Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties

The requirements in this document apply to all toys, i.e. any product designed or clearly intended for use in play by children under 14 years of age. They are applicable to a toy as it is initially received by the consumer and, in addition, they apply after a toy is subjected to reasonably foreseeable conditions of normal use and abuse unless specifically noted otherwise. The requirements of this document specify acceptable criteria for structural characteristics of toys, such as shape, size, contour, spacing (e.g. rattles, small parts, sharp points and edges, and hinge-line clearances) as well as acceptable criteria for properties peculiar to certain categories of toy (e.g. maximum kinetic energy values for non-resilient-tipped projectiles and minimum tip angles for certain ride-on toys). This document specifies requirements and test methods for toys intended for use by children in various age groups from birth to 14 years. The requirements vary according to the age group for which a particular toy is intended. The requirements for a particular age group reflect the nature of the hazards and the expected mental and/or physical abilities of a child to cope with them. This document also requires that appropriate warnings and/or instructions for use be given on certain toys or their packaging. Due to linguistic problems which may occur in different countries, the wording of these warnings and instructions is not specified but given as general information in Annex B. It should be noted that different legal requirements exist in many countries with regard to such marking. This document does not purport to cover or include every conceivable potential hazard of a particular toy or toy category. Except for labelling requirements indicating the functional hazards and the age range for which the toy is intended, this document has no requirements for those characteristics of toys which represent an inherent and recognized hazard which is integral to the function of the toy. EXAMPLE 1 An example of such a hazard is the sharp point necessary for the proper function of a needle. The needle is a hazard which is well understood by the purchaser of a toy sewing kit, and the functional sharp-point hazard is communicated to the user as part of the normal educational process of learning to sew as well as at the point of purchase by means of cautionary labelling on the product's packaging. EXAMPLE 2 As a further example, a two-wheeled toy scooter has inherent and recognized hazards associated with its use (e.g. instability during use, especially while learning). The potential hazards associated with its structural characteristics (e.g. sharp edges, pinch hazards) will be minimized by conformity to the requirements of this document. Products not included within the scope of this document are: a) bicycles, except for those considered to be toys, i.e. those having a maximum saddle height of 435 mm (see 1); b) slingshots; NOTE 1 “Slingshots” are also known as “catapults” and are usually held in the hand; examples are given in Figure 1. Toy versions of medieval catapults and trebuchets are not exempt from this document; an example is given in Figure 2. c) darts with metal points; d) public playground equipment; e) compressed air- and gas-operated guns and pistols (see 1); f) kites (except for the electric resistance of their strings, which is included); g) model kits, hobby and craft items, in which the finished item is not primarily of play value; h) sporting goods and equipment, camping goods, athletic equipment, musical instruments and furniture; however, toys which are their counterparts are included; NOTE 2 It is recognized that there is often a fine distinction between, for example, a musical instrument or a sporting item and its toy counterpart. The intention of the manufacturer or distributor, as well as normal use and reasonably foreseeable abuse, determines whether the item is a toy counterpart or not. i) models of aircraft

Sécurité des jouets — Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et physiques

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Sep-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
19-Feb-2023
Completion Date
15-Sep-2022
Ref Project

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ISO 8124-1:2022 - Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties Released:15. 09. 2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8124-1
Sixth edition
2022-09
Safety of toys —
Part 1:
Safety aspects related to mechanical
and physical properties
Sécurité des jouets —
Partie 1: Aspects de sécurité relatifs aux propriétés mécaniques et
physiques
Reference number
ISO 8124-1:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 8124-1:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

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ISO copyright office
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CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-1:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ix

1 S c op e ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Nor m at i ve r ef er enc e s ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 R e qu i r ement s .......................................................................................................................................................................................................16

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16

4.1.1 Normal use (see E.2) .................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.1.2 Location of warnings ................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.2 R easonably foreseeable abuse (see E.3)........................................................................................................................ 16

4 . 3 M at er i a l ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

4.3.1 Material quality (see E.4) ......................................................................................................................................... 16

4.3.2 Expanding materials (see E.5) ............................................................................................................................ 16

4 .4 Sm a l l p a r t s .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 17

4.4.1 For children under 36 months (see E.6) ..................................................................................................... 17

4.4.2 For children 36 months and over but under 72 months .............................................................. 17

4.5 S hape, size and strength of certain toys (see E.7) ............................................................................................... 18

4.5.1 Squeeze toys, rattles, fasteners and certain other toys and components of

toys .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 18

4 . 5 .2 Sm al l b a l l s .............................................................................................................................................................................20

4 . 5 . 3 Pomp om s (s e e E.8) ........................................................................................................................................................20

4.5.4 Pre-school play figures (see E.9) ....................................................................................................................... 20

4.5.5 Toy pacifiers ........................................................................................................................................................................ 21

4 . 5 . 6 B a l lo on s ................................................................................................................................................................................... 21

