Test methods for machine readable travel documents (MRTD) and associated devices — Part 2: Test methods for the contactless interface

This document defines the conformance test plan, based on ISO/IEC 10373-6, for the contactless interface of eMRTDs and eMRTD associated readers compliant with ICAO Doc 9303. Application requirements for eMRTD and eMRTD reader are outside of the scope of this document and are defined in ICAO Doc 9303-10.

Méthodes d’essai pour les documents de voyage lisibles par machine (MRTD) et dispositifs associés — Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai de l'interface sans contact

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Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Sep-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Sep-2021
Completion Date
16-Sep-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18745-2
Second edition
2021-09
Test methods for machine readable
travel documents (MRTD) and
associated devices —
Part 2:
Test methods for the contactless
interface
Méthodes d’essai pour les documents de voyage lisibles par machine
(MRTD) et dispositifs associés —
Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai de l'interface sans contact
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Test methods for eMRTD .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 General test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Test environment ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.3 Test conditions for PICC ........................................................................................................................................... .. 3

5.1.4 Applicant information ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.5 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-1 parameters .................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.1 Antenna size and PICC Class 1 verification (optional) .................................................................... 7

5.2.2 Static electricity ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2.3 Alternating magnetic field ....................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-2 parameters .................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.1 eMRTD transmission .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Operating field strength............................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.3 eMRTD reception ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.4 eMRTD maximum loading effect ........................................................................................................................ 9

5.3.5 eMRTD resonance frequency (optional) ..................................................................................................... 9

5.3.6 eMRTD EMD level and low EMD time test (optional) ...................................................................10

5.4 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-3 and ISO/IEC 14443-4 parameters ........................................................................10

5.5 List of the test command sequences .................................................................................................................................11

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.2 Test commands for eMRTD supporting only BAC ............................................................................11

5.5.3 Test commands for eMRTD supporting PACE ......................................................................................13

5.6 Functionality check test ...............................................................................................................................................................16

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.6.2 Optional procedure 1: Application functionality check test....................................................16

5.6.3 Optional procedure 2: Electrical functionality check test .........................................................17

6 Test methods for eMRTD reader .......................................................................................................................................................17

6.1 General test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................17

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.1.2 Test environment .........................................................................................................................................................18

6.1.3 Test conditions for PCD ...........................................................................................................................................18

6.1.4 Applicant information ..............................................................................................................................................18

6.1.5 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................19

6.1.6 Definition of test positions ...................................................................................................................................19

6.2 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-1 parameters ...............................................................................................................................20

6.2.1 Alternating magnetic field ....................................................................................................................................20

6.3 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-2 parameters ...............................................................................................................................20

6.3.1 Carrier frequency .........................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.2 eMRTD reader field strength ..............................................................................................................................20

6.3.3 Modulation index and waveform ....................................................................................................................21

6.3.4 Load modulation reception .................................................................................................................................21

6.3.5 eMRTD reader EMD immunity test (optional) ....................................................................................22

6.3.6 eMRTD reader EMD recovery test (optional) ......................................................................................22

6.4 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-3 and ISO/IEC 14443-4 parameters ........................................................................23

6.5 List of test command sequences ...........................................................................................................................................24

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.5.2 Test commands...............................................................................................................................................................24

6.5.3 Default test command sequence .....................................................................................................................24

6.5.4 Test_command_sequence_1 .................................................................................................................................25

6.5.5 Test_command_sequence_2 .................................................................................................................................25

6.6 Measurement positions ................................................................................................................................................................25

7 Specific access control test sequences ........................................................................................................................................27

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.2 List of the test command sequences with EAC for eMRTD ............................................................................27

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.2.2 Test commands for eMRTD supporting EAC .........................................................................................28

7.2.3 Test commands for eMRTD supporting PACE and EAC ...............................................................29

iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, SC 17, Cards and security devices

for personal identification.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 18745-2:2016), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— simplification of the test conditions for PCD in terms of temperature;
— modification of the loading effect required for eMRTD.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 18745 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
Introduction

This document represents a necessary step in a process designed to ensure contactless communications

interoperability between inspection systems and machine-readable travel documents to be accepted by

them. The purpose of this document is to provide the conformance test plan that needs to be performed

to ensure conformity of inspection systems and any machine-readable travel documents in accordance

with ICAO Doc 9303.

