Steels for cold heading and cold extruding

This document specifies requirements for non-alloy and alloy steels that are intended for cold heading or cold extruding and are delivered as wire rods, wire or bars. It also contains specific requirements for: — steels not intended for heat treatment, with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex A); — case-hardening steels with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex B); — steels for quenching and tempering, including boron-alloyed steels (see Table C.3), with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex C); — stainless steels with diameters of 0,8 mm up to 50 mm for austenitic steels, up to 25 mm for ferritic steels and up to 100 mm for martensitic steels (see Annex D). This document (except Annex A) is applicable to the properties of cold-headed or cold-extruded parts which have been subjected to a subsequent heat treatment. As the properties of the parts in the cold-headed or cold-extruded, and subsequently not-heat-treated condition, are largely dependent on the applied cold-heading or cold-extruding conditions, these are, if necessary, subject to agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer of the parts.

Aciers pour transformation à froid et extrusion à froid

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
02-Jun-2022
Due Date
29-May-2023
Completion Date
02-Jun-2022
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 4954
Fifth edition
2022-06
Steels for cold heading and cold
extruding
Aciers pour transformation à froid et extrusion à froid
Reference number
ISO 4954:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 4954:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 4954:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Classification and designation .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser ....................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Mandatory information .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2 Options and/or supplementary or special requirements ................................................................................. 4

5.3 Ordering example................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Manufacturing process ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Deoxidation................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3 Heat-treatment condition and surface condition at delivery ........................................................................ 5

6.3.1 Heat-treatment condition ........................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.2 Particular surface conditions ................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4 Traceability of the cast .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.5 Statistical evaluation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and hardenability .......................................................... 6

7.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1.2 Chemical composition ........................................................................................................................................... ......... 6

7.1.3 Mechanical properties ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 8

7.1.4 Hardenability (only applicable to steel grades of Annexes B and C).................................... 8

7.2 Grain size ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Carbide spheroidization (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C).................................... 9

7.4 Non-metallic inclusions .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4.1 Microscopic inclusions (only applicable for steels of Annexes B and C) ........................... 9

7.4.2 Macroscopic inclusions ................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.5 Internal soundness ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.6 Aptitude to cold forming ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.7 Surface quality ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.7.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.7.2 Wire rod (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ..................................................... 10

7.7.3 Bars (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ................................................................ 10

7.7.4 Wire rod and bars for stainless steels (only applicable for steels of Annex D)........ 10

7.7.5 Bright products ................................... .............................................................................................................................. 10

7.7.6 Removal of surface defects .................................................................................................................................... 10

7.7.7 Non-destructive testing of the surface ........................................................................................................ 10

7.8 Decarburization (only applicable for steels of Annexes B and C) .......................................................... 10

7.9 Corrosion resistance of stainless steels ........................................................................................................................ 11

7.10 Shape, dimensions and tolerances ..................................................................................................................................... 11

8 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 Testing procedures and types of documents............................................................................................................ 11

8.2 Summary of specific inspection and frequency of testing ...........................................................................12

9 Preparation of samples and test pieces ....................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Selection and preparation of samples for product analysis ........................................................................13

9.2 Selection and preparation of samples and test pieces for the mechanical test .........................13

10 Test methods .........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.1 Chemical analysis .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

iii
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ISO 4954:2022(E)

10.2 Mechanical tests ................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.3 Hardenability and core hardness tests .......................................................................................................................... 14

10.3.1 Verification of hardenability ................................................................................................................................. 14

10.3.2 Verification of core hardness ............................................................................................................................... 14

10.4 Aptitude to cold forming ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.4.1 Upsetting test for non-alloy and alloy steels of Annexes A, B and C .................................. 14

10.4.2 Upsetting test for stainless steels of Annex D ....................................................................................... 15

10.5 Non-destructive testing .............................................................................................................................................................. 15

10.6 Visual and dimensional test ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

10.7 Retests ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15

11 Surface treatment, marking and packaging ........................................................................................................................15

11.1 Surface treatment and temporary corrosion protection ............................................................................... 15

11.2 Marking ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

11.3 Packaging ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

Annex A (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding steels not

intended for heat treatment after cold working .............................................................................................................17

Annex B (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding case-

hardening steels ................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex C (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding steels for

quenching and tempering .......................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex D (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding stainless

steels ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................51

Annex E (normative) Supplementary or special requirements ...........................................................................................59

Annex F (informative) Designation of steels given in Annexes A, B, C and D and the

comparable grades covered in various designation systems ...........................................................................63

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................67

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 4954:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 17, Steel, Subcommittee SC 4, Heat

treatable and alloy steels.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 4954:2021), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes are as follows:
— the wording in 5.2 c) was corrected;

— in Table F.1 the steel numbers in column 6 were corrected for steel grades 17Cr3, 10NiCr5-4 and

X3NiCr18-16 and the steel number for steel grade 20MnB5 was added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 4954:2022(E)
Steels for cold heading and cold extruding
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for non-alloy and alloy steels that are intended for cold heading

or cold extruding and are delivered as wire rods, wire or bars. It also contains specific requirements

for:

— steels not intended for heat treatment, with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex A);

— case-hardening steels with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex B);

— steels for quenching and tempering, including boron-alloyed steels (see Table C.3), with diameters

from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex C);

— stainless steels with diameters of 0,8 mm up to 50 mm for austenitic steels, up to 25 mm for ferritic

steels and up to 100 mm for martensitic steels (see Annex D).

