Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints — Part 4: Publication gravure printing

ISO 12647-4:2014 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied to four-colour publication gravure printing. The parameters and values are chosen in view of the complete process covering the process stages "colour separation", "making of the printing forme", "proof production", and "production printing". ISO 12647-4:2014 is applicable: ? directly, to publication gravure printing, including magazines, catalogues, and commercial materials, ? directly, to half-tone and continuous tone proofing processes that predict the colourimetric results of gravure printing, and ? by analogy, to process-colour gravure package printing.

Technologie graphique — Contrôle des processus de confection de sélections couleurs tramées, d'épreuves et de tirages — Partie 4: Processus de gravure

Grafična tehnologija - Vodenje procesa izdelave rastriranih barvnih izvlečkov, preskusnih in proizvodnih odtisov - 4. del: Publikacijski globoki tisk

Standard ISO 12647-4 določa število procesnih parametrov in njihove vrednosti, ki jih je treba uporabiti pri štiribarvnem publikacijskem globokem tisku. Parametri in vrednosti so izbrani glede na celoten proces, ki obsega stopnje procesa »izdelava barvnih izvlečkov«, »izdelava oblike tiska«, »izdelava preskusnih odtisov« in »proizvodno tiskanje«. Ta del standarda ISO 12647 velja – neposredno za publikacijski globoki tisk, vključno z revijami, katalogi in propagandnim gradivom, – neposredno za rastrirane in kontinuirane preskusne procese, ki napovedujejo kolorimetrične rezultate globokega tiska, in – po analogiji za barvno globoko tiskanje embalaže. Neposredno ne velja za posebnosti transformacij, ki so potrebne za povezavo digitalnih vhodnih podatkov s podatki, ki se uporabijo za izdelavo podatkov na gravuri cilindra in/ali izdelavo preskusnega postopka.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Jul-2014
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
03-Dec-2019
Completion Date
03-Dec-2019

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12647-4
Second edition
2014-07-15
Graphic technology — Process control
for the production of half-tone colour
separations, proof and production
prints —
Part 4:
Publication gravure printing
Technologie graphique — Contrôle des processus de confection de
sélections couleurs tramées, d’épreuves et de tirages —
Partie 4: Processus de gravure
Reference number
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Data file and printing forme ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3 On-press proof and production print .................................................................................................................................. 4

Annex A (informative) Gamut types ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex B (informative) Grey reproduction and grey balance ...................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12647-4:2005), which has been technically

revised with the following changes:
— deletion of film based requirements;
— changes in proof requirements;
— changes in printing conditions;
— changes in the colouration of the primary and secondary solids;
— general clean up.

ISO 12647 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Process control

for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints:
— Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods
— Part 2: Offset lithographic processes
— Part 3: Coldset offset lithography on newsprint
— Part 4: Publication gravure printing
— Part 5: Screen printing
— Part 6: Flexographic printing
— Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data
— Part 8: Validation print processes working directly from digital data
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 12647 lists values or sets of values of the primary process parameters specified in

ISO 12647-1 and related technical properties of a gravure publication print. Where deemed useful,

secondary parameters are also specified.
The purposes of this part of ISO 12647 are:

— to list and explain the minimum set of primary process parameters required to uniquely define

the visual characteristics and related technical properties of a half-tone proof or production print

produced from digital data;
— to give the definitions for the general terms necessary for process control;

— to describe the measurement methods and the requirements for reporting the results.

The purpose of a proof print is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print product as

closely as possible. In order to visually simulate particular print, off-press proofing processes might

require values for solid tone coloration and tone value increase which are different from those of

the printing process they are meant to simulate. This is caused by differences in phenomena such as

gloss, light scatter (within the print substrate or the colorant), metamerism, and transparency. Such

differences are likely for those off-press proofing processes in which the print substrate, the colorants,

and the technology for applying them are significantly different from gravure publication printing. In

such cases, the user or the supplier should ensure that appropriate corrections are specified. Another

problem area is the matching of a digital off-press proof to a double-sided print on a less-than-opaque,

lightweight printing paper as used in publication gravure printing. If it is deemed necessary, for image

quality reasons, to proof with colour management profiles based on measurements with substrate

backing rather than black backing, there will be an unavoidable difference between proof and production

prints. This fact needs to be communicated to all parties concerned.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Graphic technology — Process control for the production
of half-tone colour separations, proof and production
prints —
Part 4:
Publication gravure printing
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12647 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied to four-

colour publication gravure printing. The parameters and values are chosen in view of the complete

process covering the process stages “colour separation”, “making of the printing forme”, “proof

production”, and “production printing”.
This part of ISO 12647 is applicable,

— directly, to publication gravure printing, including magazines, catalogues, and commercial materials,

— directly, to half-tone and continuous tone proofing processes that predict the colourimetric results

of gravure printing, and
— by analogy, to process-colour gravure package printing.

