Unmanned aircraft systems -- Training for personnel involved in UAS operations

This document describes the procedures for training personnel who will be involved in the operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This document defines: a) knowledge, skill, attitude and qualification criteria that are needed for UAS pilots and training organizations that provides training to trainees of UAS remote pilots and other personnel involved in UAS operations; b) training curriculum and contents for specific learning courses; c) qualification and confirmation criteria for the training organizations; d) general procedures for providing training of UAS personnel. The requirements for a specific course as described in the annexes can be more restrictive in some cases.

Aéronefs sans pilote -- Formation du personnel impliqué dans l'exploitation d'UAS

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Feb-2021
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
11-Jun-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23665
First edition
2021-01
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Training for personnel involved in UAS
operations
Aéronefs sans pilote — Formation du personnel impliqué dans
l'exploitation d'UAS
Reference number
ISO 23665:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23665:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23665:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Training organization ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Responsibilities ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Documentation for staff members ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Display of certificate ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Records .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Emergency procedures and equipment ............................................................................................................................ 4

5.6 Introductory information .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Training resources ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 Teaching aids ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.2 Instructor requirements ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3 Theoretical training ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.1 Theory knowledge delivery methods ............................................................................................................ 5

6.3.2 Theory presentations .................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4 Flight training........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4.1 Training environment.................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4.2 Training aircraft ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.4.3 Simulators .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4.4 Risk management ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Training content delivery ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8 Final qualification ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9 Evaluation protocols ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (normative) VLOS UAS pilot course ................................................................................................................................................ 7

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23665:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 16, Unmanned aircraft systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at https:// www .iso .org/ members .html.

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 23665:2021(E)
Introduction

Unmanned aircraft (UA) have been rapidly increased in number, application and type within recent

decades. UA are commonly utilized for filming, agricultural spraying, inspection, security activities and

are expected to be also employed for transportation.

However, the required knowledge, attitude and skill levels for personnel who are involved in unmanned

aircraft system (UAS) operations need to be clearly defined. When unskilled persons operate a UA,

the risk of a serious accident will increase. Discrepancies in qualification criteria among countries or

organizations will also prevent the international exchange of workers and aircraft.

This document helps to ensure that personnel who are involved in UAS operations receive appropriate

education and obtain essential knowledge and skill. Training organizations and individuals qualified

according to this document will be internationally recognized. It will enhance the international

operation of UAS, enable personal exchange, and encourage international trade.

The main body of this document defines the procedures for the operation of a training organization,

which is the entity that delivers training to trainees. The requirements for a specific course (VLOS UAS

remote pilot-in-command) are located in Annex A. It is envisioned that further courses will be defined

later and that these will be added as additional annexes in the future.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23665:2021(E)
Unmanned aircraft systems — Training for personnel
involved in UAS operations
1 Scope

This document describes the procedures for training personnel who will be involved in the operation of

unmanned aircraft systems (UAS).
This document defines:

a) knowledge, skill, attitude and qualification criteria that are needed for UAS pilots and training

organizations that provides training to trainees of UAS remote pilots and other personnel involved

in UAS operations;
b) training curriculum and contents for specific learning courses;
c) qualification and confirmation criteria for the training organizations;

d) general procedures for providing training of UAS personnel. The requirements for a specific course

as described in the annexes can be more restrictive in some cases.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 21384-3:2019, Unmanned aircraft systems — Part 3: Operational procedures
ISO 21384-4:2020, Unmanned aircraft systems — Part 4: Vocabulary
ISO 21895, Categorization and classification of civil unmanned aircraft systems
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 21384-4 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
national aviation authority

government statutory authority in each country that oversees the approval and regulation of civil

aviation
3.2
visual observer

remote crew member who, by visual observation of the remotely piloted aircraft, assists the remote

pilot (3.3) in the safe conduct of the flight
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 23665:2021(E)
3.3
remote pilot

person charged by the operator with duties essential to the operation of an unmanned aircraft and who

manipulates the flight controls, as appropriate, during flight time
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.4
visual line-of-sight operation
VLOS

operation in which the remote pilot (3.3) or unmanned aircraft observer maintains direct unaided

visual contact with the unmanned aircraft system
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [5].
4 Abbreviated terms
AGL above ground level
ATC air traffic control
ATS air traffic service
ATZ aerodrome traffic zone
Baro-VNAV barometric-vertical navigation
BVLOS beyond visual line-of-sight
CRM crew resource management
CTR control zone
EVLOS extended visual line-of-sight
FIR flight information region
GNSS global navigation satellite system
GPS global positioning system
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IFR instrument flight rules
NOTAM notice to airmen
SD card secure digital card
TEM threat and error management
VFR visual flight rules
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23665:2021(E)
5 Training organization
5.1 Responsibilities