This document (except Annex A) is applicable to the properties of cold-headed or cold-extruded parts

which have been subjected to a subsequent heat treatment. As the properties of the parts in the cold-

headed or cold-extruded, and subsequently not-heat-treated condition, are largely dependent on the

applied cold-heading or cold-extruding conditions, these are, if necessary, subject to agreement between

the purchaser and the manufacturer of the parts.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 377, Steel and steel products — Location and preparation of samples and test pieces for mechanical

testing
ISO 404, Steel and steel products — General technical delivery requirements
ISO 642, Steel — Hardenability test by end quenching (Jominy test)
ISO 643, Steels — Micrographic determination of the apparent grain size

ISO 683-1, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 1: Non-alloy steels for quenching

and tempering·

ISO 683-2, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 2: Alloy steels for quenching and

tempering

ISO 683-3, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 3: Case-hardening steels

ISO 683-18:2014, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 18: Bright steel products

ISO 1035-1, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 1: Dimensions of round bars
ISO 1035-2, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 2: Dimensions of square bars
ISO 1035-3, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 3: Dimensions of flat bars
ISO 1035-4, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 4: Tolerances
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 4954:2022(E)

ISO 3651-2, Determination of resistance to intergranular corrosion of stainless steels — Part 2:

Ferritic,austenitic and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steels — Corrosion test in media containing

sulfuric acid
ISO 3887, Steels — Determination of the depth of decarburization
ISO 4885, Ferrous materials — Heat treatments — Vocabulary

ISO 4948-1, Steels — Classification — Part 1: Classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based

on chemical composition

ISO 4948-2, Steels — Classification — Part 2: Classification of unalloyed and alloy steels according to main

quality classes and main property or application characteristics
ISO/TS 4949, Steel names based on letter symbols

ISO 4967:2013, Steel — Determination of content of non-metallic inclusions — Micrographic method using

standard diagrams
ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 6929, Steel products — Vocabulary
ISO 9443, Surface quality classes for hot-rolled bars and wire rod

ISO 9934-1, Non-destructive testing — Magnetic particle testing — Part 1: General principles

ISO 10474, Steel and steel products — Inspection documents

ISO 14284, Steel and iron — Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemical

composition
ISO 15549, Non-destructive testing — Eddy current testing — General principles
ISO 16124, Steel wire rod — Dimensions and tolerances

ISO 16143-2, Stainless steels for general purposes — Part 2: Corrosion-resistant semi-finished products,

bars, rods and sections

ISO 22034-2, Steel wire and wire products — Part 2: Tolerances on wire dimensions

EN 10204, Metallic products — Types of inspection documents
JIS G 0415, Steel and steel products —Inspection documents

JIS G 0555:2015, Microscopic testing method for the non-metallic inclusions in steel

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 377, ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2,

ISO 683-3, ISO 683-18, ISO 4885, ISO 4948-1, ISO 4948-2, ISO 6929, ISO 14284, ISO 16143-2 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 4954:2022(E)
3.1
bright steel product

drawn or peeled/turned bar with smoother surface quality and better dimensional accuracy in

comparison with a hot-rolled bar
3.2
drawn product

product of various cross-sectional shapes obtained, after descaling, by cold drawing of hot-rolled bars

or wire rod, on a drawing bench (cold deformation without removing material)

Note 1 to entry: This operation gives the product special features with respect to shape, dimensional accuracy

and surface finish. Products in lengths are delivered straightened, products of small cross-section may also be

supplied in coils.
3.3
peeled/turned product

steel bar of circular cross-section having the same features of drawn products (3.2) concerning shape,

dimensional accuracy and bright surface finish but without work hardening

Note 1 to entry: They are produced by peeling on a peeling machine usually followed by straightening and by

polishing. The removal of metal by peeling is carried out in such a way that the bright product is generally free

from surface defects and decarburization coming from the hot-rolling process.
4 Classification and designation
4.1 Classification

The classification of the relevant steel grades shall be in accordance with ISO 4948-1 and ISO 4948-2.

All steel grades mentioned in this document are special steels in accordance with ISO 4948-2.

The steels not intended for heat treatment after cold forming (see Annex A) are non-alloy steels.

The case-hardening steel grades (see Annex B) are alloy steels, except steel grades C10E2C to C20E2C.

The steel grades for quenching and tempering (see Annex C) are alloy steel grades, except steel grades

C35EC to C45RC.

The steel stainless steel grades (see Annex D) are classified according to their microstructures.

4.2 Designation

For the steel grades covered by this document, the steel names as given in the relevant tables shall be

allocated in accordance with ISO/TS 4949.

Annex F provides a list of steels given in Annexes A, B, C and D and the comparable grades covered in

various designation systems.
5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser
5.1 Mandatory information

The manufacturer shall obtain the following information from the purchaser at the time of enquiry and

order:
a) the quantity to be delivered (mass, length);
b) the product form (round bar, wire rod, wire);
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 4954:2022(E)

c) the nominal diameter and the tolerances on dimensions and shape of the product with reference to

the relevant International Standard;

d) for bars, the length; and for wire rod and wire, the dimensions, i.e. inner diameter and mass of the

coils;
e) reference to this document, i.e. ISO 4954;

f) the designation of the steel grade given in Tables A.2, B.2, C.2, C.3 and D.2;

g) if applicable, the symbol for the required heat-treatment condition, see Tables A.3, B.3 to B.7, C.4 to

C.10 and D.3 to D.6;

h) standard designation for a test report 2.2 or, if required, any other type of inspection document in

accordance with ISO 10474.
5.2 Options and/or supplementary or special requirements

A number of options are specified in this document and listed below. If the purchaser does not indicate

a wish to implement any of these options, the products will be supplied in accordance with the basic

specifications of this document (see 5.1).

a) Any requirement for the hardenability (+H, +HH, +HL) of case-hardening steels of Annex B and

of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C and for the core hardening (+CH) of steels for

quenching and tempering of Annex C, see 7.1.4.