It is not directly applicable to the specifics of the transformations necessary to relate digital input data

to the data used to create the cylinder engraving data and/or the proofing process.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8254-1, Paper and board — Measurement of specular gloss — Part 1: 75 degree gloss with a converging

beam, TAPPI method

ISO 12642-2, Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of 4-colour process printing — Part 2:

Expanded data set

ISO 12647-1, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods

ISO 12647-7, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data

ISO 13655:2009, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic

arts images

ISO 15930-4, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 4: Complete exchange

of CMYK and spot colour printing data using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-1a)

ISO 15930-6, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 6: Complete exchange

of printing data suitable for colour-managed workflows using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-3)
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)

ISO 15930-7, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 7: Complete exchange

of printing data (PDF/X-4) and partial exchange of printing data with external profile reference (PDF/X-4p)

using PDF 1.6
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12647-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
improved newsprint

paper with, compared to ordinary newsprint, a higher smoothness, a higher brightness, and a filler

content up to 20 %
3.2
engraving pitch

reciprocal of average cell spacing on a gravure cylinder, evaluated from the following formula:

−12/
Pa=×b
where

a is the distance between the same points on two adjacent cells in the printing direction;

b is the distance between adjacent circumferential tracks of the engraving stylus.

3.3
solid colour

printed area that corresponds to the maximum cell volume identified for the combination of gravure

engraving parameters
4 Requirements
4.1 General

4.2 and 4.3 are based on the assumption that input for gravure printing comprises digital data that

defines the data tone values (equivalent to the tone values in offset processes). The specifics of the

transformations necessary to relate these data to the data used to create the cylinder engraving data

and/or the proofing process are the responsibility of the organization involved and are not specified in

this part of ISO 12647.

The substrate categories of gravure printing, identified by the paper principally used, defined for this

part of ISO 12647, are as follows:
For Gamut Type 1
— substrate category S1 (coated paper of 70 g/m or greater);
— substrate category S2 (lightweight coated paper);
— substrate category S3 (“combined LWC paper and SC paper”);
NOTE CRPC 5 of ANSI.
— substrate category S4 (super-calendered paper);
— substrate category S5 (improved or enhanced newsprint);
2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
For Gamut Type 2
— substrate category S1 (LWC plus, improved lightweight coated paper);
— substrate category S2 (LWC standard, standard lightweight coated paper);
— substrate category S3 (SC plus, improved super-calendered paper);
— substrate category S4 (SC standard, standard super-calendered paper);
— substrate category S5 (News plus, improved newsprint).

While these substrate categories of gravure printing are identified in terms of the paper principally

used, they can be used on any stock for which the printer is capable of achieving the colours specified in

Tables A.1 or A.2, see also Figures A.1 and A.2, and thus the associated colour gamut.

Where appropriate, the applicable clauses of ISO 12647-1 are referenced for the definition of the data

and measurement conditions.

4.2 and 4.3 are arranged according to the order set out in ISO 12647-1; they also depend on it for the

general principles, the definition of the data, the measurement conditions, and the reporting style.

In the absence of any other agreements between the print provider and printer, data intended

for publication gravure printing in North America shall be prepared for and proofed based upon

Characterized Reference Printing Condition (CRPC) 5 of ANSI CGA/TS 21-2. For this situation, it shall be

the responsibility of the gravure printer to match the appearance defined by CRPC 5 to the satisfaction

of the publisher. CRPC 5 is compatible with printing condition S3, Gamut Type 1.
4.2 Data file and printing forme
4.2.1 Data files

Digital data files supplied for printing should conform to the latest edition of ISO 15930-4, ISO 15930-6,

and ISO 15930-7 or to ISO 12639.