This conformance test plan is not designed to repeat or duplicate the referenced specifications and

associated test method [essentially ISO/IEC 14443 (all parts) and ISO/IEC 10373-6] but to list the test

conditions to be performed in addition to the ones already described in the ISO/IEC 10373-6 and to

define their testing and use conditions.
vi © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
Test methods for machine readable travel documents
(MRTD) and associated devices —
Part 2:
Test methods for the contactless interface
1 Scope

This document defines the conformance test plan, based on ISO/IEC 10373-6, for the contactless

interface of eMRTDs and eMRTD associated readers compliant with ICAO Doc 9303.

Application requirements for eMRTD and eMRTD reader are outside of the scope of this document and

are defined in ICAO Doc 9303-10.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 10373-6:2016 , Identification cards — Test methods — Part 6: Proximity cards

ISO/IEC 10373-6:2016/Amd.3:2018 , Identification cards — Test methods — Part 6: Proximity cards,

AMENDMENT 3: PICC loading effect

ISO/IEC 14443-1:2018 , Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards —

Part 1: Physical characteristics

ISO/IEC 14443-2, Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards — Part 2:

Radio frequency power and signal interface

ISO/IEC 14443-3, Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards — Part 3:

Initialization and anticollision

ISO/IEC 14443-4:2018 , Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards —

Part 4: Transmission protocol

Doc ICAO 9303-2, Machine Readable Travel Documents, Eighth Edition — Part 2: Specifications for the

Security of the Design, Manufacture and Issuance of MRTDs

Doc ICAO 9303-9, Machine Readable Travel Documents, Eighth Edition — Part 9: Deployment of Biometric

Identification and Electronic Storage of Data in MRTDs

Doc ICAO 9303-10, Machine Readable Travel Documents, Eighth Edition — Part 10: Logical Data Structure

(LDS) for Storage of Biometrics and Other Data in the Contactless Integrated Circuit (IC)

Doc ICAO 9303-11, Machine Readable Travel Documents, Eighth Edition — Part 11: Security Mechanisms

for MRTDs

1) When ISO/IEC 10373-6 or ISO/IEC 14443 (all parts) are referred to, PICC represents the eMRTD and PCD

represents eMRTD associated reader.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
test method

method for testing the characteristics of eMRTDs and eMRTD associated readers for the purpose of

assessing their conformance with International Standards
3.2
sample

piece of the total number of eMRTDs or eMRTD associated readers required and presented for testing

according to this document
3.3
PICC
eMRTD object
3.4
PCD
eMRTD associated reader
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
AA active authentication
BAC basic access control
CVCA country verifying certification authority
DUT device under test
DV document verifier

EAC extended access control (throughout this document, the term EAC refers to EAC v1)

eMRTD electronic machine-readable travel document
f frequency of operating field as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
f frequency of subcarrier as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
H minimum field strength as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
min
H maximum field strength as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
max
IS inspection system
LDS logical data structure
PACE password authenticated connection establishment
2 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
“XY” hexadecimal notation, equal to XY in base 16
REQA REQuest command, Type A as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-3
REQB REQuest command, Type B as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-3
t low EMD time, PCD as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-3
E,PCD
V EMD limit, PCD as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
E,PCD
5 Test methods for eMRTD
5.1 General test conditions
5.1.1 General

Test conditions and procedures in this clause are based on ISO/IEC 10373-6 taking into account specific

needs of eMRTD application.

This clause addresses the test of the mandatory and optional features of eMRTD's contactless interface.

5.1.2 to 5.1.5 specify the different test setups, the values used for the tests, and a recommendation for

the format of the test report.

Depending on the implementation statement of the applicant, Type A or Type B tests shall be performed.

All the tests defined in this document and relevant to eMRTD are applied in accordance to PICC Class 1.

For tests of ISO/IEC 14443-1 and ISO/IEC 14443-2 parameters, the minimum number of samples

provided for testing is three, unless explicitly defined otherwise. The applicant may request that a

larger number of samples be tested. The samples provided by the applicant shall be personalized and

should be marked each with a unique serial number.

It is not mandatory to use the same samples to run all the tests defined in this document. It's

recommended to provide to the test laboratory at least:
— 3 samples for static electricity test;
— 3 samples for alternating magnetic field test;
— 3 samples for ISO/IEC 14443-2 parameters;
— 1 sample for ISO/IEC 14443-3 and ISO/IEC 14443-4 parameters.
5.1.2 Test environment

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall take place at room temperature 23 °C ± 3 °C (73 °F ± 5 °F) and

in an environment of relative humidity 25 % to 75 %.
5.1.3 Test conditions for PICC

Unless otherwise specified, the test conditions defined in Table 1 shall be applied.