b) Verification of hardenability and, if agreed, information about the calculation of the hardenability

for the case-hardening steels of Annex B and for the steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C,

see 10.3.1.

c) If another surface condition than hot-rolled or a special surface quality is required, for the surface

condition, see Table 1, and for the surface quality E for bars and wire rod, see 7.7.2 and 7.7.3.

d) Any requirement relating to the removal of surface defects, see 7.7.6.
e) Any requirement for the verification of the surface quality, see 7.7.5.
f) Any requirement for a product analysis, see 7.1.2.2.

g) Any requirement for the verification of the fine grain structure, see E.2, of case-hardening steels of

Annex B and of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C.

h) Carbide spheroidization, see 7.3, and any requirement for the verification of the carbide

spheroidization, see E.3.

i) Any requirement for the verification of the non-metallic inclusions of case-hardening steels of

Annex B and of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C, see 7.4 and E.4.

j) Internal soundness and any requirements for non-destructive testing, see 7.5 and 10.5.

k) Verification of aptitude to cold forming, see 7.6 and 10.4.

l) Maximum depth of surface discontinuities for stainless steels, see 7.7.4 and E.5.

m) Any requirement concerning non-destructive testing of the surface, see 7.7.7 and 10.5.

n) Depth of decarburization, see 7.8, and any requirements for testing the depth of decarburization,

see E.6.

o) Corrosion resistance of stainless steel products and any requirements for resistance to

intergranular corrosion, see E.7.

p) Any requirement concerning surface treatment and temporary corrosion protection, see 11.1.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 4954:2022(E)
q) Any special requirements concerning special or additional marking, see 11.2.
r) Any special requirements concerning packaging, see 11.3.
s) Statistical evaluation, see 6.5.
5.3 Ordering example

EXAMPLE 50 t round bars with a nominal diameter of 40 mm and a nominal length of 6 000 mm with

diameter tolerance according to class S and with length tolerance according to class L2 of ISO 1035-4 made

of steel grade ISO 4954, 42CrMo4 in the heat-treatment condition +AC+PE (see Table C.5), with hardenability

requirement +H (see Table C.7) and product analysis with an inspection certificate 3.1 in accordance with

ISO 10474.
50 t round bars ISO 1035-4 – 40,0S × 6 000L2
ISO 4954, 42CrMo4+AC+PE+H – product analysis
ISO 10474 – 3.1
6 Manufacturing process
6.1 General

The manufacturing process of the steel and of the products is, with the restrictions given by the

requirements in 6.2 to 6.4, left to the discretion of the manufacturer.
6.2 Deoxidation

All steels shall be deoxidized. The steels not intended for heat treatment (see Annex A) are aluminium

or silicon killed. By agreement, aluminium may be replaced by another suitable element having a similar

effect.
6.3 Heat-treatment condition and surface condition at delivery
6.3.1 Heat-treatment condition

Treatment and heat-treatment condition shall conform to one of the conditions indicated in Tables A.1,

B.1, C.1 and D.1.

Bright steel products in cold drawn or peeled/turned condition are coated with a light film of grease

from processing. For bright steel products in a finally heat-treated condition, the manufacturer chooses

the rust protection after heat treatment.

The usual light application of ordinary grease or oil does not afford positive protection against rusting,

particularly in the presence of condensation water. Any surface treatment that can facilitate subsequent

cold heading and cold extrusion or partially delay any formation of rust shall, if required, be agreed at

the time of enquiry and order, see 11.1.
6.3.2 Particular surface conditions
If so agreed at the time of enquiry and or
...

ISO/TC 17/SC 4
Date: 2022-01-0102-14
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
Secretariat: DIN
Steels for cold heading and cold extruding
Aciers pour transformation à froid et extrusion à froid
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no

part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without

prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO Copyright Office
CP 401 • CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: + 41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland.
ii © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................... iv

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 3

4 Classification and designation ......................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Classification ........................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Designation ............................................................................................................................................. 4

5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser ............................................................................. 4

5.1 Mandatory information ...................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Options and/or supplementary or special requirements ...................................................... 4

5.3 Ordering example ................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Manufacturing process ....................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Deoxidation ............................................................................................................................................. 6

6.3 Heat-treatment condition and surface condition at delivery ............................................... 6

6.3.1 Heat-treatment condition .................................................................................................................. 6

6.3.2 Particular surface conditions ........................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Traceability of the cast ........................................................................................................................ 7

6.5 Statistical evaluation ........................................................................................................................... 7

7 Requirements ......................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and hardenability ..................................... 7

7.1.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.2 Chemical composition ......................................................................................................................... 7

7.1.3 Mechanical properties ........................................................................................................................ 9

7.1.4 Hardenability (only applicable to steel grades of Annexes B and C) ................................. 9

7.2 Grain size ............................................................................................................................................... 10

7.3 Carbide spheroidization (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ................. 10

7.4 Non-metallic inclusions .................................................................................................................... 10

7.4.1 Microscopic inclusions (only applicable for steels of Annexes B and C) ........................ 10

7.4.2 Macroscopic inclusions ..................................................................................................................... 10

7.5 Internal soundness ............................................................................................................................. 10

7.6 Aptitude to cold forming .................................................................................................................. 10

7.7 Surface quality ..................................................................................................................................... 10

7.7.1 General .................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.7.2 Wire rod (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ............................................... 10

7.7.3 Bars (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ........................................................ 11

7.7.4 Wire rod and bars for stainless steels (only applicable for steels of Annex D) ............ 11

7.7.5 Bright products .................................................................................................................................... 11

7.7.6 Removal of surface defects .............................................................................................................. 11