Supplied data files conforming to ISO 15930-4, ISO 15930-6, and ISO 15930-7 shall also include an

identification of the intended printing condition. Where the intended printing condition is a printing

condition included in the registry of characterizations maintained by the ICC, as described in ICC.1, the

name used in the ICC registry can be used as the identification. If the intended printing condition is not

included in the ICC registry, characterization data specified using the target defined in ISO 12642-2, or an

ICC output profile derived from it, shall be included. An ICC output profile derived from the appropriate

characterization data should also be included in all cases. In any situations where the rendering of the

data, when printed, is intended to be other than colourimetric (as specified in ICC.1) an ICC output profile

derived from the appropriate characterization data shall be included.

All continuous tone raster data (CT) shall be at a resolution that equals or exceeds 120 cm . If line work

raster data (LW) are provided, they shall be at a resolution of three to six times that of the continuous

tone data. If text is provided as CT data it should be anti-aliased.

A proof print can accompany digital data and where provided, it shall conform to the indicated printing

condition.
4.2.2 Off-press proof from digital data

The off-press proof is a simulation of the intended gravure printing condition. It is produced directly from

the data used to prepare the separations. Off-press hardcopy proofing shall be accomplished according

to ISO 12647-7. The control patches provided shall, as a minimum, simulate the following patches:

a) solid primary and secondary colours (including black);
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)

b) at least one half-tone control patch of each of the primary colours (including black) with tone values

between 40 % and 70 %; the tone values used shall be the same for each colour;

c) a tertiary colour control patch composed of 100 % each of the primary colours (or with magenta and

yellow reduced to better approximate a grey);

d) at least one tertiary colour patch composed of the same tone values as defined in b) (or with magenta

and yellow reduced to better approximate a grey).
4.2.3 Engraving pitch
For four-colour work, the ranges of engraving pitch shall be
−1 −1
a) 54 cm to 70 cm for yellow,
−1 −1
b) 60 cm to 80 cm for cyan and for magenta, and
−1 −1
c) 60 cm to 100 cm for black.
4.2.4 Image size tolerance
See 4.3.4.
4.2.5 Tone value sum
Unless otherwise specified, the maximum tone value sum shall be <340 %.

NOTE Smaller values can be used but this applies to a lesser extent to uncoated papers.

4.2.6 Grey reproduction and grey balance

A single grey balance condition is usually not sufficient to ensure an achromatic colour for all print

substrates and printing inks that can be used with a given printing process. Therefore the grey balance

has to be determined for each printing condition separately based on a well-defined grey reproduction.

See Annex B for detailed information.
4.3 On-press proof and production print
4.3.1 General

To define the appearance of a print or proof, it is necessary, as a minimum, to specify the gloss and

colourimetric characteristics of the substrate and inks used for printing when the inks are printed at the

appropriate concentration. These characteristics are defined in 4.3.2 to 4.3.5. A typical print substrate,

such as LWC paper and SC paper, has commonly used characteristics. This does not imply that other

substrates are not suitable for this application or cannot be used to reach the specified colour gamut.

Table 1 provides a survey of the typical print substrates (Gamut Type 1, Gamut Type 2).

Table 1 — Standard printing conditions for typical print substrates (survey)
Colorant Colorant
Print Print
Printing Description Printing Description
Substrate Substrate
Conditions (Substrate Conditions (Substrate
Description Description
Gamut Type 1 Coordinates, Gamut Type 2 Coordinates,
(see Table 2) (see Table 2)
see Table A.1) see Table A.2)
PC1 Gamut 1 PS1 Gamut 1 CD1 Gamut 1 PC1 Gamut 2 PS1 Gamut 2 CD1 Gamut 2
PC2 Gamut 1 PS2 Gamut 1 CD2 Gamut 1 PC2 Gamut 2 PS2 Gamut 2 CD2 Gamut 2
PC3 Gamut 1 PS3 Gamut 1 CD3 Gamut 1 PC3 Gamut 2 PS3 Gamut 2 CD3 Gamut 2
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Colorant Colorant
Print Print
Printing Description Printing Description
Substrate Substrate
Conditions (Substrate Conditions (Substrate
Description Description
Gamut Type 1 Coordinates, Gamut Type 2 Coordinates,
(see Table 2) (see Table 2)
see Table A.1) see Table A.2)
PC4 Gamut 1 PS4 Gamut 1 CD4 Gamut 1 PC4 Gamut 2 PS4 Gamut 2 CD4 Gamut 2
PC5 Gamut 1 PS5 Gamut 1 CD5 Gamut 1 PC5 Gamut 2 PS5 Gamut 2 CD5 Gamut 2

NOTE Colourimetric characterization data, as specified in this standard, contain all the data to be specified

in accordance with 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.3, 4.3.3, and 4.3.5.
4.3.2 Visual characteristics of image components
4.3.2.1 Print substrate colour

The print substrate used for proofing should be identical to that of the production printing. If this is not

possible, the properties of the print substrate shall be a close match to that of the production in terms

of colour, gloss, type of surface (coated, uncoated, super-calendered, etc.) and mass per area. Table 2

provides aim values for colour as well as other attributes for the substrate categories mentioned in 4.1.

