Safety of toys — Part 4: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

ISO 8124‑4:2010 specifies requirements and test methods for activity toys for domestic family use intended for children under fourteen years to play on or in. Products covered by ISO 8124‑4:2010 include swings, slides, seesaws, carousels, rocking toys, climbing frames, fully enclosed toddler swing seats and other products intended to bear the mass of one or more children.

Sécurité des jouets — Partie 4: Balançoires, glissoires et jouets à activité similaire à usage domestique familial intérieur et extérieur

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
21-Mar-2010
Withdrawal Date
21-Mar-2010
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
03-Oct-2014
Completion Date
03-Oct-2014
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 8124-4
First edition
2010-04-01
Safety of toys —
Part 4:
Swings, slides and similar activity toys
for indoor and outdoor family domestic
use
Sécurité des jouets —
Partie 4: Balançoires, glissoires et jouets à activité similaire à usage
domestique familial intérieur et extérieur
Reference number
ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
ISO 2010
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
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ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................1

4 Requirements.........................................................................................................................................5

4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................5

4.2 Barriers.................................................................................................................................................10

4.3 Rung ladders, stepladders and stairways ........................................................................................11

4.4 Entrapment...........................................................................................................................................12

4.5 Stability of activity toys other than slides, swings and toys with crossbeams............................14

4.6 Slides ....................................................................................................................................................15

4.7 Swings ..................................................................................................................................................18

4.8 Seesaws................................................................................................................................................21

4.9 Carousels and rocking toys ...............................................................................................................21

5 Warnings and labelling .......................................................................................................................22

5.1 Labelling...............................................................................................................................................22

5.2 Assembly and installation instructions ............................................................................................22

5.3 Maintenance instructions ...................................................................................................................23

6 Test methods .......................................................................................................................................24

6.1 Stability.................................................................................................................................................24

6.2 Static strength .....................................................................................................................................31

6.3 Dynamic strength of barriers and handrails (see 4.2) .....................................................................32

6.4 Determination of impact from swing elements (see 4.7.4)..............................................................33

6.5 Test for head and neck entrapment...................................................................................................37

6.6 Toggle test (see 4.4.2) .........................................................................................................................41

6.7 Test for protrusions (see 4.1.4) ..........................................................................................................44

6.8 Durability test for suspension connectors and means of suspension (see 4.7.8) .......................47

Annex A (informative) Rationale......................................................................................................................50

Annex B (informative) Consumer information sheet for playground surfacing materials........................53

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................54

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 8124-4 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 181, Safety of toys.

ISO 8124 consists of the following parts, under the general title Safety of toys.

⎯ Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties
⎯ Part 2: Flammability
⎯ Part 3: Migration of certain elements

⎯ Part 4: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 8124 is largely based upon existing standards in the European Union (EN 71-8) and in the

United States (ASTM F1148).

However, it should not be construed that a toy manufactured in compliance with this part of ISO 8124 will be in

full compliance with relevant national toy safety requirements in the market where the product is intended to

be distributed. The user of this part of ISO 8124 is therefore advised to be aware of relevant national

requirements.

Compliance with the requirements of this part of ISO 8124 will minimize potential hazards associated with toys

resulting from their use in their intended play modes (normal use) as well as unintended play modes

(reasonable foreseeable abuse).

This part of ISO 8124 will not, nor is it intended to, eliminate parental responsibility in the appropriate selection

of toys. In addition, this part of ISO 8124 will not eliminate the need for parental supervision in situations

where children of various ages may have access to the same toy(s).
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
Safety of toys —
Part 4:
Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor
family domestic use
1 Scope
See A.1.

This part of ISO 8124 specifies requirements and test methods for activity toys for domestic family use

intended for children under 14 years to play on or in.