7.7.7 Non-destructive testing of the surface ........................................................................................ 11

7.8 Decarburization (only applicable for steels of Annexes B and C) ..................................... 11

7.9 Corrosion resistance of stainless steels ...................................................................................... 12

7.10 Shape, dimensions and tolerances ............................................................................................... 12

8 Inspection .............................................................................................................................................. 12

8.1 Testing procedures and types of documents ............................................................................ 12

8.2 Summary of specific inspection and frequency of testing .................................................... 12

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)

9 Preparation of samples and test pieces ...................................................................................... 13

9.1 Selection and preparation of samples for product analysis ................................................ 13

9.2 Selection and preparation of samples and test pieces for the mechanical test ........... 14

10 Test methods ........................................................................................................................................ 15

10.1 Chemical analysis ................................................................................................................................ 15

10.2 Mechanical tests .................................................................................................................................. 15

10.3 Hardenability and core hardness tests ....................................................................................... 15

10.3.1 Verification of hardenability .......................................................................................................... 15

10.3.2 Verification of core hardness ......................................................................................................... 15

10.4 Aptitude to cold forming .................................................................................................................. 15

10.4.1 Upsetting test for non-alloy and alloy steels of Annexes A, B and C ................................. 15

10.4.2 Upsetting test for stainless steels of Annex D ........................................................................... 16

10.5 Non-destructive testing .................................................................................................................... 16

10.6 Visual and dimensional test ............................................................................................................ 16

10.7 Retests ..................................................................................................................................................... 16

11 Surface treatment, marking and packaging .............................................................................. 16

11.1 Surface treatment and temporary corrosion protection ..................................................... 16

11.2 Marking .................................................................................................................................................. 16

11.3 Packaging ............................................................................................................................................... 17

Annex A (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding steels not

intended for heat treatment after cold working ..................................................................... 18

Annex B (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding case-

hardening steels .................................................................................................................................. 23

Annex C (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding steels for

quenching and tempering ................................................................................................................ 34

Annex D (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding stainless

steels ........................................................................................................................................................ 52

Annex E (normative) Supplementary or special requirements ....................................................... 60

Annex F (informative) Designation of steels given in Annexes A, B, C and D and the

comparable grades covered in various designation systems ............................................. 64

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 69

iv © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO

collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World

Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 17, Steel, Subcommittee SC 4, Heat

treatable and alloy steels.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 4954:2021), of which it constitutes a minor

revision. The changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— the wording in 5.2 c) was corrected;

— in Table F.1 the steel numbers in column 6 were corrected for steel grades 17Cr3, 10NiCr5-4 and

X3NiCr18-16 were corrected and the steel number for stellsteel grade20MnB5 was added;

— editorial corrections.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at
www.iso.org/members.html.www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
Steels for cold heading and cold extruding
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for non-alloy and alloy steels that are intended for cold heading or

cold extruding and are delivered as wire rods, wire or bars. It also contains specific requirements for:

— steels not intended for heat treatment, with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex A);

— case-hardening steels with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex B);

— steels for quenching and tempering, including boron alloyed steels (see Table C.3), with diameters

from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex C);

— stainless steels with diameters of 0,8 mm up to 50 mm for austenitic steels, up to 25 mm for ferritic

steels and up to 100 mm for martensitic steels (see Annex D).

This document (except Annex A) is applicable to the properties of cold-headed or cold-extruded parts

which have been subjected to a subsequent heat treatment. As the properties of the parts in the cold-

headed or cold-extruded, and subsequently not-heat-treated condition, are largely dependent on the

applied cold-heading or cold-extruding conditions, these are, if necessary, subject to agreement between

the purchaser and the manufacturer of the parts.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 377, Steel and steel products — Location and preparation of samples and test pieces for mechanical

testing
ISO 404, Steel and steel products — General technical delivery requirements
ISO 642, Steel — Hardenability test by end quenching (Jominy test)
ISO 643, Steels — Micrographic determination of the apparent grain size

ISO 683-1, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 1: Non-alloy steels for quenching

and tempering·

ISO 683-2, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 2: Alloy steels for quenching and

tempering

ISO 683-3, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 3: Case-hardening steels

ISO 683-18:2014, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 18: Bright steel products

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
ISO 1035-1, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 1: Dimensions of round bars
ISO 1035-2, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 2: Dimensions of square bars
ISO 1035-3, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 3: Dimensions of flat bars
ISO 1035-4, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 4: Tolerances

ISO 3651-2, Determination of resistance to intergranular corrosion of stainless steels — Part 2:

Ferritic,austenitic and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steels — Corrosion test in media containing

sulfuric acid
ISO 3887, Steels — Determination of the depth of decarburization
ISO 4885, Ferrous materials — Heat treatments — Vocabulary

ISO 4948-1, Steels — Classification — Part 1: Classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based

on chemical composition

ISO 4948-2, Steels — Classification — Part 2: Classification of unalloyed and alloy steels according to main

quality classes and main property or application characteristics
ISO/TS 4949, Steel names based on letter symbols

ISO 4967:2013, Steel — Determination of content of non-metallic inclusions — Micrographic method using

standard diagrams
ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 6929, Steel products — Vocabulary
ISO 9443, Surface quality classes for hot-rolled bars and wire rod

ISO 9934-1, Non-destructive testing — Magnetic particle testing — Part 1: General principles

ISO 10474, Steel and steel products — Inspection documents

ISO 14284, Steel and iron — Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemical

composition
ISO 15549, Non-destructive testing — Eddy current testing — General principles
ISO 16124, Steel wire rod — Dimensions and tolerances