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
Table 1 — Test conditions for PICC
Conditions Temperature Values
At room tempera-
1,5 A/m, 2,5 A/m, 3,5 A/m, 4,5 A/m and 7,5 A/m
ture and -10 °C
Field strength
At + 50 °C 1,5 A/m, 2,5 A/m, 3,5 A/m, 4,5 A/m and 6,0 A/m
Optional values 5,5 A/m and 6,5 A/m may be applied in addition.
Optional value 5,5 A/m may be applied in addition.

NOTE Optional and mandatory field strength values are chosen in line with the following reasons:

— most of eMRTD associated readers operate between 1,5 A/m(rms) and 4,5 A/m(rms);

— check that there is no potential communication hole between 1,5 A/m(rms) and 4,5 A/m(rms) or more.

Unless otherwise specified, the values defined in Table 2 shall be used to adjust PICC-test-apparatus

parameters.

Table 2 — Values of the PICC-test-apparatus parameters unless otherwise specified

Parameter Value To be applied to
Parameters applicable for all bit rates
FSDI 8 Type A
Start Of Frame (SOF) timing 10 etu “0” followed by 2 etu “1” Type B
End Of Frame (EOF) timing 10 etu “0” Type B
Extra Guard Time (EGT) timing 0 etu Type B
Maximum Frame Size Code in ATTRIB 8 Type B
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /128
PCD field envelope during 60 % of t 0,5 % Type A
t 40/f Type A
1 c
t 7/f Type A
2 c
t 12/f Type A
3 c
t 6/f Type A
4 c
Overshoot 0 % Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 12 % Type B
Rise time, t , fall time, t 12/f Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /64 (optional)
a 0,1 Type A
t 18/f Type A
1 c
t 15/f Type A
5 c
t 9/f Type A
6 c
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 12 % Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 10/f Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /32
a 0,2 Type A
t 9/f Type A
1 c
t 7/f Type A
5 c
t 8/f Type A
6 c
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
4 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Parameter Value To be applied to
Modulation index m 12 % Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 8/f Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /16 (Optional)
a 0,4 Type A
t 5/f Type A
1 c
t 4/f Type A
5 c
t 5/f Type A
6 c
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 12 % Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 6/f Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /8 (Optional)
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 8 % for short modulation pulses Type A and Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 5/f Type A and Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /4 (Optional)
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 8 % for short modulation pulses Type A and Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 4/f Type A and Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /2 (Optional)
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 8 % for short modulation pulses Type A and Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 2/f Type A and Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate 3f /4 and 3f /2 (Optional)
c c
PR 56° Type A and Type B
ISI 0 Type A and Type B
ISI 1 Type A and Type B
Phase noise 0,03 Type A and Type B
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f and 2f (Optional)
c c
PR 60° Type A and Type B
ISI 0 Type A and Type B
ISI 1 Type A and Type B
Phase noise 0,012 5 Type A and Type B
5.1.4 Applicant information

In order to set up the tests properly, the information specified in Table 3 shall be known by the

laboratory. The information not accessible to the laboratory from the sample itself shall be provided by

the applicant.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
Table 3 — Applicant information on eMRTD product
Product characteristic Standard reference Applicant declaration
Physical size of product ICAO Doc 9303-2 TD1/TD2/TD3
Data page/Centre of booklet/Cover/ Sep-
Location of antenna within eMRTD ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.1
arate sewn-in page/Back cover
PICC class 1 ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.1 YES/NO
YES/NO
Shielding of eMRTD ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.7
If yes, precise where shielding is applied
(Optional) eMRTD resonance fre- Minimum and maximum resonance fre-
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.9
quency range quency in MHz
Communication signal interface ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.9 Type A/Type B
Random or fixed UID (Type A) or
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.8 Fixed / Random
PUPI (Type B)
(Optional) PCD to PICC supported List of supported optional PCD to PICC bit
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.4
bit rates rates
(Optional) PICC to PCD supported List of supported optional PICC to PCD bit
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.4
bit rates rates
(Optional) Support of exchange of
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.6 YES/NO
additional parameters
(Optional) Frames with error cor-
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.6 YES/NO
rections supported
Declare the maximum frame size integer
Maximum frame size supported ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.10
in reception supported by the eMRTD
Declare the frame waiting time integer
Frame waiting time integer ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.11
supported by the eMRTD
BAC: YES/NO
Supported access control ICAO Doc 9303-11 PACE: YES/NO
EAC: YES/NO
Active authentication supported ICAO Doc 9303-11 YES/NO
If PICC Class 1 is claimed, the Class 1 verification test is performed.
If the range is provided, the optional resonance frequency test is performed.

