled, i.e. without the need for intervention by the user.

Type 2 descending devices have an integrated descent line and are manually controlled. They are generally

more suitable for single person evacuations to a safe lower place when users may need to control their

descent speed and may need to stop somewhere on the descent line.

Types 3 and 4 descending devices are not required to have an integrated descent line. The descent line can

be fitted to the descending device on site. These types of descending device are equipped with a manually

operated descent control device which, when it is let go, will automatically lock to the descent line and stop the

descent (hands-free locking element). In addition, type 3 descending devices will “fail to the locked position”

and the descent will stop if the descent control device is moved beyond its descent control parameters, e.g. in

a panic situation when the user squeezes the descent control device too far (panic locking element).

Types 5 and 6 descending devices do not have a hands-free automatic locking element or a panic locking

element. These descending devices rely on the user to stop the descent manually and to lock off manually,

too, typically by wrapping the descent line around the descending device to create enough friction to stop

movement. These types are also not required to have an integrated descent line: the descent line can be fitted

to the descending device on site.

Descending devices types 1 and 2, which are typically intended primarily for emergency egress, have been

classified further by performance. A value, called descent energy, is calculated based on the product of the

mass of the user, the maximum descent height for the descending device and the number of descents for

which the descending device is designed. In practice, descending devices are subjected to different loads, e.g.

a descending device for descending 100 passengers from a cable car at a height of 100 m needs to conform

to more stringent requirements than a descending device used by a crane driver to descend from a height of

20 m. The descent energy provides an indication of the appropriateness of a descending device and its

descent line for a given application. The descent energy may be used to calculate the maximum combination

of descent height and number of descents for a particular use. The classes are A, B, C and D, which are

explained in more detail within this International Standard.

Type 2 class D descending devices deserve special mention because they are intended for a specific purpose,

i.e. for single use emergency egress only, by trained and competent personnel who, as part of their training,

have experienced a descent using this type of descending device.

Descent lines are a necessary component in a descending system and need to meet some basic

requirements to ensure that they are suitable for use with relevant descending devices. This International

Standard therefore includes such basic requirements for descent lines.

This International Standard recognizes that a descending device could not only travel with the user (normal in

rope access, for example) but could also in some circumstances be designed to operate from a fixed position

(e.g. at the top of the descent). The test methods reflect this. Operating from a fixed position is normal for

type 1 descending devices. It is perhaps not so normal for other types, but is possible.

© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)

This International Standard presumes that the manufacturer of the descending device, subsystems or

components will, for the sake of consistency and traceability, operate a quality management system which will

comply with national and regional regulations in force at the time. Guidance on the form this quality

management system may take can be found in ISO 9001.

It is highly advisable that manufacturers claiming conformity of their descending devices with this International

Standard have their claims verified by an independent, nationally recognized test organisation.

Note the points below.

⎯ It is essential that users of all types of descending devices and their descent lines are trained and

assessed as competent before using them unsupervised. This applies even to the totally automatic

descending devices of type 1. It applies particularly to types 5 and 6 descending devices, where any

mismanagement could have disastrous results. It is advisable that training be ongoing and not just a

one-off at the first introduction to the equipment.

⎯ This International Standard does not encompass all foreseeable uses of descending devices or

requirements for all possible descending devices. Manufacturers, specifiers and end users can identify

uses for which descending devices that are outside the scope of this International Standard are

appropriate.
⎯ The requirements specified are generally minimum requirements.

Annex A provides advice on the packaging of descending devices and Annex B gives functional

recommendations for the use of descending devices in the workplace.
vi © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22159:2007(E)
Personal equipment for protection against falls — Descending
devices
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies requirements, test methods, marking and information to be supplied by

the manufacturer for descending devices. It also specifies some basic requirements for the descent lines to be

used with the descending devices.

This International Standard is applicable to automatic and manually operated descending devices intended for

use in the workplace in access, egress, work positioning and rescue systems. Various types and classes of

descending devices are defined according to function and performance. These descending devices can be

used in situations other than the workplace if adequate training and/or supervision are provided.

This International Standard is not intended to apply to descending devices used in leisure activities such as

recreational climbing and caving, although its requirements can be useful in specifying such equipment.