Products covered by this part of ISO 8124 include swings, slides, seesaws, carousels, rocking toys, climbing

frames, fully enclosed toddler swing seats and other products intended to bear the mass of one or more

children.
Products not included within the scope of this part of ISO 8124 are:
a) fitness and sporting equipment unless attached to the activity toy;

b) equipment intended for use in schools, day care centres, kindergartens, public playgrounds, restaurants,

shopping centres and similar public places;

c) juvenile care products such as, but not limited to, infant swings, playpens/enclosures, beds or furniture

including picnic tables, cradle rockers and products specifically designed for therapeutic use.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendment) applies.

ISO 8124-1, Safety of toys — Part 1: Safety aspects related to mechanical and physical properties

3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8124-1 and the following apply.

3.1
activity toy

toy intended for family domestic use, intended to bear the mass of one or more children, often attached to or

incorporating a crossbeam and intended for children to play on or in
EXAMPLES Swings, slides, carousels and climbing frames (see Figure 1).
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
Figure 1 — Examples of activity toys (not to scale)
3.2
anchor
device used to fix the toy to the ground surface
3.3
attachment slide

slide for which access to the starting section is possible only by passing via other equipment or parts of other

equipment
3.4
barrier
device intended to prevent children from falling from elevated surfaces
3.5
crossbeam
bar or beam which forms a main load-bearing part of the toy
3.6
entrapment

condition in which a body, part of a body or clothing becomes caught and impedes withdrawal

3.7
forced movement

movement where the direction and the extent of the child's movement is determined by the operation of the

equipment, for example swinging, sliding, rocking or revolving
2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
3.8
free height of fall

greatest vertical distance from the intended body support, for example from the seat of a swing to the impact

area below
3.9
free space

space in, on or around the activity toy that can be occupied by a user undergoing a forced movement by the

equipment, for example swinging, sliding, rocking or revolving

NOTE The definition of free space does not include the three-dimensional area in which a falling movement takes

place.
3.10
fully enclosed toddler swing seats

fully enclosed single occupancy swing intended for young children who can sit upright unaided

NOTE A seat is considered fully enclosed when a containment system is employed to support the child on all sides

and in between the legs (see Figure 2).
Figure 2 — Illustration of fully enclosed toddler swing seat
3.11
impact area

area of a swing element that comes into contact with the test mass during an impact test in accordance with

6.4.
3.12
infant swing

stationary unit with a frame and a powered mechanism enabling an infant to swing in a seated position

NOTE An infant swing is intended for use with infants from birth until the child is able to sit upright unassisted.

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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
3.13
handrail
rail intended to assist the users to balance or steady themselves
3.14
platform

any elevated substantially horizontal surface intended to be used by a child as a place for play or as a

transition between components
NOTE Slide starting sections less than 129 000 mm are not considered platforms.
3.15
slide
structure with inclined surface(s) on which the user slides in a defined track
See Figure 3.

NOTE Inclined planes, designed primarily for other purposes, such as roofs and ramps, do not constitute slides.

Key
A starting section
B sliding section
C run-out section
D height of slide
B + C slide length

NOTE The dimensions A, B, and C are measured at the centreline of the sliding surface. Each of these sizes

represents one of the zones of the sliding surface. Each zone of the sliding surface is determined by the intersection of the

curve of the sliding surface (taken at the bottom of the sliding surface) and the bisecting line of the angle formed between

the zones of the sliding surfaces.
Figure 3 — Diagrammatic representation of a slide
3.16
suspension connector
device that forms the direct contact between a crossbeam and the swing device
See Figure 4.
4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
3.17
swing

structure, normally intended to be attached to or incorporating a crossbeam, suspension connectors and a

swing device with swing element, means of suspension and suspension coupling
See Figure 4.
Key
1 crossbeam/support member
2 suspension connector
3 means of suspension
4 suspension coupling
5 swing device
6 swing element (e.g. seat, rings, bar, gondola)
Figure 4 — Diagrammatic representation of a swing
4 Requirements
4.1 General
See A.4.1.
4.1.1 Static strength

Activity toys, other than swings, shall not collapse when tested in accordance with 6.2.1. After testing, the toy

shall continue to comply with the relevant requirements of this part of ISO 8124. Requirements for swings are

given in 4.7.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
4.1.2 Maximum height
See A.4.1.2.