NOTE All values in Table 2 except for the a* and b* values of the substrate are informative only.

4.3.2.2 Print substrate gloss
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
01-november-2014
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SIST ISO 12647-4:2008
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SUHVNXVQLKLQSURL]YRGQLKRGWLVRYGHO3XEOLNDFLMVNLJORERNLWLVN

Graphic technology - Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations,

proof and production prints - Part 4: Publication gravure printing

Technologie graphique - Contrôle des processus de confection de sélections couleurs

tramées, d'épreuves et de tirages - Partie 4: Processus de gravure
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 12647-4:2014
ICS:
37.100.01 *UDILþQDWHKQRORJLMDQD Graphic technology in
VSORãQR general
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12647-4
Second edition
2014-07-15
Graphic technology — Process control
for the production of half-tone colour
separations, proof and production
prints —
Part 4:
Publication gravure printing
Technologie graphique — Contrôle des processus de confection de
sélections couleurs tramées, d’épreuves et de tirages —
Partie 4: Processus de gravure
Reference number
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Data file and printing forme ........................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.3 On-press proof and production print .................................................................................................................................. 4

Annex A (informative) Gamut types ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex B (informative) Grey reproduction and grey balance ...................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12647-4:2005), which has been technically

revised with the following changes:
— deletion of film based requirements;
— changes in proof requirements;
— changes in printing conditions;
— changes in the colouration of the primary and secondary solids;
— general clean up.

ISO 12647 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Process control

for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof and production prints:
— Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods
— Part 2: Offset lithographic processes
— Part 3: Coldset offset lithography on newsprint
— Part 4: Publication gravure printing
— Part 5: Screen printing
— Part 6: Flexographic printing
— Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data
— Part 8: Validation print processes working directly from digital data
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 12647 lists values or sets of values of the primary process parameters specified in

ISO 12647-1 and related technical properties of a gravure publication print. Where deemed useful,

secondary parameters are also specified.
The purposes of this part of ISO 12647 are:

— to list and explain the minimum set of primary process parameters required to uniquely define

the visual characteristics and related technical properties of a half-tone proof or production print

produced from digital data;
— to give the definitions for the general terms necessary for process control;

— to describe the measurement methods and the requirements for reporting the results.

The purpose of a proof print is to simulate the visual characteristics of the finished print product as

closely as possible. In order to visually simulate particular print, off-press proofing processes might

require values for solid tone coloration and tone value increase which are different from those of

the printing process they are meant to simulate. This is caused by differences in phenomena such as

gloss, light scatter (within the print substrate or the colorant), metamerism, and transparency. Such

differences are likely for those off-press proofing processes in which the print substrate, the colorants,

and the technology for applying them are significantly different from gravure publication printing. In

such cases, the user or the supplier should ensure that appropriate corrections are specified. Another

problem area is the matching of a digital off-press proof to a double-sided print on a less-than-opaque,

lightweight printing paper as used in publication gravure printing. If it is deemed necessary, for image

quality reasons, to proof with colour management profiles based on measurements with substrate

backing rather than black backing, there will be an unavoidable difference between proof and production

prints. This fact needs to be communicated to all parties concerned.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Graphic technology — Process control for the production
of half-tone colour separations, proof and production
prints —
Part 4:
Publication gravure printing
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12647 specifies a number of process parameters and their values to be applied to four-

colour publication gravure printing. The parameters and values are chosen in view of the complete

process covering the process stages “colour separation”, “making of the printing forme”, “proof

production”, and “production printing”.
This part of ISO 12647 is applicable,

— directly, to publication gravure printing, including magazines, catalogues, and commercial materials,

— directly, to half-tone and continuous tone proofing processes that predict the colourimetric results

of gravure printing, and
— by analogy, to process-colour gravure package printing.

