Fire resistance tests -- Elements of building construction

ISO 834-10:2014 specifies a method for testing fire protection systems applied to structural steel members used in buildings as beams, columns, or tension members. It is intended for use in conjunction with the assessment protocol described in ISO 834‑11. It applies to steel sections (including hollow sections) and only considers sections without openings in the web. Results from analysis of I or H sections are directly applicable to angles, channels, and T-sections for the same section factor, whether used as individual members, e.g. bracing, or part of a fabricated structural system such as a steel truss construction. ISO 834-10:2014 does not apply to solid bar, rod, or concrete-filled hollow sections. ISO 834-10:2014 describes the fire test procedures that specify the tests which should be carried out to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain sufficiently coherent and in position for a well-defined range of deformations, furnace, and steel temperatures, such that the efficacy of the fire protection system is not significantly impaired, and to provide data on the thermal characteristics of the fire protection system when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve specified in ISO 834‑1. In special circumstances, where specified in National Building Regulations, there can be a requirement to subject reactive fire protection materials to a smouldering curve. The test and the requirements for its use are described in ISO 834-10:2014 (Annex G). ISO 834-10:2014 is applicable to both passive and reactive fire protection systems as defined in the terms and definitions, which are installed or applied in such a way that they remain in place for the intended duration of fire exposure. The fire test methodology makes provision for the collection and presentation of data which is then used as direct input into ISO 834‑11 to determine the limits of direct application to steel sections of various shapes, sizes, and fire resistance periods.

Essais de résistance au feu -- Éléments de construction

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Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Feb-2014
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
08-Jan-2014
Completion Date
10-Feb-2014
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 834-10
First edition
2014-03-01
Fire resistance tests — Elements of
building construction —
Part 10:
Specific requirements to determine
the contribution of applied fire
protection materials to structural
steel elements
Essais de résistance au feu — Éléments de construction —
Partie 10: Exigences spécifiques pour déterminer la contribution des
matériaux de protection appliqués aux éléments des structures en
acier
Reference number
ISO 834-10:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 834-10:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 834-10:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Test equipment....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Furnace .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Loading equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Support and loading conditions ............................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Test specimens.....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

7.2 Specimen design and preparation .......................................................................................................................................12

7.3 Composition of test component materials ...................................................................................................................16

7.4 Selection of test specimens .......................................................................................................................................................19

8 Installation of the test specimens ....................................................................................................................................................20

8.1 Loaded beams .......................................................................................................................................................................................20

8.2 Unloaded beams .................................................................................................................................................................................21

8.3 Loaded columns ..................................................................................................................................................................................21

8.4 Unloaded columns ............................................................................................................................................................................21

8.5 Test specimen installation patterns ...................................................................................................................................21

8.6 Furnace load ...........................................................................................................................................................................................22

9 Conditioning of the test specimens ................................................................................................................................................22

10 Application of instrumentation .........................................................................................................................................................23

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

10.2 Instrumentation for measurement of furnace temperature .........................................................................23

10.3 Instrumentation for measurement of steel temperatures .............................................................................25

10.4 Instrumentation for measurement of furnace pressure ..................................................................................29

10.5 Instrumentation for measurement of deformation..............................................................................................30

10.6 Instrumentation for measurement of load ..................................................................................................................30

11 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................30

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................30

11.2 Furnace temperature and pressure ...................................................................................................................................30

11.3 Application and control of load .............................................................................................................................................30

11.4 Measurements and observations .........................................................................................................................................31

12 Test results ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................31

12.1 Acceptability of test results .......................................................................................................................................................31

13 Presentation of test results ....................................................................................................................................................................32

14 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

14.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex A (normative) Measurement of properties of passive fire protection materials..............................35

Annex B (normative) Measurement of properties of reactive protection materials .......................................38

Annex C (normative) Selection of test specimens - passive fire protection ..............................................................40

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)

Annex D (normative) Principle of selection of test specimens - reactive fire protection ...........................46

Annex E (normative) Fixing of thermocouples to steelwork and routing cables ................................................52

Annex F (informative) Test method to the smouldering fire (slow heating curve) ...........................................54

Annex G (informative) Tables of section factors ....................................................................................................................................57

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................61

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 2, Fire

containment.