The training organization shall designate each different person who will be responsible for at least each

of the following areas:
a) training and assessment;
b) safety.
5.2 Documentation for staff members

The training organization shall maintain, at least, the following documentation for all staff members

delivering training services:
a) name, address and date of birth;
b) training/qualification, experience; and
c) duties assigned to the individual staff member.

The service provider shall have documentary evidence that all staff members hold relevant and current

qualifications for their duties. Proof of qualifications shall be updated at least every two years and made

available to the clients upon request.
5.3 Display of certificate

The training organization shall display a current certificate of accreditation (when applicable) showing

that it meets the requirement of this document in a position visible to members of the public entering

the premises.
5.4 Records

The training organization shall retain, at least, the following records of trainee training and certification

in paper or electric format for a minimum of 7 years:
a) trainee name;
b) trainee address;
c) trainee email address;
d) trainee telephone number;
e) trainee date of birth;
f) course(s) taken;
g) pass or fail and date; and
h) instructor details.

The training organization should follow the general protocols for data management outlined in

ISO 15489-1 as far as possible.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 23665:2021(E)
5.5 Emergency procedures and equipment

For all locations where UAS are to be operated, the training organization shall ensure the availability of

the following:
a) a first aid kit suitable for the planned activities;
b) a communication system suitable for alerting emergency services;
c) firefighting equipment;
d) identification of an evacuation location for personnel; and

e) a means for contacting the appropriate air traffic control (ATC), e.g. telephone, radio.

5.6 Introductory information
The training organization shall provide the following information to trainees:

a) conditions regarding the responsibilities of each party related to commencement, delivery and

termination of the service;

b) consequences for the training organization and the trainee should either party choose to cancel the

service;

c) prerequisites and any qualification requirements in order to obtain the service (e.g. prerequisite

certifications);
d) equipment requirements;
e) costs;
f) insurance requirements;

g) any legislation and legal requirements relevant to the specific kind of service;

h) limitations of eventual qualification;
i) scope of the training course;
j) course procedures;
k) means and methods for assessment and criteria for successful completion;

l) that records of their personal data will be kept, and that these records may be passed on to a central

training authority or national aviation authority;
m) specification of duration, matters and contents delivered in the course; and
n) specification of language or languages of the course delivery.
6 Training resources
6.1 Teaching aids

The training organization shall provide the necessary resources for training such as instructors, trainee

reference materials, facility equipment.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23665:2021(E)
6.2 Instructor requirements

Instructors shall be competent to deliver the training in accordance with the specific requirements

detailed in Annex A.
6.3 Theoretical training
6.3.1 Theory knowledge delivery methods

Required theory knowledge can be introduced using instructor-delivered sessions, via internet, virtual

reality, applications or any similar mechanisms as long as the trainee can subsequently prove mastery

of the required information.
6.3.2 Theory presentations

In case theory teaching is conducted by training organization instructor-delivered sessions, it shall be

conducted in an environment such as a dedicated classroom that is free from significant distractions

to learning. This shall provide trainees with sufficient working facilities and training aids (e.g. writing

surfaces, reference materials, computers, visual or audio materials) to ensure that trainees are able to

understand the information being presented.
6.4 Flight training
6.4.1 Training environment

Where the training organization provides flight training, it shall secure an appropriate flight training

airspace. The training environment shall be suitably designated and equipped for trainees. The airspace

shall be designated as a reserved airspace for training, if possible.

The training organization shall ensure the training environment is appropriate and safe, including

taking reasonable steps to consider such factors as:
a) potential conflict with other aircraft;
b) risk to third parties, including to members of the public; and

c) ensuring the area is cleared of any unnecessary hazards to trainees, instructors and other

personnel involved in the training operations.

Electromagnetic interference including from other communications and sources in the environment

(e.g. other emitter, power lines) should be prevented as far as can be reasonably achieved.

NOTE Applicable radio interference assessment methods are described in Reference [3] and Reference [4].

