Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- Data Matrix bar code symbology specification

ISO/IEC 16022:2006 defines the requirements for the symbology known as Data Matrix. It specifies the Data Matrix symbology characteristics, data character encodation, symbol formats, dimensions and print quality requirements, error correction rules, decoding algorithm, and user-selectable application parameters. It applies to all Data Matrix symbols produced by any printing or marking technology. Data Matrix is a two-dimensional matrix symbology which is made up of nominally square modules arranged within a perimeter finder pattern. Though primarily shown and described in ISO/IEC 16022:2006 as a dark symbol on light background, Data Matrix symbols can also be printed to appear as light on dark. Manufacturers of bar code equipment and users of the technology require publicly available standard symbology specifications to which they can refer when developing equipment and application standards. The publication of standardized symbology specifications is designed to achieve this.

Technologies de l'information -- Techniques automatiques d'identification et de capture des données -- Spécification de symbologie de code à barres Data Matrix

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Sep-2006
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
07-Aug-2006
Completion Date
06-Sep-2006
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ISO/IEC 16022:2006 - Information technology -- Automatic identification and data capture techniques -- Data Matrix bar code symbology specification
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 16022
Second edition
2006-09-15
Information technology — Automatic
identification and data capture
techniques — Data Matrix bar code
symbology specification
Technologies de l'information — Techniques d'identification
automatique et de capture des données — Spécification de symbologie
de code à barres Data Matrix
Reference number
ISO/IEC 16022:2006(E)
ISO/IEC 2006
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 16022:2006(E)
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ii © ISO/IEC 2006 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 16022:2006(E)
Contents Page

Foreword........................................................................................................................................................... vii

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... viii

1 Scope..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms, and mathematical/logical notations .......... 2

3.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ................................................................................................................. 2

3.3 Mathematical/logical notations ........................................................................................................... 3

4 Symbol description............................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Basic characteristics............................................................................................................................ 3

4.2 Summary of additional features .......................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Symbol structure .................................................................................................................................. 4

4.3.1 Finder pattern........................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3.2 Symbol sizes and capacities ............................................................................................................... 5

5 ECC 200 requirements.......................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Encode procedure overview................................................................................................................ 5

5.2 Data encodation.................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 Overview................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.2 Default character interpretation .......................................................................................................... 6

5.2.3 ASCII encodation .................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.4 Symbology control characters............................................................................................................ 7

5.2.5 C40 encodation..................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2.6 Text encodation .................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2.7 ANSI X12 encodation.......................................................................................................................... 11

5.2.8 EDIFACT encodation .......................................................................................................................... 12

5.2.9 Base 256 encodation.......................................................................................................................... 12

5.3 User considerations ........................................................................................................................... 13

5.3.1 User selection of Extended Channel Interpretation ........................................................................ 13

5.3.2 User selection of symbol size and shape ........................................................................................ 13

5.4 Extended Channel Interpretation ...................................................................................................... 13

5.4.1 Encoding ECIs..................................................................................................................................... 14

5.4.2 ECIs and Structured Append............................................................................................................. 15

5.4.3 Post-decode protocol......................................................................................................................... 15

5.5 ECC 200 symbol attributes ................................................................................................................ 15

5.5.1 Symbol sizes and capacity ................................................................................................................ 15

5.5.2 Insertion of Alignment Patterns into larger symbols...................................................................... 17

5.6 Structured Append ............................................................................................................................. 17

5.6.1 Basic principles.................................................................................................................................. 17

5.6.2 Symbol sequence indicator ............................................................................................................... 17

5.6.3 File identification ................................................................................................................................ 18

5.6.4 FNC1 and Structured Append ........................................................................................................... 18

5.6.5 Buffered and unbuffered operation .................................................................................................. 18

5.7 Error detection and correction .......................................................................................................... 18

5.7.1 Reed-Solomon error correction........................................................................................................ 18

5.7.2 Generating the error correction codewords .................................................................................... 18

5.7.3 Error correction capacity ................................................................................................................... 19

5.8 Symbol construction .......................................................................................................................... 20

5.8.1 Symbol character placement............................................................................................................. 20

5.8.2 Alignment Pattern module placement .............................................................................................. 20

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ISO/IEC 16022:2006(E)

5.8.3 Finder Pattern module placement ..................................................................................................... 20

6 ECC 000 - 140 requirements............................................................................................................... 21