ISO 834 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fire resistance tests — Elements of building

construction:
— Part 1: General requirements

— Part 2: Guidance on measuring uniformity of furnace exposure on test samples [Technical Report]

— Part 3: Commentary on test method and guide to the application of the outputs from the fire-resistance

test [Technical Report]
— Part 4: Specific requirements for loadbearing vertical separating elements
— Part 5: Specific requirements for loadbearing horizontal separating elements
— Part 6: Specific requirements for beams
— Part 7: Specific requirements for columns
— Part 8: Specific requirements for non-loadbearing vertical separating elements
— Part 9: Specific requirements for non-loadbearing ceiling elements

— Part 10: Specific requirements to determine the contribution of applied fire protection materials to

structural steel elements

— Part 11: Specific requirements for the assessment of fire protection to structural steel elements

— Part 12: Specific requirements for separating elements evaluated on less than full scale furnaces

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 834 specifies a method for testing fire protection systems applied to structural steel

members employed in buildings as beams, columns, or tension members. This part of ISO 834 is intended

for use in conjunction with the assessment protocol described in ISO 834-11.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 834-10:2014(E)
Fire resistance tests — Elements of building
construction —
Part 10:
Specific requirements to determine the contribution
of applied fire protection materials to structural steel
elements
1 Scope

This part of ISO 834 specifies a method for testing fire protection systems applied to structural steel

members used in buildings as beams, columns, or tension members. This part of ISO 834 is intended

for use in conjunction with the assessment protocol described in ISO 834-11. It applies to steel sections

(including hollow sections) and only considers sections without openings in the web. Results from

analysis of I or H sections are directly applicable to angles, channels, and T-sections for the same section

factor, whether used as individual members, e.g. bracing, or part of a fabricated structural system such

as a steel truss construction. This part of ISO 834 does not apply to solid bar, rod, or concrete-filled

hollow sections.

This part of ISO 834 describes the fire test procedures that specify the tests which should be carried out

to determine the ability of the fire protection system to remain sufficiently coherent and in position for

a well-defined range of deformations, furnace, and steel temperatures, such that the efficacy of the fire

protection system is not significantly impaired, and to provide data on the thermal characteristics of the

fire protection system when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve specified in ISO 834-1.

In special circumstances, where specified in National Building Regulations, there can be a requirement

to subject reactive fire protection materials to a smouldering curve. The test and the requirements for

its use are described in Annex G.

This part of ISO 834 is applicable to both passive and reactive fire protection systems as defined in the

terms and definitions, which are installed or applied in such a way that they remain in place for the

intended duration of fire exposure.

The fire test methodology makes provision for the collection and presentation of data which is then used

as direct input into ISO 834-11 to determine the limits of direct application to steel sections of various

shapes, sizes, and fire resistance periods.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 834-1, Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 1: General requirements

ISO 834-6, Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 6: Specific requirements for

beams

ISO 834-7, Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 7: Specific requirements for

columns
ISO 1182:2010, Reaction to fire tests for products — Non-combustibility test
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)

ISO 1716, Reaction to fire tests for products — Determination of the gross heat of combustion (calorific

value)
ISO 8421-2, Fire protection — Vocabulary — Part 2: Structural fire protection
ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
IEC 584-1, Thermocouples – Part 1: Reference tables
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 834-1, ISO 13943, ISO 8421-2,

and the following apply.
3.1
characteristic steel temperature

temperature of the structural steel member which is used for the determination of the correction factor

for stickability calculated as (mean temperature + maximum temperature)/2
3.2
design temperature
temperature of the steel member for structural design purposes
3.3
fire protection

protection afforded to the steel member by the fire protection system such that the temperature of the

steel member is limited throughout the period of fire exposure
3.4
fire protection system

fire protection material together with any supporting system including mesh reinforcement as tested

Note 1 to entry: The reactive fire protection materials system includes the primer and top coat if applicable.

3.5
fire protection thickness

dry thickness of a single-layer fire protection system or the combined thickness of all layers of a fire

protection system

Note 1 to entry: The thickness of elements of the supporting system or joint cover strips are not included in the

fire protection thickness.