NOTE Descending devices conforming to this International Standard can be designed for use by one or two persons

simultaneously.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 9227, Corrosion tests in artificial atmospheres — Salt spray tests

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

3 Terms, definitions and classifications
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
anchor point

secure place of attachment to which the descent line or descending device is connected

3.1.2
attachment element

primary point of connection to the descending device, as specified by the manufacturer

3.1.3
automatic descending device

device that enables a person or persons to descend at a controlled rate without any intervention once the

descent has commenced
NOTE Automatic descending devices are also known as controlled descent devices.
© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
3.1.4
competent person for periodic detailed inspection

person who knows the current periodic detailed inspection requirements, recommendations and instructions

issued by the manufacturer applicable to the descending device, subsystem or system, and who has the

authority, skills and resources to initiate corrective action
3.1.5
competent person for repair

person authorized by the manufacturer to repair the descending device, subsystem or system

3.1.6
descending device

automatic or manually operated device used in conjunction with an appropriate descent line, which allows the

user, either individually or assisted by another person, to achieve a descent with a controllable velocity

NOTE A descending device can be used for self-descent, self-rescue, rescue by a second person or for rescue by a

rescuer and rescuee in a tandem descent.
3.1.7
descent control element

integral element of the descending device, normally operated by hand, used to control the velocity of descent

down the descent line
3.1.8
descent energy

energy measured in joules which results from the product of descent height, descent load and number of

descents
3.1.9
descent line
flexible line for descending, used in conjunction with a descending device
3.1.10
emergency egress
evacuation from a location in the event of an emergency
3.1.11
hands-free locking element

integral part or function of the descent control element which stops the descent and thereby prevents an

uncontrolled descent or a fall if the user fails to engage the device

NOTE Some creep of the descending device along the descent line can occur (see 4.6).

3.1.12
integrated descent line

descent line assembled by the manufacturer with a compatible descending device such that the descent line

can only be removed by the use of a tool, and in such a way that removal would be clearly evident

3.1.13
manually operated descending device

descending device that allows a person or persons to descend at a rate that is controlled manually

NOTE 1 Some creep of the descending device along the descent line can occur (see 4.6).

NOTE 2 Manually operated descending devices are also known as descent control devices.

2 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
3.1.14
manufacturer

maker, authorized representative of a maker or an assembler responsible, where relevant, for the design, test

and release of the completed component, subsystem or system placed on the market
3.1.15
maximum rated load

maximum mass of person(s), including tools and equipment, to be used with the descending device, as

specified by the manufacturer
NOTE Maximum rated load is specified in kilograms.
3.1.16
minimum rated load

minimum mass of person(s), including tools and equipment, to be used with the descending device, as

specified by the manufacturer
NOTE Minimum rated load is specified in kilograms.
3.1.17
panic locking element

integral part or function of the descent control element which stops the descent and thereby prevents an

uncontrolled descent or a fall if the user panics and operates the descending device beyond its intended

descent control parameters

NOTE Some creep of the descending device along the descent line can occur (see 4.6).

3.2 Classifications
3.2.1 Classification by type

Descending devices are classified by type, as described below (see Figure 1 for generic examples of the

different types of descending device and Figure 2 for their characteristics):

a) type 1: automatically operated descending device with integrated descent line;

b) type 2: manually operated descending device with integrated descent line;

c) type 3: manually operated descending device with mechanically variable friction, hands-free locking and

panic locking features;

d) type 4: manually operated descending device with mechanically variable friction and hands-free locking

features;

e) type 5: manually operated descending device with mechanically variable friction and non-automatic

locking;

f) type 6: manually operated descending device with non-mechanically variable friction and non-automatic

locking.
NOTE Descending devices can conform to the requirements of more than one type.
© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
3.2.2 Classification by performance

Descending devices of types 1 and 2 are classified by performance, as follows (see 4.9):

a) class A for a descent energy, W, up to 7,5 × 10 J;
b) class B for a descent energy, W, up to 1,5 × 10 J;
c) class C for a descent energy, W, up to 0,5 × 10 J;

d) class D for one descent only; the descent energy, W, depends on the maximum descent height and the

maximum rated load.