ISO 16143-2, Stainless steels for general purposes — Part 2: Corrosion-resistant semi-finished products,

bars, rods and sections

ISO 22034-2, Steel wire and wire products — Part 2: Tolerances on wire dimensions

EN 10204, Metallic products — Types of inspection documents
JIS G 0415, Steel and steel products —Inspection documents
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)

JIS G 0555:2015, Microscopic testing method for the non-metallic inclusions in steel

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 377, ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2,

ISO 683-3, ISO 683-18, ISO 4885, ISO 4948-1, ISO 4948-2, ISO 6929, ISO 14284, ISO 16143-2 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminologicalterminology databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/https://www.electropedia.org/

3.1
bright steel product

drawn or peeled/turned bar with smoother surface quality and better dimensional accuracy in

comparison with a hot-rolled bar
3.2
drawn product

product of various cross-sectional shapes obtained, after descaling, by cold drawing of hot-rolled bars or

wire rod, on a drawing bench (cold deformation without removing material)

Note 1 to entry: This operation gives the product special features with respect to shape, dimensional accuracy

and surface finish. Products in lengths are delivered straightened, products of small cross-section may also be

supplied in coils.
3.3
peeled/turned product

steel bar of circular cross-section having the same features of drawn products (3.2) concerning shape,

dimensional accuracy and bright surface finish but without work hardening

Note 1 to entry: They are produced by peeling on a peeling machine usually followed by straightening and by

polishing. The removal of metal by peeling is carried out in such a way that the bright product is generally free from

surface defects and decarburization coming from the hot-rolling process.
4 Classification and designation
4.1 Classification

The classification of the relevant steel grades shall be in accordance with ISO 4948-1 and ISO 4948-2.

All steel grades mentioned in this document are special steels in accordance with ISO 4948-2.

The steels not intended for heat treatment after cold forming (see Annex A) are non-alloy steels.

The case hardening steel grades (see Annex B) are alloy steels, except steel grades C10E2C to C20E2C.

The steel grades for quenching and tempering (see Annex C) are alloy steel grades, except steel grades

C35EC to C45RC.

The steel stainless steel grades (see Annex D) are classified according to their microstructures.

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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
4.2 Designation

For the steel grades covered by this document, the steel names as given in the relevant tables shall be

allocated in accordance with ISO/TS 4949.

Annex F provides a list of steels given in Annexes A, B, C and D and the comparable grades covered in

various designation systems.
5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser
5.1 Mandatory information

The manufacturer shall obtain the following information from the purchaser at the time of enquiry and

order:
a) the quantity to be delivered (mass, length);
b) the product form (round bar, wire rod, wire);

c) the nominal diameter and the tolerances on dimensions and shape of the product with reference to

the relevant International Standard;

d) for bars, the length; and for wire rod and wire, the dimensions, i.e. inner diameter and mass of the

coils;
e) reference to this document, i.e. ISO 4954;

f) the designation of the steel grade given in Tables A.2, B.2, C.2, C.3 and D.2;

g) if applicable, the symbol for the required heat-treatment condition, see Tables A.3, B.3 to B.7, C.4 to

C.10 and D.3 to D.6;

h) standard designation for a test report 2.2 or, if required, any other type of inspection document in

accordance with ISO 10474.
5.2 Options and/or supplementary or special requirements

A number of options are specified in this document and listed below. If the purchaser does not indicate a

wish to implement any of these options, the products will be supplied in accordance with the basic

specifications of this document (see 5.1).

a) Any requirement for the hardenability (+H, +HH, +HL) of case hardening steels of Annex B and of

steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C and for the core hardening (+CH) of steels for

quenching and tempering of Annex C, see 7.1.4.

b) Verification of hardenability and, if agreed, information about the calculation of the hardenability for

the case hardening steels of Annex B and for the steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C, see

10.3.1.

c) If another surface condition than hot-rolled or a special surface quality is required, for the surface

condition, see Table 1, and for the surface quality E for bars and wire rod, see 7.7.2 and 7.7.3.

d) Any requirement relating to the removal of surface defects, see 7.7.6.
e) Any requirement for the verification of the surface quality, see 7.7.5.
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
f) Any requirement for a product analysis, see 7.1.2.2.

g) Any requirement for the verification of the fine grain structure, see E.2, of case hardening steels of

Annex B and of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C.

h) Carbide spheroidization, see 7.3, and any requirement for the verification of the carbide

spheroidization, see E.3.

i) Any requirement for the verification of the non-metallic inclusions of case hardening steels of

Annex B and of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C, see 7.4 and E.4.

j) Internal soundness and any requirements for non-destructive testing, see 7.5 and 10.5.

k) Verification of aptitude to cold forming, see 7.6 and 10.4.

l) Maximum depth of surface discontinuities for stainless steels, see 7.7.4 and E.5.

m) Any requirement concerning non-destructive testing of the surface, see 7.7.7 and 10.5.

n) Depth of decarburization, see 7.8, and any requirements for testing the depth of decarburization, see

E.6.

o) Corrosion resistance of stainless steel products and any requirements for resistance to intergranular

corrosion, see E.7.

p) Any requirement concerning surface treatment and temporary corrosion protection, see 11.1.

q) Any special requirements concerning special or additional marking, see 11.2.
r) Any special requirements concerning packaging, see 11.3.
s) Statistical evaluation, see 6.5.
5.3 Ordering example

EXAMPLE 50 t round bars with a nominal diameter of 40 mm and a nominal length of 6 000 mm with diameter

tolerance according to class S and with length tolerance according to class L2 of ISO 1035-4 made of steel grade

ISO 4954, 42CrMo4 in the heat-treatment condition +AC+PE (see Table C.5), with hardenability requirement +H

(see Table C.7) and product analysis with an inspection certificate 3.1 in accordance with ISO 10474.