Note 2 to entry: For reactive fire protection systems, the thickness is the mean dry film thickness of the coating

excluding primer and top coat if applicable.
3.6
H section

steel member with wide flanges compared with the section depth whose main function is to carry axial

loads parallel to its longitudinal axis which can be combined with bending and shear

3.7
I section

steel joist or girder with short flanges shaped like a letter “I” whose main function is to carry loads

transverse to its longitudinal axis

Note 1 to entry: These loads usually cause bending of the beam member. The flanges may be parallel or tapered.

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)
3.8
passive fire protection material

materials, which do not change their physical form on heating, providing protection by virtue of their

physical or thermal properties

Note 1 to entry: They may include materials containing water or undergo endothermic reactions which, on heating,

produce cooling effects. These may take the form of sprayed coatings, renderings, mat products, boards, or slabs.

3.9
reactive fire protection material

materials which are specifically formulated to provide a chemical reaction upon heating such that their

physical form changes and in so doing provide fire protection by thermal insulative and cooling effects

3.10
reference section

steel section which is taken from the same length of steel as its equivalent loaded section

3.11
section factor (unprotected steel)

ratio of the fire exposed perimeter area of the structural steel member, per unit length, A , to its cross

sectional volume per unit length, V
3.12
section factor (profiled fire protection systems):

ratio of the fire-exposed outer perimeter area of the steel structural member excluding the protection

material, per unit length, A , to its cross-sectional volume per unit length, V
3.13
section factor (boxed fire protection systems)

ratio of the internal surface area of the smallest possible rectangle or square box encasement which can

be measured around the steel structural member, A , to its volume per unit length, V

3.14
steel member

element of building construction, which is load bearing and fabricated from steel

Note 1 to entry: For the purpose of this part of ISO 834, the steel used in the testing must be of the same type.

3.15
steel temperature

overall mean temperature to be used as input data for the analysis which is calculated as follows:

— For I and H section beams, this refers to the mean of the upper flange temperatures plus the mean

temperature of the web plus the mean temperature of the lower flange, divided by three.

— For I, H, and hollow section columns, this refers to the sum of the mean temperature of each

measuring station divided by the number of measuring stations.

— For hollow section beams, this refers to the mean temperature of the sides of the section plus the

mean temperature of the bottom face, divided by two
3.16
stickability

ability of a fire protection system to remain sufficiently coherent and in position for a well-defined

range of deformations, furnace, and steel temperatures, such that its ability to provide fire protection is

not significantly impaired
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)
3.17
test package

set of steel sections which may include short or long specimens that is tested to demonstrate adequate

stickability of the fire protection system and to provide thermal data over a range of protection thickness,

steel section factor, and steel temperatures
3.18
test specimen
steel section plus the fire protection system under test

Note 1 to entry: The steel test section, representative of a steel member for the purposes of this test, comprises

long and short steel columns or beams.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
Symbol Unit Description
A m area
A m exposed perimeter area of the structural steel member, per unit length
for profile protection: exposed outer perimeter area of the structural steel
member excluding the protection material, per unit length
A m
for encased protection: the internal surface area of the smallest possible
rectangle or square box encasement which can be measured around the
structural steel member
b m breadth of the steel section
d mm thickness
d mm average thickness
aver
d mm thickness of fire protection material
d mm maximum thickness of fire protection material
p(max)
d mm minimum thickness of fire protection material
p(min)
h mm depth of the steel section
K - range factor for thickness
K - range factor for section factor
L mm length of beam section exposed to heating
exp
L mm total length of specimen
spec
L mm length of beam section between supports
sup
P m perimeter of the steel section exposed to fire
s m section factor at factor K
p s
s m maximum section factor at K factor of 1
max s
s m minimum section factor at K factor of 0
min s
t mm thickness of the flange of the steel section
thickness of the wall of the hollow steel section or web thickness of an I sec-
t mm
tion or H column
V m /m volume of the steel section per unit length
V m /m volume of the fire protection per unit length
LB – loaded beam
LC – loaded 3m column section
TC – unloaded tall (2 m) column section
LHB – loaded hollow beam
LHC – loaded hollow column
SIB – short I section beam
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)
Symbol Unit Description
SIC – short I section column
TCHS – tall circular hollow beam
TRHS – tall rectangular hollow beam
SHB – short hollow beam
SHC – short hollow column
RB – reference beam
5 Test equipment
5.1 General
The furnace and test equipment shall conform to what is specified in ISO 834-1.
5.2 Furnace