Information required to perform authentication is provided by the applicant (machine readable zone (MRZ), EAC

certificates chain with IS private key, static/dynamic binding). If no access control is selected by the applicant, eMRTD

supports plaintext access. If PACE is supported, PACE is applied during operating field strength test. If EAC is supported,

EAC is applied during operating field strength test in addition to BAC or PACE.
If supported, active authentication is applied during operating field strength.
5.1.5 Test report

The test report shall include the number of successful evaluations versus the total number of evaluations

for each sample and for each test. A description of each test, the information whether the result was a

pass or a fail, and the date of the tests shall be included.

For all functionality check tests, the report shall state what tools and methods have been used to verify

the functionality of the eMRTD.

The test report shall include the information on eMRTD product as defined in 5.1.4.

6 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 18745-2:2021(E)
5.2 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-1 parameters
5.2.1 Antenna size and PICC Class 1 verification (optional)
5.2.1.1 Purpose

The purpose of this test is to check if the physical coil dimensions meet the requirements according to

ISO/IEC 14443-1.

This test is optional and shall be applied if the applicant claims compliance with “Class 1” in Table 3.

5.2.1.2 Test procedure

Determine on 3 separate samples whether the eMRTD antenna is within the PICC antenna zone as

described in ISO/IEC 14443-1:2018, A.1.1. The applied method is under responsibility of test laboratory.

5.2.1.3 Test report

The test report shall state whether the coil geometry of the antenna is in accordance with PICC Class 1

definition.
5.2.2 Static electricity
5.2.2.1 Purpose
See ISO/IEC 10373-6:2016, 6.2.2.
5.2.2.2 Test procedure
Apply ISO/IEC 10373-6:2016, 6.2.2 on 3 separate samples.
The discharge value is selected according to ISO/IEC 7810:2019, 9.3.2.

In case the physical size of the eMRTD is different from ID-1, the test procedure shall be applied at the

centre of a two-dimensional 1 cm × 1 cm mesh placed over the DUT.
5.2.2.3 Test report
The te
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
18745-2
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 17
Test methods for machine readable
Secretariat: BSI
travel documents (MRTD) and
Voting begins on:
2021-06-04 associated devices —
Voting terminates on:
Part 2:
2021-07-30
Test methods for the contactless
interface
Méthodes d’essai pour les documents de voyage lisibles par machine
(MRTD) et dispositifs associés —
Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai de l'interface sans contact
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Test methods for eMRTD .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1 General test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.2 Test environment ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1.3 Test conditions for PICC ........................................................................................................................................... .. 3

5.1.4 Applicant information ................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.5 Test report ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-1 parameters .................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.1 Antenna size and PICC Class 1 verification (optional) .................................................................... 7

5.2.2 Static electricity ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.2.3 Alternating magnetic field ....................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-2 parameters .................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.1 eMRTD transmission .................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.2 Operating field strength............................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.3 eMRTD reception ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.3.4 eMRTD maximum loading effect ........................................................................................................................ 9

5.3.5 eMRTD resonance frequency (optional) ..................................................................................................... 9

5.3.6 eMRTD EMD level and low EMD time test (optional) ...................................................................10

5.4 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-3 and ISO/IEC 14443-4 parameters ........................................................................10

5.5 List of the test command sequences .................................................................................................................................11

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.5.2 Test commands for eMRTD supporting only BAC ............................................................................11

5.5.3 Test commands for eMRTD supporting PACE ......................................................................................13

5.6 Functionality check test ...............................................................................................................................................................16

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.6.2 Optional procedure 1: Application functionality check test....................................................16

5.6.3 Optional procedure 2: Electrical functionality check test .........................................................17

6 Test methods for eMRTD reader .......................................................................................................................................................17

6.1 General test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................17

6.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.1.2 Test environment .........................................................................................................................................................18