50 t round bars ISO 1035-4 – 40,0S × 6 000L2
ISO 4954, 42CrMo4+AC+PE+H – product analysis
ISO 10474 – 3.1
6 Manufacturing process
6.1 General

The manufacturing process of the steel and of the products is, with the restrictions given by the

requirements in 6.2 to 6.4, left to the discretion of the manufacturer.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
6.2 Deoxidation

All steels shall be deoxidized. The steels not intended for heat treatment (see Annex A) are aluminium or

silicon killed. By agreement, aluminium may be replaced by another suitable element having a similar

effect.
6.3 Heat-treatment condition and surface condition at delivery
6.3.1 Heat-treatment condition

Treatment and heat-treatment condition shall conform to one of the conditions indicated in Tables A.1,

B.1, C.1 and D.1.

Bright steel products in cold drawn or peeled/turned condition are coated with a light film of grease from

processing. For bright steel products in a finally heat-treated condition, the manufacturer chooses the

rust protection after heat treatment.

The usual light application of ordinary grease or oil does not afford positive protection against rusting,

particularly in the presence of condensation water. Any surface treatment that can facilitate subsequent

cold heading and cold extrusion or partially delay any formation of rust shall, if required, be agreed at the

time of enquiry and order, see 11.1.
6.3.2 Particular surface conditions

If so agreed at the time of enquiry and order, the products shall be delivered in one of the particular

surface conditions given in Table 1.
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
Table 1 — Surface condition at delivery
Surface condition at delivery Symbol Bar Wire rod Wire
Unless otherwise agreed as-rolled none or +AR x x —
cold drawn +C x — x
Particular surface conditions
skin passed +LC x — x
supplied by agreement
peeled +PE x x x
6.4 Traceability of the cast
Each product shall be traceable to the cast, see 11.2.
6.5 Statistical evaluation

Suppliers are responsible, using the means they think fit, for inspecting their product in accordance with

various quality criteria specified. In view of the practical difficulties in inspecting a coil of wire rod along

its entire length, it cannot be proved that no value greater than the specified limits is to be found in the

coil as a whole. Statistical evaluation of performances applicable to all coils may be agreed between the

purchaser and the manufacturer at the time of ordering.
7 Requirements
7.1 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and hardenability
7.1.1 General

Wire rod, bars and wire shall be supplied in one of the delivery conditions as indicated in Tables A.1, B.1,

C.1 and D.1 as agreed at the time of enquiry and order. These tables show the combinations of usual heat-

treatment conditions at delivery, product forms and applicable requirements.

In addition to this document, the general technical delivery requirements of ISO 404 are applicable.

7.1.2 Chemical composition

7.1.2.1 The chemical composition determined by cast analysis shall conform to the values in Tables A.2,

B.2, C.2, C.3 and D.2.

In cases where steels for case hardening or for quenching and tempering are ordered with hardenability

requirements in accordance with Tables B.6, B.7, C.7, C.8 and C.9, a deviation of the cast analysis with

respect to the values indicated in Tables B.2, C.2 and C.3 is admissible, taking into account the

prescriptions given in footnote b) of those tables. In any case, however, the deviations in the product

analysis in relation to the specified limits of cast analysis shall not exceed the values indicated in Ta

...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 4954
ISO/TC 17/SC 4
Steels for cold heading and cold
Secretariat: DIN
extruding
Voting begins on:
2022-03-01
Aciers pour transformation à froid et extrusion à froid
Voting terminates on:
2022-04-26
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. © ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Classification and designation .............................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser ....................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Mandatory information .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2 Options and/or supplementary or special requirements ................................................................................. 4

5.3 Ordering example................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6 Manufacturing process ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Deoxidation................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3 Heat-treatment condition and surface condition at delivery ........................................................................ 5

6.3.1 Heat-treatment condition ........................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.2 Particular surface conditions ................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4 Traceability of the cast .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.5 Statistical evaluation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and hardenability .......................................................... 6

7.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.1.2 Chemical composition ........................................................................................................................................... ......... 6

7.1.3 Mechanical properties ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 8

7.1.4 Hardenability (only applicable to steel grades of Annexes B and C).................................... 8

7.2 Grain size ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Carbide spheroidization (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C).................................... 9

7.4 Non-metallic inclusions .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4.1 Microscopic inclusions (only applicable for steels of Annexes B and C) ........................... 9

7.4.2 Macroscopic inclusions ................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.5 Internal soundness ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.6 Aptitude to cold forming ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.7 Surface quality ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.7.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 10

7.7.2 Wire rod (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ..................................................... 10

7.7.3 Bars (only applicable for steels of Annexes A, B and C) ................................................................ 10

7.7.4 Wire rod and bars for stainless steels (only applicable for steels of Annex D)........ 10

7.7.5 Bright products ................................... .............................................................................................................................. 10

7.7.6 Removal of surface defects .................................................................................................................................... 10

7.7.7 Non-destructive testing of the surface ........................................................................................................ 10

7.8 Decarburization (only applicable for steels of Annexes B and C) .......................................................... 10

7.9 Corrosion resistance of stainless steels ........................................................................................................................ 11

7.10 Shape, dimensions and tolerances ..................................................................................................................................... 11

8 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.1 Testing procedures and types of documents............................................................................................................ 11

8.2 Summary of specific inspection and frequency of testing ...........................................................................12

9 Preparation of samples and test pieces ....................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Selection and preparation of samples for product analysis ........................................................................13

9.2 Selection and preparation of samples and test pieces for the mechanical test .........................13

10 Test methods .........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

10.1 Chemical analysis .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14

iii
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)