The furnace shall be designed to accommodate the dimensions of the test specimens to be exposed to

heating as specified in 7.2 and their installation either upon or within the test furnace as specified in

Clause 8.
5.3 Loading equipment

Loading shall be applied according to ISO 834-1. The loading system shall permit loading to be applied

to beams as specified in 6.2.2 and to columns as specified in 6.2.4.
6 Test conditions
6.1 General

The procedures given in ISO 834-1 shall be followed in the performance of the test unless specific

contrary instructions are given.

A number of steel members “I”, “H”, and hollow test sections, protected by the fire protection system, are

heated in a furnace according to the protocol given in ISO 834-1.

Loaded beams and loaded columns are heated to provide information on the ability of the fire protection

system to remain intact and adhere to the steel members (stickability). Unloaded beams and unloaded

columns are heated to provide information on the thermal characteristics of the fire protection system.

It is recommended that the tests be continued until the steel temperature reaches the maximum value

commensurate with the application of the data.

The method of testing loaded beams in this part of the test method is designed to provide maximum

deflection (span/30) under the influence of load and heating as defined in ISO 834-1. If this is not

possible, then the rate of deflection exceeds what is given in ISO 834-1.

Where several test specimens are tested simultaneously, care shall be taken that each be similarly

exposed to the specified test conditions.
6.2 Support and loading conditions
6.2.1 General

Details of the calculations made to define the test loads shall be included in the test report.

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)
6.2.2 Loaded beams

For each loaded beam test specimen, provision shall be made for the proper support, positioning, and

alignment in the furnace in accordance with ISO 834-6, subject to any amended requirements of this

part of ISO 834.

The beam shall not be provided with additional torsional restraint except where deemed necessary as in

7.2.1. The simply supported span (L ) shall not be greater than the length exposed to heating by more

sup

than 400 mm at each end. The length of the specimen (L ) shall be the exposed length plus up to a

spec
maximum 500 mm at each end.

The loaded beam test specimens shall be subjected to a total load, which represents 60 % of the

design moment resistance, calculated using the actual yield strength from the batch test certificate of

conformity or the actual measured value.

The actual load applied shall be the calculated total load less the dead weight of the beam, concrete

topping, and fire protection system.

The method of loading shall be by a system which will produce a bending moment that is uniform over

at least 20 % of the span of the beam around mid-span. The small increase in applied moment between

jacks due to the cover slab may be ignored.

Loading shall be uniformly and symmetrically applied at two or more locations along its length.

The loading shall be applied using either of the two methods described in Figure 1.

The ends of loaded beams outside the furnace shall be insulated with a suitable insulation material.

6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)
Key
A detail A - fixing of beam topping
B detail B – beam loading method 1 or 2
1 web stiffener at end bearing – I or H section
2 web stiffener at load points – I or H section

3 provide sufficient clearance to ensure furnace lining does not interfere with protection

4 load applied centrally to top of beam via load spacer 13 or to concrete slab 12

5 stud/plate/locking nut
6 fibre insulation or equivalent
7 compressible fibre insulation to width of beam (see 7.1)
8 span

9 gap to be sufficient to ensure beam is able to bend without being restricted by the slab

10 steel beam – I section shown, hollow beam similar

11 aerated concrete slab sections of nominal density 500 kg/m3 retained as in 7.1; nominal size of slabs 600 mm

(±100 mm) width × 625 mm maximum length × 150 mm to 200 mm thick

12 lightweight concrete slab section of nominal density 1500 kg/m3 retained as in 7.1; nominal size of slabs as

13 load spacer
14 additional bracing to prevent rotation of beam if necessary
Figure 1 — Construction arrangement options for loaded beams
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 834-10:2014(E)
6.2.3 Unloaded beams
Each unloaded beam test specimen shall be supported as shown in Figure 2.
Key
1 furnace cover
2 insulation board
3 stud/plate/locking nut
4 steel section
5 insu
...

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