6.1.3 Test conditions for PCD ...........................................................................................................................................18

6.1.4 Applicant information ..............................................................................................................................................18

6.1.5 Test report ..........................................................................................................................................................................19

6.1.6 Definition of test positions ...................................................................................................................................19

6.2 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-1 parameters ...............................................................................................................................20

6.2.1 Alternating magnetic field ....................................................................................................................................20

6.3 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-2 parameters ...............................................................................................................................20

6.3.1 Carrier frequency .........................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.2 eMRTD reader field strength ..............................................................................................................................20

6.3.3 Modulation index and waveform ....................................................................................................................21

6.3.4 Load modulation reception .................................................................................................................................21

6.3.5 eMRTD reader EMD immunity test (optional) ....................................................................................22

6.3.6 eMRTD reader EMD recovery test (optional) ......................................................................................22

6.4 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-3 and ISO/IEC 14443-4 parameters ........................................................................23

6.5 List of test command sequences ...........................................................................................................................................24

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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)

6.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

6.5.2 Test commands...............................................................................................................................................................24

6.5.3 Default test command sequence .....................................................................................................................24

6.5.4 Test_command_sequence_1 .................................................................................................................................25

6.5.5 Test_command_sequence_2 .................................................................................................................................25

6.6 Measurement positions ................................................................................................................................................................25

7 Specific access control test sequences ........................................................................................................................................27

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.2 List of the test command sequences with EAC for eMRTD ............................................................................27

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................27

7.2.2 Test commands for eMRTD supporting EAC .........................................................................................28

7.2.3 Test commands for eMRTD supporting PACE and EAC ...............................................................29

iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, SC 17, Cards and security devices

for personal identification.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC 18745-2:2016), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— simplification of the test conditions for PCD in terms of temperature;
— modification of the loading effect required for eMRTD.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 18745 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
Introduction

This document represents a necessary step in a process designed to ensure contactless communications

interoperability between inspection systems and machine-readable travel documents to be accepted by

them. The purpose of this document is to provide the conformance test plan that needs to be performed

to ensure compliancy of inspection systems and any machine-readable travel documents in accordance

to ICAO Doc 9303.

This conformance test plan is not designed to repeat or duplicate the referenced specifications and

associated test method [essentially ISO/IEC 14443 (all parts) and ISO/IEC 10373-6] but to list the test

conditions to be performed in addition to the ones already described in the ISO/IEC 10373-6 and to

define their testing and use conditions.
vi © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
Test methods for machine readable travel documents
(MRTD) and associated devices —
Part 2:
Test methods for the contactless interface
1 Scope

This document defines the conformance test plan, based on ISO/IEC 10373-6, for the contactless

interface of eMRTDs and eMRTD associated readers compliant with ICAO Doc 9303.

Application requirements for eMRTD and eMRTD reader are outside of the scope of this document and

are defined in ICAO Doc 9303-10.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 10373-6:2016 , Identification cards — Test methods — Part 6: Proximity cards

ISO/IEC 10373-6:2016/Amd.3:2018 , Identification cards — Test methods — Part 6: Proximity cards,

AMENDMENT 3: PICC loading effect

ISO/IEC 14443-1:2018 , Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards —

Part 1: Physical characteristics

ISO/IEC 14443-2, Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards — Part 2:

Radio frequency power and signal interface

ISO/IEC 14443-3, Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards — Part 3:

Initialization and anticollision

ISO/IEC 14443-4:2018 , Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards —

Part 4: Transmission protocol

Doc ICAO 9303-2, Machine Readable Travel Documents, Eighth Edition — Part 2: Specifications for the

Security of the Design, Manufacture and Issuance of MRTDs

Doc ICAO 9303-9, Machine Readable Travel Documents, Eighth Edition — Part 9: Part 9: Deployment of

Biometric Identification and Electronic Storage of Data in MRTDs

Doc ICAO 9303-10, Machine Readable Travel Documents, Eighth Edition — Part 10: Logical Data Structure

(LDS) for Storage of Biometrics and Other Data in the Contactless Integrated Circuit (IC)