4. 5 .7 Ma r ble s ........................................................................................................................................... .......................................... 21

4.5.8 Hemispheric-shaped toys (see E.41) .............................................................................................................. 21

4 . 6 E d g e s (s e e E.11) .................................................................................................................................................................................. 24

4.6.1 Accessible sharp edges of glass or metal ................................................................................................... 24

4.6.2 Functional sharp edges ............................................................................................................................................. 24

4.6.3 Edges on metal toys ......................................................................................................................................................25

4.6.4 Edges on moulded toys ..............................................................................................................................................25

4.6.5 Edges on exposed bolts or threaded rods ................................................................................................. 25

4 .7 Poi nt s (s e e E.12) ................................................................................................................................................................................. 25

4.7.1 A ccessible sharp points ............................................................................................................................................. 25

4.7.2 Functional sharp points ............................................................................................................................................25

4.7.3 Wooden toys ........................................................................................................................................................................26

4 . 8 P r oje c t ion s .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 26

4.8.1 General requirements (see E.13) ...................................................................................................................... 26

4.8.2 Special considerations for bath toy projections .................................................................................. 26

4.9 M etal wires and rods (see E.14) ........................................................................................................................................... 26

4.10 P lastic film or plastic bags in packaging and in toys (see E.15) .............................................................. 26

4 .11 C or d s ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 27

4.11.1 General (see E.16) ........................................................................................................................................................... 27

4.11.2 Cords in toys intended for children under 18 months ...................................................................28

4.11.3 Cords in toys intended for children 18 months and over but under 36

months ......................................................................................................................................................................................28

4.11.4 Fixed loops and nooses intended for children under 36 months .........................................29

4.11.5 Cords on pull toys ...........................................................................................................................................................29

4 .11. 6 E le c t r ica l cable s ...............................................................................................................................................................29

4.11.7 Diameter of certain cords intended for children under 36 months ...................................30

4.11.8 Self-retracting cords intended for children under 36 months ...............................................30

4.11.9 Toys attached to or intended to be strung across, or otherwise attached to,

a cradle, cot, perambulator or carriage.......................................................................................................30

iii
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ISO 8124-1:2022(E)

4.11.10 C ords on toy bags ............................................................................................................................................................30

4.11.11 Cords, strings and lines for flying toys ........................................................................................................30

4.12 F olding mechanisms (see E.17) ............................................................................................................................................ 30

4.12.1 T oy pushchairs, perambulators and similar toys ...............................................................................30

4.12.2 Other toys with folding mechanisms (see E.18) .................................................................................. 32

4.12.3 H inge-line clearance (see E.19)........................................................................................................................... 32

4.13 H oles, clearances and accessibility of mechanisms ............................................................................................ 32

4.13.1 Circular holes in rigid materials (see E.20) ............................................................................................. 32

4.13.2 Accessible clearances for movable segments (see E.21) .............................................................. 32

4.13.3 Chains or belts in ride-on toys (see E.22).................................................................................................. 32

4.13.4 Other driving mechanisms (see E.23) .......................................................................................................... 33

4.13.5 Winding keys (see E.24) ............................................................................................................................................34

4 .14 Spr i n g s (s e e E.25) .............................................................................................................................................................................34

4.15 S tability and overload requirements ...............................................................................................................................34

4.15.1 Stability of ride-on toys and seats ...................................................................................................................34

4.15.2 Overload requirements for ride-on toys and seats (see E.28) ................................................ 35

4.15.3 Stability of stationary floor toys (see E.29) ............................................................................................. 35

4 .16 E nc lo s u r e s (s e e E.30) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 35

4 .16 .1 Vent i l at ion ............................................................................................................................................................................. 35

4.16 . 2 C los u r e s ................................................................................................................................................................................... 36

4.16.3 Toys that enclose the head ...................................................................................................................................... 37

4.17 I tems that cover the face and simulated protective equipment (see E.31) .................................... 37

4.18 P rojectile toys (see E.32) ............................................................................................................................................................ 37

4.18.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 37

4 .18 . 2 P r oje c t i le s .............................................................................................................................................................................. 37

4.18.3 Projectile toys with stored energy ..................................................................................................................39

4.18.4 Projectile toys without stored energy ......................................................................................................... 41

4.19 F lying toys (see E.33) ........................................................................................................................................... .......................... 42

4.19.1 G eneral ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 42

4.19.2 Rotor blades on flying toys ..................................................................................................................................... 42

4.19.3 Rotor blades on remote-controlled flying toys .................................................................................... 43

4.20 A quatic toys (see E.34) ................................................................................................................................................................. 43

4.21 B raking (see E.35) ............................................................................................................................................................................ 43

4.22 T oy bicycles (see 4.13.3 and E.36) ......................................................................................................................................44

4.22.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................44

4.22.2 Instructions for use.......................................................................................................................................................44

4.22.3 Determination of maximum saddle height ..............................................................................................44