6.4.2 Training aircraft

The training organization shall provide appropriate unmanned aircraft of an appropriate kind, number

and quality for the training courses being offered to trainees to ensure all trainees have sufficient

experience and airtime with the necessary aircraft types. Dual control systems for training aircraft

may be beneficial in some circumstances and may be used when appropriate.
6.4.3 Simulators

The training organization should use training simulators wherever possible and appropriate,

particularly when demonstrating serious emergency actions.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 23665:2021(E)
6.4.4 Risk management

The training organization shall ensure that a risk assessment is conducted before each flight training

activity and shall adopt procedures to ensure that all risks are controlled as far as is reasonably

possible. All relevant factors shall be considered as part of this assessment including the capability of

trainees, the weather conditions, likely air traffic movement and the available equipment.

7 Training content delivery

The training organization shall provide training covering the theoretical knowledge and practical skills

as defined in Annex A. The quality and effectiveness of the training content shall be evaluated and

maintained periodically.

Before a qualification is issued to a trainee, the training organization shall assess the trainee's

knowledge and practical competence to ensure all the required competencies defined in this document

have been met.

The training organization should meet the general requirements for learning services described in

ISO 29993:2017, Clause 12 “Assessment of learning” and ISO 29993:2017, Clause 13 “Monitoring and

evaluation of the learning service”, as far as possible.
8 Final qualification

The training organization shall issue diplomas, or other means of recognition, to certify when trainees

have met the requisite knowledge and practical skills as defined in Annex A. The diplomas shall include

the following data:
a) trainee name;
b) trainee birth date;

c) serial number of the diploma, given by the training organization issuing the diploma:

d) course name and version information;
e) UAS classification/category covered by course;
f) issue date;
g) expiration date (if applicable);
h) training organization name;
i) qualifying instructor’s name; and
j) any special endorsements, e.g. including night operations.
9 Evaluation protocols

Trainees shall be evaluated in their theoretical and practical skills to demonstrate their competency

according to this document before being issued with any qualification.

Prior to final evaluation, trainees shall either complete all the training described in Annex A or, in the

case of experienced but unqualified UAS pilots, demonstrate equivalent existing abilities.

6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 23665:2021(E)
Annex A
(normative)
VLOS UAS pilot course
A.1 Overview

This annex specifies requirements for UAS pilot training programs and the competencies that a training

organization is expected to deliver to a trainee in order to achieve a VLOS UAS pilot certification who is

able to act as remote pilot-in-command using VTOL UA in VLOS operations. The pilot shall be trained to

be able to operate a VTOL UA according to ISO 21895 Grade 2, 3 or 4, and their qualification shall state

which Grades of UA they can operate.
This document specifies two stages of pilot training:
a) theory knowledge (see A.4); and
b) practical skills (see A.5).
A.2 Competencies

A trainee who successfully completes the training course that satisfies the requirements of this

document shall be able to act as the pilot-in-command (remote PIC) of an unmanned aircraft that is

operated within their visual line-of-sight. If the training course is for a specific category or class of UA,

this shall be specified.
A.3 Fitness to act as remote pilot-in-command

In order to operate the UAS in a safe manner, the trainee shall not have any health issues that are likely

to impede their control of the aircraft. In particular, the trainee shall:

a) be able to clearly see with naked eyes or corrected vision the aircraft at all times and be able to

judge its orientation at any distance at which it is likely to be operated;

b) be able to identify any other air users or obstructions that can pose a collision risk for the UA;

c) be able to correctly interpret all safety critical data displayed on the UAS controller display unit;

d) be able to hear sufficiently to be aware of the approach of other aircraft or to be warned verbally of

a safety concern;

e) not have any known condition that could cause sudden loss of consciousness or concentration;

f) be able to handle the remote-control station and to manipulate the equipment installed therein; and

g) be able to communicate with other crew members, operators and stakeholders.