6.1 Use recommendations........................................................................................................................ 21

6.2 Encode procedure overview .............................................................................................................. 21

6.3 Data encodation .................................................................................................................................. 21

6.3.1 Base 11 - Numeric encodation........................................................................................................... 23

6.3.2 Base 27 - Upper-case Alphabetic encodation.................................................................................. 23

6.3.3 Base 37 - Upper-case Alphanumeric encodation ............................................................................ 23

6.3.4 Base 41 - Upper-case Alphanumeric plus Punctuation encodation.............................................. 24

6.3.5 ASCII encodation ................................................................................................................................ 24

6.3.6 8-bit byte encodation .......................................................................................................................... 24

6.4 User selection of error correction level............................................................................................ 24

6.4.1 Selection of error correction level..................................................................................................... 24

6.4.2 Other error correction levels based on convolutional code algorithms ....................................... 25

6.5 Constructing the Unprotected Bit Stream ........................................................................................ 25

6.5.1 Format ID Bit Field .............................................................................................................................. 25

6.5.2 CRC Bit Field ....................................................................................................................................... 25

6.5.3 Data Length Bit Field .......................................................................................................................... 25

6.5.4 Data prefix construction..................................................................................................................... 25

6.5.5 Completing the Unprotected Bit Stream........................................................................................... 26

6.6 Constructing the Unrandomised Bit Stream....................................................................................26

6.6.1 Header construction ........................................................................................................................... 26

6.6.2 Applying convolutional coding to create the Protected Bit Stream .............................................. 26

6.6.3 Trailer construction............................................................................................................................ 27

6.6.4 Completing the Unrandomised Bit Stream....................................................................................... 27

6.7 Pattern randomising ........................................................................................................................... 27

6.8 Module placement in matrix............................................................................................................... 27

7 Symbol dimensions ............................................................................................................................ 27

7.1 Dimensions.......................................................................................................................................... 27

7.2 Quiet zone............................................................................................................................................ 27

8 Symbol quality..................................................................................................................................... 27

8.1 Symbol quality parameters ................................................................................................................ 28

8.1.1 Fixed pattern damage ......................................................................................................................... 28

8.1.2 Scan grade and overall symbol grade .............................................................................................. 28

8.1.3 Grid non-uniformity ............................................................................................................................ 28

8.2 Process control measurements......................................................................................................... 28

9 Reference decode algorithm for Data Matrix ................................................................................... 28

10 User guidelines................................................................................................................................... 38

10.1 Human readable interpretation.......................................................................................................... 38

10.2 Autodiscrimination capability............................................................................................................ 38

10.3 System considerations....................................................................................................................... 38

11 Transmitted data ................................................................................................................................. 38

11.1 Protocol for FNC1 (ECC 200 only)..................................................................................................... 38

11.2 Protocol for FNC1 in the second position (ECC 200 only) ............................................................. 38

11.3 Protocol for Macro characters in the first position (ECC 200 only)............................................... 38

11.4 Protocol for ECIs (ECC 200 only) ...................................................................................................... 39

11.5 Symbology identifier........................................................................................................................... 39

11.6 Transmitted data example.................................................................................................................. 39

Annex A (normative) ECC 200 interleaving process...................................................................................... 40

A.1 Schematic illustration......................................................................................................................... 40

A.2 Starting sequence for interleaving in different sized symbols ...................................................... 40

Annex B (normative) ECC 200 pattern randomising...................................................................................... 43

B.1 253-state algorithm............................................................................................................................. 43

B.1.1 253-state randomising algorithm....................................................................................................... 43

B.1.2 253-state un-randomising algorithm................................................................................................. 43

B.2 255-state algorithm............................................................................................................................. 44

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ISO/IEC 16022:2006(E)

B.2.1 255-state randomising algorithm ...................................................................................................... 44

B.2.2 255-state un-randomising algorithm................................................................................................. 44

Annex C (normative) ECC 200 encodation character sets............................................................................ 45

C.1 C40 encodation character set............................................................................................................ 45

C.2 Text encodation character set........................................................................................................... 46

C.3 EDIFACT encodation character set................................................................................................... 47

Annex D (normative) ECC 200 alignment patterns ........................................................................................ 48

Annex E (normative) ECC 200 Reed-Solomon error detection and correction .......................................... 50

E.1 Error correction codeword generator polynomials......................................................................... 50

E.2 Error correction calculation............................................................................................................... 52