It is not directly applicable to the specifics of the transformations necessary to relate digital input data

to the data used to create the cylinder engraving data and/or the proofing process.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8254-1, Paper and board — Measurement of specular gloss — Part 1: 75 degree gloss with a converging

beam, TAPPI method

ISO 12642-2, Graphic technology — Input data for characterization of 4-colour process printing — Part 2:

Expanded data set

ISO 12647-1, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 1: Parameters and measurement methods

ISO 12647-7, Graphic technology — Process control for the production of half-tone colour separations, proof

and production prints — Part 7: Proofing processes working directly from digital data

ISO 13655:2009, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic

arts images

ISO 15930-4, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 4: Complete exchange

of CMYK and spot colour printing data using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-1a)

ISO 15930-6, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 6: Complete exchange

of printing data suitable for colour-managed workflows using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-3)
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SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)

ISO 15930-7, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 7: Complete exchange

of printing data (PDF/X-4) and partial exchange of printing data with external profile reference (PDF/X-4p)

using PDF 1.6
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 12647-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
improved newsprint

paper with, compared to ordinary newsprint, a higher smoothness, a higher brightness, and a filler

content up to 20 %
3.2
engraving pitch

reciprocal of average cell spacing on a gravure cylinder, evaluated from the following formula:

−12/
Pa=×b
where

a is the distance between the same points on two adjacent cells in the printing direction;

b is the distance between adjacent circumferential tracks of the engraving stylus.

3.3
solid colour

printed area that corresponds to the maximum cell volume identified for the combination of gravure

engraving parameters
4 Requirements
4.1 General

4.2 and 4.3 are based on the assumption that input for gravure printing comprises digital data that

defines the data tone values (equivalent to the tone values in offset processes). The specifics of the

transformations necessary to relate these data to the data used to create the cylinder engraving data

and/or the proofing process are the responsibility of the organization involved and are not specified in

this part of ISO 12647.

The substrate categories of gravure printing, identified by the paper principally used, defined for this

part of ISO 12647, are as follows:
For Gamut Type 1
— substrate category S1 (coated paper of 70 g/m or greater);
— substrate category S2 (lightweight coated paper);
— substrate category S3 (“combined LWC paper and SC paper”);
NOTE CRPC 5 of ANSI.
— substrate category S4 (super-calendered paper);
— substrate category S5 (improved or enhanced newsprint);
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For Gamut Type 2
— substrate category S1 (LWC plus, improved lightweight coated paper);
— substrate category S2 (LWC standard, standard lightweight coated paper);
— substrate category S3 (SC plus, improved super-calendered paper);
— substrate category S4 (SC standard, standard super-calendered paper);
— substrate category S5 (News plus, improved newsprint).

While these substrate categories of gravure printing are identified in terms of the paper principally

used, they can be used on any stock for which the printer is capable of achieving the colours specified in

Tables A.1 or A.2, see also Figures A.1 and A.2, and thus the associated colour gamut.

Where appropriate, the applicable clauses of ISO 12647-1 are referenced for the definition of the data

and measurement conditions.

4.2 and 4.3 are arranged according to the order set out in ISO 12647-1; they also depend on it for the

general principles, the definition of the data, the measurement conditions, and the reporting style.

In the absence of any other agreements between the print provider and printer, data intended

for publication gravure printing in North America shall be prepared for and proofed based upon

Characterized Reference Printing Condition (CRPC) 5 of ANSI CGA/TS 21-2. For this situation, it shall be

the responsibility of the gravure printer to match the appearance defined by CRPC 5 to the satisfaction

of the publisher. CRPC 5 is compatible with printing condition S3, Gamut Type 1.
4.2 Data file and printing forme
4.2.1 Data files

Digital data files supplied for printing should conform to the latest edition of ISO 15930-4, ISO 15930-6,

and ISO 15930-7 or to ISO 12639.

Supplied data files conforming to ISO 15930-4, ISO 15930-6, and ISO 15930-7 shall also include an

identification of the intended printing condition. Where the intended printing condition is a printing

condition included in the registry of characterizations maintained by the ICC, as described in ICC.1, the

name used in the ICC registry can be used as the identification. If the intended printing condition is not

included in the ICC registry, characterization data specified using the target defined in ISO 12642-2, or an

ICC output profile derived from it, shall be included. An ICC output profile derived from the appropriate

characterization data should also be included in all cases. In any situations where the rendering of the

data, when printed, is intended to be other than colourimetric (as specified in ICC.1) an ICC output profile

derived from the appropriate characterization data shall be included.