In the event that a trainee has a condition or disability that prevents them from meeting one or more

of these requirements, it can be possible to achieve a safe working protocol by using a visual observer,

back-up remote PIC or other additional crew member, in which case a risk assessment shall be carried

out to ensure that such a protocol is effective.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 23665:2021(E)
A.4 Theory knowledge
A.4.1 Air law/responsibilities
A.4.1.1 Terminology

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the relevant

air law and regulatory terminology.
A.4.1.2 Legislation
A.4.1.2.1 Relevant articles and definitions

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) the legal framework that governs airspace in the regulatory environment or jurisdiction of

operation; and
b) the legal articles or regulation relevant to UA flight in that jurisdiction.
A.4.1.2.2 Rules of the air
A.4.1.2.2.1 General

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the rules of

the air relevant to UAS operation.
A.4.1.2.2.2 Avoidance of collisions ("see and avoid")

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) the PIC’s responsibility for "see and avoid" and how this relates to avoidance of collisions with

manned/unmanned aircraft; and

b) the procedures aircraft should follow in a collision or conflict situation according to the information

provided by the manufacturer.
A.4.2 UAS guidance or implementing rules issued in the jurisdiction of operation

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) guidance and/or implementing rules and their relationship with regulation;
b) details of mass categories;
c) details of categories of operation; and

d) restrictions applicable in different operating environments or standardized risk-based scenarios.

A.4.3 Incident and accident reporting
A.4.3.1 General

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) the definition of "accident" as regards aviation;
b) the definition of "incident" as regards aviation;
8 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 23665:2021(E)
c) the responsibility of the PIC as regards reporting incidents and accidents;

d) ensuring personnel can report incidents and aircraft proximity situations without fear of reprisals;

e) the relevant agencies for different types of reports;
f) the time limits on reporting;
g) the mechanisms for reporting;
h) the types of reportable incidents and accidents; and
i) the concepts of "hazard" and "risk".
A.4.3.2 Aircraft proximity reporting

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) the definition of an aircraft proximity situation (airprox); and

b) the reporting process for aircraft proximity incidents if relevant (e.g. according to ICAO

requirements in the country where the incident occurred).
A.4.3.3 Investigation handling/assistance

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of how to

assist agencies with any investigation as regards presentation of logs, records and documentation.

A.4.4 Insurance

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the need for

insurance and be able to reference any specific national requirements or international recommendations

relevant to UAS operations.
A.4.5 UAS airspace operating principles
A.4.5.1 Flight information region (FIR)

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the relevance

of the following with respect to UAS:
a) overall airspace designations;
b) airspace sovereignty;
c) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) definitions; and
d) national or host nation definitions.
A.4.5.2 Airspace classifications
A.4.5.2.1 General

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) airspace structure and limits;
b) difference between controlled and non-controlled airspace;
c) classes of airspace;
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO 23665:2021(E)
d) airspace restrictions;
e) likely vertical extent;
f) 3D nature of airspace;
g) IFR and VFR rules; and
h) ATS units.
A.4.5.2.2 Differing considerations

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) operating restrictions in different classes of airspace;
b) likely traffic considerations for the UAS pilot to be concerned about; and
c) responsibility of other visual flight rules (VFR) traffic.
A.4.5.2.3 Controlled airspace

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

— how airspace ownership is assigned; and

— when liaison with air traffic control is appropriate for specific airspace types.

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the key

feature
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23665
ISO/TC 20/SC 16
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Secretariat: ANSI
Training for personnel involved in UAS
Voting begins on:
2020­10­13 operations
Voting terminates on:
2020­12­08
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Training organization ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Responsibilities ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Documentation for staff members ......................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Display of certificate ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Records .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Emergency procedures and equipment ............................................................................................................................ 4

5.6 Introductory information .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Training resources ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1 Teaching aids ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.2 Instructor requirements ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3 Theoretical training ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.1 Theory knowledge delivery methods ............................................................................................................ 5

6.3.2 Theory presentations .................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4 Flight training........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.4.1 Training environment.................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4.2 Training aircraft ................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.4.3 Simulators .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.4.4 Risk management ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

7 Training content delivery ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

8 Final qualification ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9 Evaluation protocols ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (normative) VLOS UAS pilot course ................................................................................................................................................ 7

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................35

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 16, Unmanned aircraft systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at https:// www .iso .org/ members .html.

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
Introduction

Unmanned aircraft (UA) have been rapidly increased in number, application and type within recent

decades. UA are commonly utilized for filming, agricultural spraying, inspection, security activities and

are expected to be also employed for transportation.

However, the required knowledge, attitude and skill levels for personnel who are involved in unmanned

aircraft system (UAS) operations need to be clearly defined. When unskilled persons operate a UA,

the risk of a serious accident will increase. Discrepancies in qualification criteria among countries or

organizations will also prevent the international exchange of workers and aircraft.

This document helps to ensure that personnel who are involved in UAS operations receive appropriate

education and obtain essential knowledge and skill. Training organizations and individuals qualified

according to this document will be internationally recognized. It will enhance the international

operation of UAS, enable personal exchange, and encourage international trade.