There shall be no part of the activity toy designed to encourage the child to climb, sit on or stand on, with a

height of 2 500 mm or more when measured from the ground.

This does not include barriers, roofs, etc., that are not intended to be climbed, sat on or stood on.

Barriers, roofs, etc., that are not intended to be climbed shall be designed in such a way that climbing is not

encouraged.
4.1.3 Corners and edges
See A.4.1.3.
Exposed corners and edges shall be rounded.

Corners and exposed edges on moving parts shall have a minimum radius of 3 mm. This does not apply to

swing elements with a mass of 1 000 g or less, the corners and edges of which shall be rounded.

4.1.4 Protruding parts
4.1.4.1 General

Protruding parts (such as bolt ends and nuts) shall be recessed or be protected in such a way that they do not

constitute an entrapment hazard or other hazard to users.

If protrusions cannot be placed within the 50 mm outside diameter test gauge defined in 6.7.1, they are

considered to be inaccessible and are exempted from these requirements (see Figure 5).

Rope protrusions are specifically exempted from the requirements of 4.1.4.
6 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
Key
1 inaccessible protrusion (excluded)
2 test gauge (50 mm diameter)
Figure 5 — Example of excluded protrusion
4.1.4.2 All protrusions

No protrusion shall extend beyond the full depth of the test gauges when tested in accordance with 6.7.1.

No protrusion may terminate in a dimension greater than that of the base dimension (see Figure 6). In the

case of hardware, the base dimension shall be defined as the major dimension of the attachment nut or bolt

head.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
Pass (y u x).
Fail (y > x).
Figure 6 — Examples of protrusion configurations
4.1.4.3 Upright protrusions

Protrusions that fit within any of the gauges defined in 6.7.1 and that project upwards from a horizontal plane

shall have no projection perpendicular or at an acute angle to the plane of the initial surface extending more

than 3 mm in height (see Figure 7).

For example, the hemispherical ends of bolts are exempt from this requirement because they do not project

perpendicular to the plane of the initial surface.
Dimensions in millimetres

Protrusions that project perpendicular or at an acute angle to the plane of the initial surface with the axis inclined

upward from the horizontal plane shall comply with the 3 mm maximum requirement.
Hemispherical end exempted from the 3 mm maximum requirement.

Protrusions with axis horizontal or below horizontal shall not extend beyond the face of the test gauges defined

in 6.7.1.
Horizontal plane.

Protrusions that project at an obtuse angle to the plane of the initial surface are exempt from the 3 mm maximum

requirement.
Figure 7 — Upright protrusion test
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
4.1.4.4 Motion rides

Protrusions on the front and rear surfaces of suspended members of swinging elements and those on the

interior surface of slides shall not protrude beyond the full depth of the test gauge when tested in accordance

with 6.7.2.
4.1.4.5 Slides

Slides, including protective barriers and their means of attachment, and transition areas pose a greater risk of

entrapment than other areas of play equipment. Therefore, the following requirements apply to slides and

sliding devices.

Any accessible protrusion that allows the 76 mm test gauge defined in 6.7.2 to pass over it shall have no

projection perpendicular or at an acute angle to the plane of the initial surface extending more than 3 mm. The

areas subject to this requirement are outlined in Figure 8. The outside surface of tunnel slides that are

completely enclosed are exempt from this requirement.
Dimensions in millimetres
R535
R535
R535
Key
1 sliding surface 4 starting section
2 shaded areas representing non-entrapment/protrusion zone 5 run-out section
3 standing height 6 slide side rail
Pass (3 mm or less).
Fail (more than 3 mm).
Figure 8 — Non-entrapment/protrusion zone and protrusion examples
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)

Slides shall be constructed in such a way as to provide a smooth continuous sliding surface with no gaps or

spaces that might create an entrapment hazard such as, but not limited to, the space created between

sidewalls when two single slides are combined to create a doubly wide slide, or the point where a hood is

attached to the sidewalls of a slide. Roller slides are exempt from the requirements of this subclause.