All continuous tone raster data (CT) shall be at a resolution that equals or exceeds 120 cm . If line work

raster data (LW) are provided, they shall be at a resolution of three to six times that of the continuous

tone data. If text is provided as CT data it should be anti-aliased.

A proof print can accompany digital data and where provided, it shall conform to the indicated printing

condition.
4.2.2 Off-press proof from digital data

The off-press proof is a simulation of the intended gravure printing condition. It is produced directly from

the data used to prepare the separations. Off-press hardcopy proofing shall be accomplished according

to ISO 12647-7. The control patches provided shall, as a minimum, simulate the following patches:

a) solid primary and secondary colours (including black);
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ISO 12647-4:2014(E)

b) at least one half-tone control patch of each of the primary colours (including black) with tone values

between 40 % and 70 %; the tone values used shall be the same for each colour;

c) a tertiary colour control patch composed of 100 % each of the primary colours (or with magenta and

yellow reduced to better approximate a grey);

d) at least one tertiary colour patch composed of the same tone values as defined in b) (or with magenta

and yellow reduced to better approximate a grey).
4.2.3 Engraving pitch
For four-colour work, the ranges of engraving pitch shall be
−1 −1
a) 54 cm to 70 cm for yellow,
−1 −1
b) 60 cm to 80 cm for cyan and for magenta, and
−1 −1
c) 60 cm to 100 cm for black.
4.2.4 Image size tolerance
See 4.3.4.
4.2.5 Tone value sum
Unless otherwise specified, the maximum tone value sum shall be <340 %.

NOTE Smaller values can be used but this applies to a lesser extent to uncoated papers.

4.2.6 Grey reproduction and grey balance

A single grey balance condition is usually not sufficient to ensure an achromatic colour for all print

substrates and printing inks that can be used with a given printing process. Therefore the grey balance

has to be determined for each printing condition separately based on a well-defined grey reproduction.

See Annex B for detailed information.
4.3 On-press proof and production print
4.3.1 General

To define the appearance of a print or proof, it is necessary, as a minimum, to specify the gloss and

colourimetric characteristics of the substrate and inks used for printing when the inks are printed at the

appropriate concentration. These characteristics are defined in 4.3.2 to 4.3.5. A typical print substrate,

such as LWC paper and SC paper, has commonly used characteristics. This does not imply that other

substrates are not suitable for this application or cannot be used to reach the specified colour gamut.

Table 1 provides a survey of the typical print substrates (Gamut Type 1, Gamut Type 2).

Table 1 — Standard printing conditions for typical print substrates (survey)
Colorant Colorant
Print Print
Printing Description Printing Description
Substrate Substrate
Conditions (Substrate Conditions (Substrate
Description Description
Gamut Type 1 Coordinates, Gamut Type 2 Coordinates,
(see Table 2) (see Table 2)
see Table A.1) see Table A.2)
PC1 Gamut 1 PS1 Gamut 1 CD1 Gamut 1 PC1 Gamut 2 PS1 Gamut 2 CD1 Gamut 2
PC2 Gamut 1 PS2 Gamut 1 CD2 Gamut 1 PC2 Gamut 2 PS2 Gamut 2 CD2 Gamut 2
PC3 Gamut 1 PS3 Gamut 1 CD3 Gamut 1 PC3 Gamut 2 PS3 Gamut 2 CD3 Gamut 2
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SIST ISO 12647-4:2014
ISO 12647-4:2014(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Colorant Colorant
Print Print
Printing Description Printing Description
Substrate Substrate
Conditions (Substrate Conditions (Substrate
Description Description
Gamut Type 1 Coordinates, Gamut Type 2 Coordinates,
(see Table 2) (see Table 2)
see Table A.1) see Table A.2)
PC4 Gamut 1 PS4 Gamut 1 CD4 Gamut 1 PC4 Gamut 2 PS4 Gamut 2 CD4 Gamut 2
PC5 Gamut 1 PS5 Gamut 1 CD5 Gamut 1 PC5 Gamut 2 PS5 Gamut 2 CD5 Gamut 2

NOTE Colourimetric characterization data, as specified in this standard, contain all the data to be specified

in accordance with 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.3, 4.3.3, and 4.3.5.
4.3.2 Visual characteristics of image components
4.3.2.1 Print sub
...

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