The main body of this document defines the procedures for the operation of a training organization,

which is the entity that delivers training to trainees. The requirements for a specific course (VLOS UAS

remote pilot­in­command) are located in Annex A. It is envisioned that further courses will be defined

later and that these will be added as additional annexes in the future.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
Unmanned aircraft systems — Training for personnel
involved in UAS operations
1 Scope

This document describes the procedures for training personnel who will be involved in the operation of

unmanned aircraft systems (UAS).
This document defines:

a) knowledge, skill, attitude and qualification criteria that are needed for UAS pilots and training

organizations that provides training to trainees of UAS remote pilots and other personnel involved

in UAS operations;
b) training curriculum and contents for specific learning courses;
c) qualification and confirmation criteria for the training organizations;

d) general procedures for providing training of UAS personnel. The requirements for a specific course

as described in the annexes can be more restrictive in some cases.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 21384­3:2019, Unmanned aircraft systems — Part 3: Operational procedures
ISO 21384­4:2020, Unmanned aircraft systems — Part 4: Vocabulary
ISO 21895, Categorization and classification of civil unmanned aircraft systems
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 21384-4 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
national aviation authority

government statutory authority in each country that oversees the approval and regulation of civil

aviation
3.2
visual observer

remote crew member who, by visual observation of the remotely piloted aircraft, assists the remote

pilot (3.3) in the safe conduct of the flight
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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
3.3
remote pilot

person charged by the operator with duties essential to the operation of an unmanned aircraft and who

manipulates the flight controls, as appropriate, during flight time
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.4
visual line-of-sight operation
VLOS

operation in which the remote pilot (3.3) or unmanned aircraft observer maintains direct unaided

visual contact with the unmanned aircraft system
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [5].
4 Abbreviated terms
AGL above ground level
ATC air traffic control
ATS air traffic service
ATZ aerodrome traffic zone
Baro­VNAV barometric­vertical navigation
BVLOS beyond visual line-of-sight
CRM crew resource management
CTR control zone
EVLOS extended visual line-of-sight
FIR flight information region
GNSS global navigation satellite system
GPS global positioning system
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
IFR instrument flight rules
NOTAM notice to airmen
SD card secure digital card
TEM threat and error management
VFR visual flight rules
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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
5 Training organization
5.1 Responsibilities

The training organization shall designate each different person who will be responsible for at least each

of the following areas:
a) training and assessment;
b) safety.
5.2 Documentation for staff members

The training organization shall maintain, at least, the following documentation for all staff members

delivering training services:
a) name, address and date of birth;
b) training/qualification, experience; and
c) duties assigned to the individual staff member.

The service provider shall have documentary evidence that all staff members hold relevant and current

qualifications for their duties. Proof of qualifications shall be updated at least every two years and made

available to the clients upon request.
5.3 Display of certificate

The training organization shall display a current certificate of accreditation (when applicable) showing

that it meets the requirement of this document in a position visible to members of the public entering

the premises.
5.4 Records

The training organization shall retain, at least, the following records of trainee training and certification

in paper or electric format for a minimum of 7 years:
a) trainee name;
b) trainee address;
c) trainee email address;
d) trainee telephone number;
e) trainee date of birth;
f) course(s) taken;
g) pass or fail and date; and
h) instructor details.

The training organization should follow the general protocols for data management outlined in

ISO 15489­1 as far as possible.
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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
5.5 Emergency procedures and equipment

For all locations where UAS are to be operated, the training organization shall ensure the availability of

the following:
a) a first aid kit suitable for the planned activities;
b) a communication system suitable for alerting emergency services;
c) firefighting equipment;
d) identification of an evacuation location for personnel; and

e) a means for contacting the appropriate air traffic control (ATC), e.g. telephone, radio.