See 4.6.4 for specific requirements for roller slides.
4.1.5 Climbing and swinging ropes, chains and cables
See A.4.1.5.

A suspended climbing rope, chain or cable shall be secured at both ends to prevent the rope, chain or cable

from being looped back on itself creating a loop with an interior perimeter of 130 mm (diameter 41,4 mm) or

more.

A rope, chain or cable used to support a swing seat is exempt from these requirements.

4.1.6 Open tubing

All open tubing ends that are not resting on the ground or otherwise covered shall be provided with caps or

plugs that have a smooth finish and are tight-fitting. The protective cap or cover shall not become detached

when tested in accordance with the torque test and the tension test for protective components specified in

ISO 8124-1.
4.2 Barriers
See A.4.2.

Any platform intended for sitting or standing 760 mm or more above the ground shall be equipped with a

barrier on all sides that face outward from the toy.

Openings in barriers to give access to slides, climbing frames and ladders are allowed.

Barriers for platforms from 760 mm to 1 000 mm above the ground shall have a minimum height of 630 mm.

Barriers for platforms greater than 1 000 mm and up to 1 830 mm above the ground shall have a minimum

height of 720 mm.

Barriers for platforms more than 1 830 mm above the ground shall have a minimum height of 840 mm.

Barriers for platforms from 760 mm to 1 000 mm above the ground shall have a maximum vertical opening of

610 mm between the lowermost member of the barrier and the platform that it surrounds.

Barriers for platforms more than 1 000 mm above the ground shall be designed to minimize the likelihood of

climbing. Openings within these barriers or between the barrier and the platform surface shall not permit the

passage of the torso probe defined in 6.5.1.

For barriers with an uneven top design, a straightedge of 200 mm ± 5 mm shall be used for measuring

minimum height. Place the straightedge horizontally on top of the barrier. Measure the vertical distance

between the platform and the bottom of the straightedge. The distance shall in no place be less than the

minimum heights specified in this part of ISO 8124.
NOTE Special requirements apply to slides (see 4.6.2 and 4.6.3).

When tested in accordance with 6.3, no part of the barrier or handrail shall collapse, such that the toy does not

comply with the relevant requirements of this part of ISO 8124.
10 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
4.3 Rung ladders, stepladders and stairways

These requirements do not apply to toys with a platform height of 600 mm or less.

Rung ladders, stepladders and stairways shall comply with the following requirements.

a) The rung or tread shall have a substantial horizontal stepping surface with a lateral width of 240 mm or

more (see Figure 9).

b) The distance between the upper surface of the rungs or treads on rung ladders or stepladders shall not

be more than 310 mm and on stairways not more 230 mm when measured vertically in accordance with

Figure 9.
c) The surface of the tread shall not be slippery.

NOTE This can be achieved by corrugation of the tread or by use of non-slip materials.

d) The diameter or cross-sectional dimension of the rungs on rung ladders shall be at least 16 mm but not

more than 45 mm. Care should be taken when using designs other than circular cross-sections to ensure

that gripping potential is not seriously impaired.

e) The depth of treads on stepladders with closed risers or stairways shall be 180 mm or more.

f) The inclination of stairways shall not be more than 50°. The inclination of stepladders shall not be less

than 65° and not more than 75°. The inclination of rung ladders shall not be less than 60° and not more

than 90°.

g) Stairways and stepladders with a height of 1 200 mm or more above the ground shall be provided with a

means of continuous hand support from a height of 760 mm (see Figure 9).
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 11
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
≥240
Angle of inclination:
for stepladders W 65° and u 75°;
for rung ladders W 60° and u 90°.
Figure 9 — Dimensions of ladders
4.4 Entrapment
See A.4.4.
4.4.1 Head and neck entrapment

These requirements do not apply to openings where the ground forms the lower boundary.