E.3 Calculation of error correction codewords...................................................................................... 53

Annex F (normative) ECC 200 symbol character placement........................................................................ 55

F.1 Symbol character placement............................................................................................................. 55

F.2 Symbol character placement rules ................................................................................................... 57

F.2.1 Non-standard symbol character shapes .......................................................................................... 57

F.2.2 Symbol character arrangement......................................................................................................... 60

F.3 Symbol character placement examples for ECC 200...................................................................... 63

Annex G (normative) ECC 000 - 140 symbol attributes................................................................................. 68

G.1 ECC 000............................................................................................................................................... 68

G.2 ECC 050............................................................................................................................................... 69

G.3 ECC 080............................................................................................................................................... 70

G.4 ECC 100............................................................................................................................................... 71

G.5 ECC 140............................................................................................................................................... 72

Annex H (normative) ECC 000 - 140 data module placement grids ............................................................. 73

Annex I (normative) ECC 000 - 140 character encodation schemes............................................................ 90

I.1 Base 11 encodation scheme.............................................................................................................. 94

I.1.1 First stage procedure ......................................................................................................................... 94

I.1.2 Second stage procedure.................................................................................................................... 94

I.1.3 Example............................................................................................................................................... 94

I.2 Base 27 encodation scheme.............................................................................................................. 95

I.2.1 First stage procedure ......................................................................................................................... 95

I.2.2 Second stage procedure.................................................................................................................... 95

I.2.3 Example............................................................................................................................................... 95

I.3 Base 37 encodation scheme.............................................................................................................. 96

I.3.1 First stage procedure ......................................................................................................................... 96

I.3.2 Second stage procedure.................................................................................................................... 96

I.3.3 Example............................................................................................................................................... 96

I.4 Base 41 encodation scheme.............................................................................................................. 97

I.4.1 First stage procedure ......................................................................................................................... 97

I.4.2 Second stage procedure.................................................................................................................... 97

I.4.3 Example............................................................................................................................................... 97

Annex J (normative) ECC 000 - 140 CRC algorithm ...................................................................................... 98

J.1 CRC state machine ............................................................................................................................. 98

J.2 CRC polynomial .................................................................................................................................. 98

J.3 CRC 2-byte header.............................................................................................................................. 98

Annex K (normative) ECC 000 - 140 error checking and correcting algorithms ...................................... 100

K.1 ECC 000............................................................................................................................................. 100

K.2 ECC 050............................................................................................................................................. 100

K.3 ECC 080............................................................................................................................................. 100

K.4 ECC 100............................................................................................................................................. 100

K.5 ECC 140............................................................................................................................................. 100

K.6 Processing the convolutional code ................................................................................................ 100

K.7 Convolutional codes reference decode algorithm ........................................................................ 101

Annex L (normative) ECC 000 - 140 Master Random Bit Stream (in hexadecimal).................................. 104

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ISO/IEC 16022:2006(E)

Annex M (normative) Data Matrix print quality – symbology-specific aspects ........................................ 105

M.1 Data Matrix Fixed Pattern Damage.................................................................................................. 105

M.1.1 Features to be assessed .................................................................................................................. 105

M.1.2 Grading of the outside L of the fixed pattern ................................................................................. 105

M.1.3 Grading of the clock track and adjacent solid area segments..................................................... 107

M.1.4 Calculation and grading of average grade ..................................................................................... 111

M.2 Scan grade......................................................................................................................................... 112

Annex N (normative) Symbology identifier................................................................................................... 113

Annex O (informative) ECC 200 encode example......................................................................................... 114

Annex P (informative) Encoding data using the minimum symbol data characters for ECC 200........... 116

Annex Q (informative) ECC 000 - 140 encode example using ECC 050..................................................... 120

Q.1 Encode example................................................................................................................................ 120

Q.2 CRC calculation for example ........................................................................................................... 125

Annex R (informative) Useful process control techniques ......................................................................... 128

R.1 Symbol contrast ................................................................................................................................ 128

R.2 Special reference symbol................................................................................................................. 128

R.3 Assessing Axial Nonuniformity....................................................................................................... 129

R.4 Visual inspection for symbol distortion and defects .................................................................... 129

Annex S (informative) Autodiscrimination capability .................................................................................. 130

Annex T (informative) System considerations ............................................................................................. 131

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................... 132

vi © ISO/IEC 2006 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 16022:2006(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as

an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this do
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