5.6 Introductory information
The training organization shall provide the following information to trainees:

a) conditions regarding the responsibilities of each party related to commencement, delivery and

termination of the service;

b) consequences for the training organization and the trainee should either party choose to cancel the

service;

c) prerequisites and any qualification requirements in order to obtain the service (e.g. prerequisite

certifications);
d) equipment requirements;
e) costs;
f) insurance requirements;

g) any legislation and legal requirements relevant to the specific kind of service;

h) limitations of eventual qualification;
i) scope of the training course;
j) course procedures;
k) means and methods for assessment and criteria for successful completion;

l) that records of their personal data will be kept, and that these records may be passed on to a central

training authority or national aviation authority;
m) specification of duration, matters and contents delivered in the course; and
n) specification of language or languages of the course delivery.
6 Training resources
6.1 Teaching aids

The training organization shall provide the necessary resources for training such as instructors, trainee

reference materials, facility equipment.
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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
6.2 Instructor requirements

Instructors shall be competent to deliver the training in accordance with the specific requirements

detailed in Annex A.
6.3 Theoretical training
6.3.1 Theory knowledge delivery methods

Required theory knowledge can be introduced using instructor-delivered sessions, via internet, virtual

reality, applications or any similar mechanisms as long as the trainee can subsequently prove mastery

of the required information.
6.3.2 Theory presentations

In case theory teaching is conducted by training organization instructor-delivered sessions, it shall be

conducted in an environment such as a dedicated classroom that is free from significant distractions

to learning. This shall provide trainees with sufficient working facilities and training aids (e.g. writing

surfaces, reference materials, computers, visual or audio materials) to ensure that trainees are able to

understand the information being presented.
6.4 Flight training
6.4.1 Training environment

Where the training organization provides flight training, it shall secure an appropriate flight training

airspace. The training environment shall be suitably designated and equipped for trainees. The airspace

shall be designated as a reserved airspace for training, if possible.

The training organization shall ensure the training environment is appropriate and safe, including

taking reasonable steps to consider such factors as:
a) potential conflict with other aircraft;
b) risk to third parties, including to members of the public; and

c) ensuring the area is cleared of any unnecessary hazards to trainees, instructors and other

personnel involved in the training operations.

Electromagnetic interference including from other communications and sources in the environment

(e.g. other emitter, power lines, etc.) should be prevented as far as can be reasonably achieved.

NOTE Applicable radio interference assessment methods are described in Reference [3] and Reference [4].

6.4.2 Training aircraft

The training organization shall provide appropriate unmanned aircrafts of an appropriate kind, number

and quality for the training courses being offered to trainees to ensure all trainees have sufficient

experience and airtime with the necessary aircraft types. Dual control systems for training aircraft

may be beneficial in some circumstances and may be used when appropriate.
6.4.3 Simulators

The training organization should use training simulators wherever possible and appropriate,

particularly when demonstrating serious emergency actions.
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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
6.4.4 Risk management

The training organization shall ensure that a risk assessment is conducted before each flight training

activity and shall adopt procedures to ensure that all risks are controlled as far as is reasonably

possible. All relevant factors shall be considered as part of this assessment including the capability of

trainees, the weather conditions, likely air traffic movement and the available equipment.

7 Training content delivery

The training organization shall provide training covering the theoretical knowledge and practical skills

as defined in Annex A. The quality and effectiveness of the training content shall be evaluated and

maintained periodically.

Before a qualification is issued to a trainee, the training organization shall assess the trainee's

knowledge and practical competence to ensure all the required competencies defined in this document

have been met.

The training organization should meet the general requirements for learning services described in

ISO 29993:2017, Clause 12 “Assessment of learning” and ISO 29993:2017, Clause 13 “Monitoring and

evaluation of the learning service”, as far as possible.
8 Final qualification

The training organization shall issue diplomas, or other means of recognition, to certify when trainees

have met the requisite knowledge and practical skills as defined in Annex A. The diplomas shall include

the following data:
a) trainee name;
b) trainee birth date;

c) serial number of the diploma, given by the training organization issuing the diploma:

d) course name and version information;
e) UAS classification/category covered by course;
f) issue date;
g) expiration date (if applicable);
h) training organization name;
i) qualifying instructor’s name; and
j) any special endorsements, e.g. including night operations.
9 Evaluation protocols

Trainees shall be evaluated in their theoretical and practical skills to demonstrate their competency

according to this document before being issued with any qualification.

Prior to final evaluation, trainees shall either complete all the training described in Annex A or, in the

case of experienced but unqualified UAS pilots, demonstrate equivalent existing abilities.