Activity toys shall be constructed so that no openings create head and neck entrapment hazards either by

head first or feet first passage.

NOTE Hazardous situations in which this type of entrapment can be encountered include the following:

⎯ completely bound openings through which a user can slide head first or feet first;

⎯ partially bound or V-shaped openings;
⎯ shearing and moving openings.

When choosing materials, the manufacturer shall take into account the entrapment hazards that can occur

due to distortion of material during use.

a) Accessible completely bound openings shall also allow passage of probe D (Figure 23) if they allow

passage of probe C (Figure 22) when tested in accordance with 6.5.1.
12 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
≤310
≤310
≤760
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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)

b) Accessible rigid openings shall not allow the passage of probe E (Figure 24) unless they also allow the

passage of probe D when tested in accordance with 6.5.1.
c) Partially bound and V-shaped openings shall be constructed so that either:

1) the opening is not accessible as illustrated in Figure 26 and when tested in accordance with

6.5.2.3 a)

2) the tip of the template contacts the base of the opening when tested in accordance with 6.5.2.3 b).

d) Openings between flexible parts of suspended bridges and any rigid side members shall allow the

passage of probe D (Figure 23) under the worst-case condition of loading. Both loaded and unloaded

situations shall be tested.

e) Non-rigid members (e.g. ropes) shall not overlap if by doing so they create openings that do not comply

with the requirements in a).

f) A shield intended to make inaccessible any opening that would otherwise fail the requirements of a) to e)

shall
1) be constructed of a rigid material;

2) not fracture, fail or be displaced in a manner that will allow the opening to become accessible when

impacted by a 127 mm diameter steel ball with 27 J at a point within 25 mm of the geometric centre

of the shield;

3) not fracture, fail or be displaced in a manner that will allow the opening to become accessible when

tested in accordance with the torque and tension tests of ISO 8124-1.
4.4.2 Entrapment of clothing and hair

Hazardous situations in which clothing or hair can be entrapped may be created by:

a) gaps or V-shaped openings in which parts of clothing can become entrapped while or immediately before

the user undergoes a forced movement;
b) protrusions;
c) rotating parts.

Slides, fireman's poles and roofs shall be constructed in such a way that the toggle or chain is not entrapped

when tested in accordance with 6.6.

NOTE 1 When using elements of circular cross-section, special consideration should be given to avoid clothing and

hair entrapment. This can be achieved by using spacers or similar devices.

Slides, fireman's poles and roofs shall be constructed so that openings located within the free space do not

entrap the toggle or chain when tested in accordance with 6.6.

Rotating parts (e.g. spindles) shall have means of preventing entanglement of clothing or hair.

NOTE 2 Suitable covering or shields can be used to prevent entanglement of clothing or hair in rotating parts.

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ISO 8124-4:2010(E)
4.4.3 Entrapment of feet

Surfaces intended for standing, running or walking shall not contain any gaps likely to cause foot or leg

entrapment. There shall be no gaps greater than 30 mm measured in one direction (see Figure 10), unless

suitable means of balance is provided.
Dimensions in millimetres
Figure 10 — Measurement of surface gap on running and walking levels
4.4.4 Entrapment of fingers

Activity toys shall be constructed in such a way that holes, slots and gaps do not cause an entrapment hazard

to fingers.

Accessible holes, slots and gaps in or between any rigid materials (excluding chains), where the body is in a

forced movement, shall also admit a 12 mm diameter rod if they can admit a 5 mm diameter rod to a depth of

10 mm or more.

The requirements in this subclause do not apply to weather-induced dry cracks in solid wood.

4.5 Stability of activity toys other than slides, swings and toys with crossbeams

4.5.1 General

NOTE Stability requirements for slides are given in 4.6.1 and for swings and other activity toys with crossbeams

in 4.7.1.

Activity toys supplied with anchors intended to be permanently fixed (e.g. in concrete) when used in

accordance with the manufacturer'
...

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