Unmanned aircraft systems

This document specifies the requirements for safe commercial UAS operations.

Aéronefs sans pilote

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Nov-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
02-Nov-2019
Completion Date
19-Nov-2019
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 21384-3:2019 - Unmanned aircraft systems
English language
18 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21384-3
First edition
2019-11
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Part 3:
Operational procedures
Aéronefs sans pilote —
Partie 3: Modes opératoires
Reference number
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Safety and security ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Safety management system requirements ...................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Safety policy ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Safety risk management (SRM) ........................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.3 Safety assurance ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.4 Safety promotion ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Security .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Data protection — Operator requirements .............................................................................................................................. 3

7 Operator ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7.1 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1.1 Documents held by the UAS operator ............................................................................................................ 4

7.1.2 Documents to be available at the point of operations ..................................................................... 5

7.2 Insurance ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Airspace ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1 Compliance with airspace regulations ............................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Airspace information ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.3 Operations above 500 ft (150 m) ............................................................................................................................................ 6

8.4 Special zones above flight level (FL) 600 ......................................................................................................................... 6

9 Facility and equipment and requirements ................................................................................................................................ 6

9.1 Registration ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

9.2 UA identification .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

9.3 Compatibility ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

10 Operations ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

10.1 Flight operations ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

10.2 Operational plan — Flight planning ..................................................................................................................................... 7

10.3 Flight preparation ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

10.3.1 Pre-flight inspections ................................................................................................................................................... 7

10.3.2 Communication planning ......................................................................................................................................... 8

10.4 In flight operations .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

10.4.1 Responsibilities of the remote pilot in command (RPIC) ............................................................. 8

10.4.2 Operational limitations .............................................................................................................................................. 9

10.4.3 Handovers .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

10.4.4 Multiple UA operation ................................................................................................................................................. 9

10.4.5 Autonomous operations .........................................................................................................................................10

10.4.6 Communication ..............................................................................................................................................................10

10.4.7 Operations at night .....................................................................................................................................................10

10.4.8 Surface/ground operations .................................................................................................................................11

10.4.9 Journey log .........................................................................................................................................................................11

10.4.10 Abnormal and contingency procedures ....................................................................................................11

10.5 Additional operator responsibilities .................................................................................................................................12

10.5.1 Oversight of contracted service providers .............................................................................................12

10.5.2 Personnel qualification and management ..............................................................................................12

11 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

11.2 Hardware updates .............................................................................................................................................................................15

11.3 Software updates ...............................................................................................................................................................................15

11.4 Service release ......................................................................................................................................................................................15

11.5 Configuration management ......................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (normative) Privacy etiquette ..........................................................................................................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 16, Unmanned aircraft systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
Introduction

This document outlines requirements for unmanned aircraft (UA) operational procedures which, when

applied together with any other current and future standard on unmanned aircraft systems (UAS)

form a robust UA safety and quality standard. This document applies to all commercial UAS regardless

of size, categorization, application or location and represents the international best practice for the safe

operation of all commercial UAS. This document is structured in a way to provide a logical pathway from

core principles to specific requirements, and the detail has been espoused in Annex A for reference.

vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Part 3:
Operational procedures
1 Scope
This document specifies the requirements for safe commercial UAS operations.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
crew resource management
CRM
utilisation of all resources available to the crew to manage human error
3.2
remote pilot in command
RPIC

pilot designated by the operator as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight

3.3
safety management system
SMS

systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organisational structures,

accountabilities, policies and procedures
[SOURCE: ICAO Doc. 9859]
3.4
unmanned aircraft accident

occurrence associated with the operation of an unmanned aircraft which takes place between the time

the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until it comes to rest at the end of the flight and

the primary propulsion system is shut down, in which:

a) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of direct contact with any part or exposure to any

emission of the UA or other component of the UAS, including parts which have become detached

from the aircraft, or

b) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which prevents safe operation

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
3.5
unmanned aircraft incident

occurrence, other than an unmanned aircraft accident (3.4), associated with the operation of an aircraft

which affects or could affect the safety of operation, including the loss of unmanned aircraft

4 Abbreviated terms
AIS aeronautical information service
ATS air traffic service
CofA certificate of airworthiness
DAL design assurance level
FW firmware
FOD foreign object debris
GNSS global navigation satellite system
MCM maintenance control manual
MEL minimum equipment list
NOTAM notice to airmen
OEM original equipment manufacturer
PIC pilot in command
RF radio frequency
RPS remote pilot station
SORA specific operation risk assessment
SRM safety risk management
SW software
UA unmanned aircraft
UAS unmanned aircraft system
UTM UAS traffic management
VO visual observer
5 Safety and security
5.1 General

Operators shall implement a safety management system (SMS) as standard practice regardless of the

type of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) operated or size of operation. An SMS is a comprehensive,

process-oriented approach to managing safety throughout an organization.
NOTE Safety management systems are defined in ISO 45001 and ICAO Doc. 9859.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
5.2 Safety management system requirements
5.2.1 Safety policy

Management systems shall define policies, procedures, and organizational structures to accomplish

their goals. Human error in unmanned aircraft (UA) operation and supporting system management can

be controlled by a safety policy.
5.2.2 Safety risk management (SRM)

Safety risk management (SRM) uses task analysis, hazard identification, risk analysis, and risk

assessment to develop risk controls.

SRM shall be performed on UA operation and supporting system management. ISO 12100 should be

referred to for risk assessment.