NOTE In practice, descending devices are subjected to different loads, e.g. a descending device for descending

100 passengers from a cable car at a height of 100 m conforms to more stringent requirements than a descending device

used by a crane driver to descend from a height of 20 m. The descent energy can be used to calculate the maximum

combination of descent height and number of descents for a particular use.
4 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
a) Type 1 b) Type 2 c) Type 3
d) Type 4 e) Type 5 f) Type 6
Key
1 descending device
2 integrated descent line
3 descent line
4 descent control element in hands-free locking position
5 descent control element in panic locking position
Figure 1 — Generic examples of different types of descending device
© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
Figure 2 — Characteristics of different types of descending device
6 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
Table 1 — Requirements related to descending device type and class
Type and class
Conditioning
Clause
Requirement
1A, 2A,
No.
General Wet Wet & Very
1B, 1D 2B, 2D 3 4 5 6
cold cold
1C 2C
4.15.2 4.15.3 4.15.4 4.15.5
a a a a b b b b b b b b
4.1 General
requirements
a a a a b b b b b b b b
4.2 Descent lines:
basic
requirements
b a a a b b b b a a a a
4.3 Descent line
stopper
b a a a b b b b b b b b
4.4 Descent line
residual static
strength
a a a a b b b b b b b b
4.5 Rated loads
b a a a a a b b b b a a
4.6.1 Holding load:
hands-free
locking
b a a a a a b b b a a a
4.6.2 Holding load:
panic locking
b a a a a a a a a a b b
4.6.3 Holding load:
locked
b a a a b b b b b b b b
4.7 Static strength
b b c c b b b b b b b b
4.8 Dynamic
performance
b a a a b b b b a a a a
4.9 Descent energy
b b c c b b b b b b b b
4.10 Descent velocity
b a a a b b b b b b b b
4.11 Temperature
rise
a a a a a b a b a a a a
4.12 Special
requirements for
class D
b b c a b b b b b b b b
4.13 Function
a a a a b b b b b b b b
4.14 Corrosion
resistance
a a a a b b b b b b b b
4.16.1 Marking
a a a a b b b b b b b b
4.16.2 Information

NOTE All tests are carried out on the minimum and maximum diameters of descent line of the range marked on the descending

device, except the corrosion test and where otherwise stated.
No requirement.
Requirement.
Optional.
© ISO 2007 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 22159:2007(E)
4 Requirements

NOTE A list giving an overview of the requirements relating to each individual type/class of descending device is

given in Table 1.
4.1 General

4.1.1 The material specification of all components, including the descent line recommended for use with the

descending device, shall be known to be durable at temperatures in which the descending device may be

used.

4.1.2 Components made of materials that may degrade due to exposure to sunlight or other environmental

factors shall be protected against such degradation, either by proper shielding of the components, e.g. by the

use of UV inhibitors in textiles, or by other suitable means, e.g. a protective coating.

4.1.3 Descending devices intended to allow removal of the descent line shall have a mechanism or function

to prevent the descent line from being detached unintentionally. The descending device shall have a

mechanism or shall function to prevent it being detached from the descent line without at least two

consecutive deliberate manual actions.

4.1.4 Descending devices shall not have sharp or rough edges that may cut, abrade or otherwise damage

ropes or webbing or cause injury to the user.

4.1.5 Types 1 and 2 descending devices shall be tested in combination with any descent line with which

they will be placed on the market.

4.1.6 Types 3, 4, 5 and 6 descending devices for use with descent lines that conform to a recognized and

appropriate standard, e.g. EN 1891, CI-1801, AS/NZS 4142.3, as specified in the information supplied by the

manufacturer of the descending device, shall be tested with the minimum and maximum diameters of descent

line for the range marked on the descending device for each standard claimed by the manufacturer. The

exception shall be where a particular test method specifies that the test shall be carried out only at either a

minimum or a maximum diameter.

4.1.7 Types 3, 4, 5 and 6 descending devices that do not specify a recognized and appropriate standard to

which the descent line shall conform shall be tested on the minimum and maximum diameters of descent line

marked on the descending device of every model of the type of descent line which the manufacturer of the

descending device claims is appropriate for use with the descending device. The exception shall be where a

particular test method specifies that the test shall be carried out only at either a minimum or a maximum

diameter.

4.1.8 Metals which could react together galvanically in normal use to the detriment of the descending

device or descent line shall not be used in descending devices and descent lines.

4.1.9 Connectors supplied with descending devices shall conform to an appropriate standard, e.g.

ISO 10333-5, EN 362, CAN/CSA Z259.12, and shall have a manual or an automatic locking gate.

4.2 Descent lines: basic requirements
4.2.1 General

4.2.1.1 Descent lines shall be made from textile rope or webbing or from steel wire rope or any other

appropriate material.

4.2.1.2 Descent lines shall be capable of visual inspection or else subjected to manufacturers' guidance

for appropriate examination to confirm that the descent line is satisfactory for continued use.

8 © ISO 2007 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.