10.2 Mechanical tests ................................................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.3 Hardenability and core hardness tests .......................................................................................................................... 14

10.3.1 Verification of hardenability ................................................................................................................................. 14

10.3.2 Verification of core hardness ............................................................................................................................... 14

10.4 Aptitude to cold forming ............................................................................................................................................................. 14

10.4.1 Upsetting test for non-alloy and alloy steels of Annexes A, B and C .................................. 14

10.4.2 Upsetting test for stainless steels of Annex D ....................................................................................... 15

10.5 Non-destructive testing .............................................................................................................................................................. 15

10.6 Visual and dimensional test ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

10.7 Retests ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15

11 Surface treatment, marking and packaging ........................................................................................................................15

11.1 Surface treatment and temporary corrosion protection ............................................................................... 15

11.2 Marking ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

11.3 Packaging ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

Annex A (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding steels not

intended for heat treatment after cold working .............................................................................................................17

Annex B (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding case-

hardening steels ................................................................................................................................................................................................21

Annex C (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding steels for

quenching and tempering .......................................................................................................................................................................33

Annex D (normative) Specific requirements for cold heading and cold extruding stainless

steels ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................51

Annex E (normative) Supplementary or special requirements ...........................................................................................59

Annex F (informative) Designation of steels given in Annexes A, B, C and D and the

comparable grades covered in various designation systems ...........................................................................63

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................67

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 17, Steel, Subcommittee SC 4, Heat

treatable and alloy steels.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 4954:2021), of which it constitutes a

minor revision. The changes are as follows:
— the wording in 5.2 c) was corrected;

— in Table F.1 the steel numbers in column 6 were corrected for steel grades 17Cr3, 10NiCr5-4 and

X3NiCr18-16 and the steel number for steel grade20MnB5 was added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
Steels for cold heading and cold extruding
1 Scope

This document specifies requirements for non-alloy and alloy steels that are intended for cold heading

or cold extruding and are delivered as wire rods, wire or bars. It also contains specific requirements

for:

— steels not intended for heat treatment, with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex A);

— case-hardening steels with diameters from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex B);

— steels for quenching and tempering, including boron alloyed steels (see Table C.3), with diameters

from 2 mm to 100 mm (see Annex C);

— stainless steels with diameters of 0,8 mm up to 50 mm for austenitic steels, up to 25 mm for ferritic

steels and up to 100 mm for martensitic steels (see Annex D).

This document (except Annex A) is applicable to the properties of cold-headed or cold-extruded parts

which have been subjected to a subsequent heat treatment. As the properties of the parts in the cold-

headed or cold-extruded, and subsequently not-heat-treated condition, are largely dependent on the

applied cold-heading or cold-extruding conditions, these are, if necessary, subject to agreement between

the purchaser and the manufacturer of the parts.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 377, Steel and steel products — Location and preparation of samples and test pieces for mechanical

testing
ISO 404, Steel and steel products — General technical delivery requirements
ISO 642, Steel — Hardenability test by end quenching (Jominy test)
ISO 643, Steels — Micrographic determination of the apparent grain size

ISO 683-1, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 1: Non-alloy steels for quenching

and tempering·

ISO 683-2, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 2: Alloy steels for quenching and

tempering

ISO 683-3, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 3: Case-hardening steels

ISO 683-18:2014, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 18: Bright steel products

ISO 1035-1, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 1: Dimensions of round bars
ISO 1035-2, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 2: Dimensions of square bars
ISO 1035-3, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 3: Dimensions of flat bars
ISO 1035-4, Hot-rolled steel bars — Part 4: Tolerances
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)

ISO 3651-2, Determination of resistance to intergranular corrosion of stainless steels — Part 2:

Ferritic,austenitic and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steels — Corrosion test in media containing

sulfuric acid
ISO 3887, Steels — Determination of the depth of decarburization
ISO 4885, Ferrous materials — Heat treatments — Vocabulary

ISO 4948-1, Steels — Classification — Part 1: Classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based

on chemical composition

ISO 4948-2, Steels — Classification — Part 2: Classification of unalloyed and alloy steels according to main

quality classes and main property or application characteristics
ISO/TS 4949, Steel names based on letter symbols

ISO 4967:2013, Steel — Determination of content of non-metallic inclusions — Micrographic method using

standard diagrams
ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 6929, Steel products — Vocabulary
ISO 9443, Surface quality classes for hot-rolled bars and wire rod

ISO 9934-1, Non-destructive testing — Magnetic particle testing — Part 1: General principles

ISO 10474, Steel and steel products — Inspection documents

ISO 14284, Steel and iron — Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemical

composition
ISO 15549, Non-destructive testing — Eddy current testing — General principles
ISO 16124, Steel wire rod — Dimensions and tolerances

ISO 16143-2, Stainless steels for general purposes — Part 2: Corrosion-resistant semi-finished products,

bars, rods and sections

ISO 22034-2, Steel wire and wire products — Part 2: Tolerances on wire dimensions

EN 10204, Metallic products — Types of inspection documents
JIS G 0415, Steel and steel products —Inspection documents

JIS G 0555:2015, Microscopic testing method for the non-metallic inclusions in steel

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 377, ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2,

ISO 683-3, ISO 683-18, ISO 4885, ISO 4948-1, ISO 4948-2, ISO 6929, ISO 14284, ISO 16143-2 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
3.1
bright steel product

drawn or peeled/turned bar with smoother surface quality and better dimensional accuracy in

comparison with a hot-rolled bar
3.2
drawn product

product of various cross-sectional shapes obtained, after descaling, by cold drawing of hot-rolled bars

or wire rod, on a drawing bench (cold deformation without removing material)

Note 1 to entry: This operation gives the product special features with respect to shape, dimensional accuracy

and surface finish. Products in lengths are delivered straightened, products of small cross-section may also be

supplied in coils.
3.3
peeled/turned product

steel bar of circular cross-section having the same features of drawn products (3.2) concerning shape,

dimensional accuracy and bright surface finish but without work hardening

Note 1 to entry: They are produced by peeling on a peeling machine usually followed by straightening and by

polishing. The removal of metal by peeling is carried out in such a way that the bright product is generally free

from surface defects and decarburization coming from the hot-rolling process.
4 Classification and designation
4.1 Classification

The classification of the relevant steel grades shall be in accordance with ISO 4948-1 and ISO 4948-2.