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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
Annex A
(normative)
VLOS UAS pilot course
A.1 Overview

This annex specifies requirements for UAS pilot training programs and the competencies that a training

organization is expected to deliver to a trainee in order to achieve a VLOS UAS pilot certification who is

able to act as remote pilot­in­command using VTOL UA in VLOS operations. The pilot shall be trained to

be able to operate a VTOL UA according to ISO 21895 Grade 2, 3 or 4, and their qualification shall state

which Grades of UA they can operate.
This document specifies two stages of pilot training:
a) theory knowledge (see A.4); and
b) practical skills (see A.5).
A.2 Competencies

A trainee who successfully completes the training course that satisfies the requirements of this

document shall be able to act as the pilot­in­command (remote PIC) of an unmanned aircraft that is

operated within their visual line-of-sight. If the training course is for a specific category or class of UA,

this shall be specified.
A.3 Fitness to act as remote pilot-in-command

In order to operate the UAS in a safe manner, the trainee shall not have any health issues that are likely

to impede their control of the aircraft. In particular, the trainee shall:

a) be able to clearly see with naked eyes or corrected vision the aircraft at all times and be able to

judge its orientation at any distance at which it is likely to be operated;

b) be able to identify any other air users or obstructions that can pose a collision risk for the UA;

c) be able to correctly interpret all safety critical data displayed on the UAS controller display unit;

d) be able to hear sufficiently to be aware of the approach of other aircraft or to be warned verbally of

a safety concern;

e) not have any known condition that could cause sudden loss of consciousness or concentration;

f) be able to handle the remote-control station and to manipulate the equipment installed therein; and

g) be able to communicate with other crew members, operators and stakeholders.

In the event that a trainee has a condition or disability that prevents them from meeting one or more

of these requirements, it can be possible to achieve a safe working protocol by using a visual observer,

back-up remote PIC or other additional crew member, in which case a risk assessment shall be carried

out to ensure that such a protocol is effective.
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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
A.4 Theory knowledge
A.4.1 Air law/responsibilities
A.4.1.1 Terminology

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the relevant

air law and regulatory terminology.
A.4.1.2 Legislation
A.4.1.2.1 Relevant articles and definitions

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) the legal framework that governs airspace in the regulatory environment or jurisdiction of

operation; and
b) the legal articles or regulation relevant to UA flight in that jurisdiction.
A.4.1.2.2 Rules of the air
A.4.1.2.2.1 General

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the rules of

the air relevant to UAS operation.
A.4.1.2.2.2 Avoidance of collisions ("see and avoid")

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) the PIC’s responsibility for "see and avoid" and how this relates to avoidance of collisions with

manned/unmanned aircraft; and

b) the procedures aircraft should follow in a collision or conflict situation according to the information

provided by the manufacturer.
A.4.2 UAS guidance or implementing rules issued in the jurisdiction of operation

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) guidance and/or implementing rules and their relationship with regulation;
b) details of mass categories;
c) details of categories of operation; and

d) restrictions applicable in different operating environments or standardized risk-based scenarios.

A.4.3 Incident and accident reporting
A.4.3.1 General

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) the definition of "accident" as regards aviation;
b) the definition of "incident" as regards aviation;
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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
c) the responsibility of the PIC as regards reporting incidents and accidents;

d) ensuring personnel can report incidents and aircraft proximity situation without fear of reprisals;

e) the relevant agencies for different types of reports;
f) the time limits on reporting;
g) the mechanisms for reporting;
h) the types of reportable incidents and accidents; and
i) the concepts of "hazard" and "risk".
A.4.3.2 Aircraft proximity reporting

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) the definition of an aircraft proximity situation (airprox); and

b) the reporting process for aircraft proximity incidents if relevant (e.g. according to ICAO

requirements in the country where the incident occurred).
A.4.3.3 Investigation handling/assistance

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of how to

assist agencies with any investigation as regards presentation of logs, records and documentation.

A.4.4 Insurance

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the need for

insurance and be able to reference any specific national requirements or international recommendations

relevant to UAS operations.
A.4.5 UAS airspace operating principles
A.4.5.1 Flight information region (FIR)

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of the relevance

of the following with respect to UAS:
a) overall airspace designations;
b) airspace sovereignty;
c) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) definitions; and
d) national or host nation definitions.
A.4.5.2 Airspace classifications
A.4.5.2.1 General

The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to demonstrate understanding of:

a) airspace structure and limits;
b) difference between controlled and non­controlled airspace;
c) classes of airspace;
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ISO/FDIS 23665:2020(E)
d) airspace restrictions;
e) likely vertical extent;
f) 3D nature of airspace;
g) IFR and VFR rules; and
h) ATS units.
A.4.5.2.2 Differing considerations
The training organization shall ensure the trainee is able to d
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