Doc ICAO 9303-11, Machine Readable Travel Documents, Eighth Edition — Part 11: Security Mechanisms

for MRTDs

1) When ISO/IEC 10373-6 or ISO/IEC 14443 (all parts) are referred, PICC represents the eMRTD and PCD

represents eMRTD associated reader.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
test method

method for testing the characteristics of eMRTDs and eMRTD associated readers for the purpose of

assessing their conformance with International Standards
3.2
sample

piece of the total number of eMRTDs or eMRTD associated readers required and presented for testing

according to this document
3.3
PICC
eMRTD object
3.4
PCD
eMRTD associated reader
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
AA active authentication
BAC basic access control
CVCA country verifying certification authority
DUT device under test
DV document verifier

EAC extended access control (throughout this document, the term EAC refers to EAC v1)

eMRTD electronic machine-readable travel document
f frequency of operating field as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
f frequency of subcarrier as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
H minimum field strength as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
min
H maximum field strength as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
max
IS inspection system
LDS logical data structure
PACE password authenticated connection establishment
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
“XY” hexadecimal notation, equal to XY in base 16
REQA REQuest command, Type A as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-3
REQB REQuest command, Type B as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-3
t low EMD time, PCD as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-3
E,PCD
V EMD limit, PCD as defined in ISO/IEC 14443-2
E,PCD
5 Test methods for eMRTD
5.1 General test conditions
5.1.1 General

Test conditions and procedures in this clause are based on ISO/IEC 10373-6 taking into account specific

needs of eMRTD application.

This clause addresses the test of the mandatory and optional features of eMRTD's contactless interface.

5.1.2 to 5.1.5 specify the different test setups, the values used for the tests, and a recommendation for

the format of the test report.

Depending on the implementation statement of the applicant, Type A or Type B tests shall be performed.

All the tests defined in this document and relevant to eMRTD are applied in accordance to PICC Class 1.

For tests of ISO/IEC 14443-1 and ISO/IEC 14443-2 parameters, the minimum number of samples

provided for testing is three, unless explicitly defined otherwise. The applicant may request that a

larger number of samples be tested. The samples provided by the applicant shall be personalized and

should be marked each with a unique serial number.

It is not mandatory to use the same samples to run all the tests defined in this document. It's

recommended to provide to the test laboratory at least:
— 3 samples for static electricity test;
— 3 samples for alternating magnetic field test;
— 3 samples for ISO/IEC 14443-2 parameters;
— 1 sample for ISO/IEC 14443-3 and ISO/IEC 14443-4 parameters.
5.1.2 Test environment

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall take place at room temperature 23 °C ± 3 °C (73 °F ± 5 °F) and

in an environment of relative humidity 25 % to 75 %.
5.1.3 Test conditions for PICC

Unless otherwise specified, the test conditions defined in Table 1 shall be applied.

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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
Table 1 — Test conditions for PICC
Conditions Temperature Values
At room tempera-
1,5 A/m, 2,5 A/m, 3,5 A/m, 4,5 A/m and 7,5 A/m
ture and -10 °C
Field strength
At + 50 °C 1,5 A/m, 2,5 A/m, 3,5 A/m, 4,5 A/m and 6,0 A/m
Optional values 5,5 A/m and 6,5 A/m may be applied in addition.
optional value 5,5 A/m may be applied in addition.

NOTE Optional and mandatory field strength values are chosen in line with the following reasons:

— most of eMRTD associated readers operate between 1,5 A/m(rms) and 4,5 A/m(rms);

— check that there is no potential communication hole between 1,5 A/m(rms) and 4,5 A/m(rms) or more.

Unless otherwise specified, the values defined in Table 2 shall be used to adjust PICC-test-apparatus

parameters.

Table 2 — Values of the PICC-test-apparatus parameters unless otherwise specified