All steel grades mentioned in this document are special steels in accordance with ISO 4948-2.

The steels not intended for heat treatment after cold forming (see Annex A) are non-alloy steels.

The case hardening steel grades (see Annex B) are alloy steels, except steel grades C10E2C to C20E2C.

The steel grades for quenching and tempering (see Annex C) are alloy steel grades, except steel grades

C35EC to C45RC.

The steel stainless steel grades (see Annex D) are classified according to their microstructures.

4.2 Designation

For the steel grades covered by this document, the steel names as given in the relevant tables shall be

allocated in accordance with ISO/TS 4949.

Annex F provides a list of steels given in Annexes A, B, C and D and the comparable grades covered in

various designation systems.
5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser
5.1 Mandatory information

The manufacturer shall obtain the following information from the purchaser at the time of enquiry and

order:
a) the quantity to be delivered (mass, length);
b) the product form (round bar, wire rod, wire);
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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)

c) the nominal diameter and the tolerances on dimensions and shape of the product with reference to

the relevant International Standard;

d) for bars, the length; and for wire rod and wire, the dimensions, i.e. inner diameter and mass of the

coils;
e) reference to this document, i.e. ISO 4954;

f) the designation of the steel grade given in Tables A.2, B.2, C.2, C.3 and D.2;

g) if applicable, the symbol for the required heat-treatment condition, see Tables A.3, B.3 to B.7, C.4 to

C.10 and D.3 to D.6;

h) standard designation for a test report 2.2 or, if required, any other type of inspection document in

accordance with ISO 10474.
5.2 Options and/or supplementary or special requirements

A number of options are specified in this document and listed below. If the purchaser does not indicate

a wish to implement any of these options, the products will be supplied in accordance with the basic

specifications of this document (see 5.1).

a) Any requirement for the hardenability (+H, +HH, +HL) of case hardening steels of Annex B and

of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C and for the core hardening (+CH) of steels for

quenching and tempering of Annex C, see 7.1.4.

b) Verification of hardenability and, if agreed, information about the calculation of the hardenability

for the case hardening steels of Annex B and for the steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C,

see 10.3.1.

c) If another surface condition than hot-rolled or a special surface quality is required, for the surface

condition, see Table 1, and for the surface quality E for bars and wire rod, see 7.7.2 and 7.7.3.

d) Any requirement relating to the removal of surface defects, see 7.7.6.
e) Any requirement for the verification of the surface quality, see 7.7.5.
f) Any requirement for a product analysis, see 7.1.2.2.

g) Any requirement for the verification of the fine grain structure, see E.2, of case hardening steels of

Annex B and of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C.

h) Carbide spheroidization, see 7.3, and any requirement for the verification of the carbide

spheroidization, see E.3.

i) Any requirement for the verification of the non-metallic inclusions of case hardening steels of

Annex B and of steels for quenching and tempering of Annex C, see 7.4 and E.4.

j) Internal soundness and any requirements for non-destructive testing, see 7.5 and 10.5.

k) Verification of aptitude to cold forming, see 7.6 and 10.4.

l) Maximum depth of surface discontinuities for stainless steels, see 7.7.4 and E.5.

m) Any requirement concerning non-destructive testing of the surface, see 7.7.7 and 10.5.

n) Depth of decarburization, see 7.8, and any requirements for testing the depth of decarburization,

see E.6.

o) Corrosion resistance of stainless steel products and any requirements for resistance to

intergranular corrosion, see E.7.

p) Any requirement concerning surface treatment and temporary corrosion protection, see 11.1.

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ISO/FDIS 4954:2022(E)
q) Any special requirements concerning special or additional marking, see 11.2.
r) Any special requirements concerning packaging, see 11.3.
s) Statistical evaluation, see 6.5.
5.3 Ordering example

EXAMPLE 50 t round bars with a nominal diameter of 40 mm and a nominal length of 6 000 mm with

diameter tolerance according to class S and with length tolerance according to class L2 of ISO 1035-4 made

of steel grade ISO 4954, 42CrMo4 in the heat-treatment condition +AC+PE (see Table C.5), with hardenability

requirement +H (see Table C.7) and product analysis with an inspection certificate 3.1 in accordance with

ISO 10474.
50 t round bars ISO 1035-4 – 40,0S × 6 000L2
ISO 4954, 42CrMo4+AC+PE+H – product analysis
ISO 10474 – 3.1
6 Manufacturing process
6.1 General

The manufacturing process of the steel and of the products is, with the restrictions given by the

requirements in 6.2 to 6.4, left to the discretion of the manufacturer.
6.2 Deoxidation

All steels shall be deoxidized. The steels not intended for heat treatment (see Annex A) are aluminium

or silicon killed. By agreement, aluminium may be replaced by another suitable element having a similar

effect.
6.3 Heat-treatment condition and surface condition at delivery
6.3.1 Heat-treatment condition

Treatment and heat-treatment condition shall conform to one of the conditions indicated in Tables A.1,

B.1, C.1 and D.1.
Bright steel products in cold drawn or peeled/turned con
...

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