4.22.4 Braking requirements ................................................................................................................................................44

4.23 S peed limitation of electrically driven ride-on toys (see E.37) ............................................................... 45

4.24 T oys containing a heat source ................................................................................................................................................ 45

4.25 L iquid-filled toys (see E.38) .....................................................................................................................................................46

4.26 M outh-actuated toys (see E.39) ............................................................................................................................................46

4.27 T oy roller skates, toy inline skates and toy skateboards ...............................................................................46

4.28 P ercussion caps specifically designed for use in toys (see E.40) ............................................................46

4.29 A coustic requirements (see E.42) .......................................................................................................................................46

4.30 T oy scooters (see E.44) ................................................................................................................................................................. 47

4.30.1 G eneral ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 47

4.30.2 Warnings and instructions for use .................................................................................................................48

4 . 30 . 3 St r en g t h ...................................................................................................................................................................................48

4.30.4 Stability ....................................................................................................................................................................................48

4.30.5 Adjustable and folding steering tubes and handlebars ................................................................48

4.30.6 B raking .....................................................................................................................................................................................49

4 . 30 .7 W he el s i z e .............................................................................................................................................................................49

4 . 30 . 8 P r oje c t ion s (s e e E.13) .................................................................................................................................................49

4.31 Magnets and magnetic components (see E.45) ......................................................................................................49

4.31.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................49

4.31.2 Magnetic or electrical experimental sets intended for children 8 years and

over ..............................................................................................................................................................................................49

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4.31.3 All other toys with magnets and magnetic components .............................................................49

4.32 Y o-yo balls (see E.46) .....................................................................................................................................................................50

4.33 S traps intended to be worn fully or partially around the neck (see E.47) .....................................50

4.34 S ledges and toboggans with cords for pulling ........................................................................................................50

4.35 J aw entrapment in handles and steering wheels (see E.48) ........................................................................50

4.36 Assembly ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 51

4.36.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 51

4.36.2 Toys intended to be assembled by a child ................................................................................................. 51

4.36.3 Toys intended to be assembled by an adult ............................................................................................. 51

4.36.4 Toys that are intended to be disassembled between uses ......................................................... 51

4.37 Functional toys .................................................................................................................................................................................... 52

4.38 T oys intended to come into contact with food ........................................................................................................ 52

4.39 I nflatable toys ......... ............................................................. ................................................................................................................. 52

5 Te s t me t ho d s .........................................................................................................................................................................................................52

5.1 G eneral ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 52

5.2 S mall parts test ................................................................................................................................................................................... 53

5.3 T est for shape and size of certain toys ........................................................................................................................... 53

5.4 S mall balls test .....................................................................................................................................................................................54

5.5 Test for pompoms..............................................................................................................................................................................55

5.6 T est for pre-school play figures ............................................................................................................................................55

5.7 A ccessibility of a part or component ................................................................................................................................ 55

5.7.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 55

5 .7. 2 P r i nc iple ..................................................................................................................................................................................56

5 .7. 3 A pp a r at u s .............................................................................................................................................................................. 56

5 .7.4 P r o c e du r e ..............................................................................................................................................................................56

5 . 8 S h a r p - e d g e t e s t ................................................................................................................................................................................... 57

5.8.1 G eneral ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 57

5 . 8 . 2 P r i nc iple .................................................................................................................................................................................. 57

5 . 8 . 3 A pp a r at u s .............................................................................................................................................................................. 57

5 . 8 .4 P r o c e du r e ..............................................................................................................................................................................58

5 .9 S h a r p -p oi nt t e s t .................................................................................................................................................................................. 59

5.9.1 G eneral ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 59

5 .9. 2 P r i nc iple .................................................................................................................................................................................. 59

5 .9. 3 A pp a r at u s .............................................................................................................................................................................. 59

5 .9.4 P r o c e du r e ..............................................................................................................................................................................60

5.10 D etermination of thickness of plastic film and sheeting ............................................................................... 61

5.10.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 61

5 .10 . 2 A pp a r at u s .............................................................................................................................................................................. 61

5 .10 . 3 P r o ce du r e .............................................................................................................................................................................. 61

5.11 T est for cords ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 61

5.11.1 Cord cross-sectional dimension ........................................................................................................................ 61

5.11.2 Length of cords and electrical cables ............................................................................................................ 62

5.11.3 Breakaway feature separation test ................................................................................................................ 62

5.11.4 Test for fixed loops and nooses...........................................................................................................................63

5 .11. 5 S el f-r e t r ac t i n g c or d s .................................................................................................................................................... 67

5.11.6 Electrical resistance of cords ............................................................................................................................... 67

5.12 S tability and overload tests ......................................................................................................................................................68

5.12.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................68

5.12.2 Sideways stability test, feet available for stabilization ................................... ..............................68

5.12.3 Sideways stability test, feet unavailable for stabilization ..........................................................68

5.12.4 Fore and aft stability test ................................................................

...

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