Parameter Value To be applied to
Parameters applicable for all bit rates
FSDI 8 Type A
Start Of Frame (SOF) timing 10 etu “0” followed by 2 etu “1” Type B
End Of Frame (EOF) timing 10 etu “0” Type B
Extra Guard Time (EGT) timing 0 etu Type B
Maximum Frame Size Code in ATTRIB 8 Type B
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /128
PCD field envelope during 60 % of t 0,5 % Type A
t 40/f Type A
1 c
t 7/f Type A
2 c
t 12/f Type A
3 c
t 6/f Type A
4 c
Overshoot 0 % Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 12 % Type B
Rise time, t , fall time, t 12/f Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /64 (optional)
a 0,1 Type A
t 18/f Type A
1 c
t 15/f Type A
5 c
t 9/f Type A
6 c
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 12 % Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 10/f Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /32
a 0,2 Type A
t 9/f Type A
1 c
t 7/f Type A
5 c
t 8/f Type A
6 c
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 12 % Type B
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
Table 2 (continued)
Parameter Value To be applied to
Rise time t , fall time t 8/f Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /16 (Optional)
a 0,4 Type A
t 5/f Type A
1 c
t 4/f Type A
5 c
t 5/f Type A
6 c
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 12 % Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 6/f Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /8 (Optional)
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 8 % for short modulation pulses Type A and Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 5/f Type A and Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /4 (Optional)
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 8 % for short modulation pulses Type A and Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 4/f Type A and Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f /2 (Optional)
Overshoot 0 Type A and Type B
Modulation index m 8 % for short modulation pulses Type A and Type B
Rise time t , fall time t 2/f Type A and Type B
r f c
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate 3f /4 and 3f /2 (Optional)
c c
PR 56° Type A and Type B
ISI 0 Type A and Type B
ISI 1 Type A and Type B
Phase noise 0,03 Type A and Type B
Parameters applicable for PCD to PICC bit rate f and 2f (Optional)
c c
PR 60° Type A and Type B
ISI 0 Type A and Type B
ISI 1 Type A and Type B
Phase noise 0,012 5 Type A and Type B
5.1.4 Applicant information

In order to set up the tests properly, the information specified in Table 3 shall be known by the

laboratory. The information not accessible to the laboratory from the sample itself shall be provided by

the applicant.
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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
Table 3 — Applicant information on eMRTD product
Product characteristic Standard reference Applicant declaration
Physical size of product ICAO Doc 9303-2 TD1/TD2/TD3
Data page/Centre of booklet/Cover/ Sep-
Location of antenna within eMRTD ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.1
arate sewn-in page/Back cover
PICC class 1 ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.1 YES/NO
YES/NO
Shielding of eMRTD ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.7
If yes, precise where shielding is applied
(Optional) eMRTD resonance fre- Minimum and maximum resonance fre-
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.9
quency range quency in MHz
Communication signal interface ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.9 Type A/Type B
Random or fixed UID (Type A) or
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.8 Fixed / Random
PUPI (Type B)
(Optional) PCD to PICC supported List of supported optional PCD to PICC bit
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.4
bit rates rates
(Optional) PICC to PCD supported List of supported optional PICC to PCD bit
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.4
bit rates rates
(Optional) Support of exchange of
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.6 YES/NO
additional parameters
(Optional) Frames with error cor-
ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.6 YES/NO
rections supported
Declare the maximum frame size integer
Maximum frame size supported ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.10
in reception supported by the eMRTD
Declare the frame waiting time integer
Frame waiting time integer ICAO Doc 9303-10, B.11
supported by the eMRTD
BAC: YES/NO
Supported access control ICAO Doc 9303-11 PACE: YES/NO
EAC: YES/NO
Active authentication supported ICAO Doc 9303-11 YES/NO
If PICC Class 1 is claimed, the Class 1 verification test is performed.
If the range is provided, the optional resonance frequency test is performed.

Information required to perform authentication is provided by the applicant (machine readable zone (MRZ), EAC

certificates chain with IS private key, static/dynamic binding). If no access control is selected by the applicant, eMRTD

supports plaintext access. If PACE is supported, PACE is applied during operating field strength test. If EAC is supported,

EAC is applied during operating field strength test in addition to BAC or PACE.
If supported, active authentication is applied during operating field strength.
5.1.5 Test report

The test report shall include the number of successful evaluations versus the total number of evaluations

for each sample and for each test. A description of each test, the information whether the result was a

pass or a fail, and the date of the tests shall be included.

For all functionality check tests, the report shall state what tools and methods have been used to verify

the functionality of the eMRTD.

The test report shall include the information on eMRTD product as defined in 5.1.4.

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ISO/IEC FDIS 18745-2:2021(E)
5.2 Test of ISO/IEC 14443-1 parameters
5.2.1 Antenna size and PICC Class 1 verification (optional)
5.2.1.1 Purpose

The purpose of this test is to check if the physical coil dimensions meet the requirements according to

ISO/IEC 14443-1.

This test is optional and shall be applied if the applicant claims compliance with “Class 1” in Table 3.

5.2.1.2 Test procedure

Determine on 3 separate samples whether the eMRTD antenna is within the PICC antenna zone as

described in
...

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