NOTE Further guidance on risk assessment for UAS operations is given in the JARUS guidelines on specific

operations risk assessment (SORA).
5.2.3 Safety assurance

Safety assurance provides for system monitoring, measuring, assessment, and corrective action to

assure the effectiveness of risk controls.

Safety assurance shall be continuously performed throughout UA operation and supporting system

management, including for functions executed by third-party service providers.
5.2.4 Safety promotion

Safety promotion provides guidance for training and communication to promote safety as a core value

in the organization.

Safety promotion shall be performed throughout operation of UA and UA supporting system

management.
All requirements in this document are indispensable to implement an SMS.

Operators should determine what evidence of SMS compliance is acceptable to the countries of intended

operation.
5.3 Security
The following security precautions shall be taken when operating UA.

a) Operators shall implement all reasonably practicable cyber security measures in all aspects of UAS

operations.

b) Operators shall ensure that all personnel with access to any part of the UAS are suitably vetted.

6 Data protection — Operator requirements

Taking relevant data protection regulation into consideration, operators shall ensure that:

a) systems in place to protect data gathered during UA operations as far as reasonably practicable;

b) suitable procedures are in place to securely store or dispose of all data gathered during UA

operations;
c) personnel involved in the handling of sensitive data are suitably vetted.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
Privacy etiquette shall be in accordance with Annex A.
7 Operator
7.1 Documentation
7.1.1 Documents held by the UAS operator
7.1.1.1 General

Operators shall hold documents, manuals and information specific to the UAS operator. Taking local

regulations into consideration, operators shall ensure that the following documents are available:

a) details of the operator;

b) flight manual of each model of UA, or equivalent document issued by manufacturer;

c) registration and serial number of each UA;
d) operations manual;
e) maintenance control manual (MCM);

f) contracts and service level agreements with third parties providing safety related services;

g) insurance certificate(s) in accordance with 7.2;

h) copies of personnel licences or competence attestations issued by the operator or by a qualified entity;

i) certificates of airworthiness or, where existing, declarations of conformity by manufacturer or

qualified entity.
7.1.1.2 Operations manual

The operator shall establish, maintain and apply an up-to-date operations manual. Taking local

regulations into consideration, the operator shall ensure that an operations manual is in place,

containing the following documents, policies and procedures:
a) a risk assessment is conducted for every type of operation;

b) all personnel involved in the operations are professionally competent and psychologically and

medically fit;

c) all UAS are maintained in accordance with the maintenance programme consistent with the

manufacturer’s instructions;
d) all operations are conducted according to Clause 10;
e) manufacturer and manufacturer’s designation for each UAS;
f) registration and serial number of each UAS;

g) duties of assigned pilot in command (PIC) and other crewmembers for each general mission type;

h) emergency actions/checklists;
i) minimum equipment list by mission type;
j) normal and abnormal checklists (to include pre-flight inspection);
k) standard operating procedures (SOPs), if any.
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
7.1.2 Documents to be available at the point of operations

The operator shall ensure that required documentsare available at the point of operations. Taking local

regulations into consideration, the operator shall ensure that the following documents are available at

the point of operations:
a) flight manual including predicted performance data;
b) journey log book;

c) current and suitable aeronautical charts for the route of flight and all routes along which it is

reasonable to expect that the flight may be diverted, including departure, arrival and approach

charts for all relevant aerodromes/heliports/any other location designated for take-off and landing

of UAS, or electronic access to it;

d) details of the filed, current, air traffic service (ATS) and operational flight plans, if applicable;

e) notice to airmen (NOTAM) and aeronautical information service (AIS) briefing documentation or

electronic access to it;

f) operations manual or pertinent subset thereof, including applicable checklists and the minimum

equipment list (MEL);
g) meteorological information or electronic access to it;
h) mass and balance documentation;

i) for UA carrying cargo: a manifest, information on dangerous goods and detailed declarations of

the cargo;
j) risk assessment and details of the mitigations from the risk assessment;
k) the operator’s contact information;
l) remote pilot certificate (copy).
7.2 Insurance

Operators shall have insurance. Taking local regulations into consideration, operators shall ensure that

they have insurance appropriate to their operations and covering health and safety of personnel and

risks to third parties.
8 Airspace
8.1 Compliance with airspace regulations

UA operators shall establish procedures to ensure that applicable rules of the air and regulations

defining airspace areas or special zones are followed.

These procedures shall also cover how to obtain permission by the local air traffic service provider(s) to

access airspace, or alternative coordination procedures in the context of UAS traffic management (UTM).

It is presupposed that operators ensure that UAS comply with defined technical or performance

specifications, including mandatory equipment or functions that enable easy identification or

automatically limit the airspace they are allowed to enter (e.g. geo-limitations).

8.2 Airspace information

UA operators shall ensure that involved personnel have access to airspace information on prohibited,

restricted, danger and special zones for UA operations in electronic format and, where applicable in

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)

real time, and coming from relevant aeronautical information service providers authorised by the local

aviation authority.
8.3 Operations above 500 ft (150 m)

It is presupposed that operations above 500 ft (150 m) above surface level are either under visual flight

rules (VFR), instrument flight rules (IFR) or in temporary segregated airspace.
8.4 Special zones above flight level (FL) 600

UA operators shall organise additional specific training of the remote crew for operations at very high

level (VHL) above FL 600, if applicable, in which one remote pilot in command (RPIC) through a single

working position may have more than one UA under control.
9 Facility and equipment and requirements
9.1 Registration
UA shall be registered by the operator on a UA registration system.
9.2 UA identification
The UA shall be marked with:
a) the ID number when formally registered; or
b) the operator's contact information.
9.3 Compatibility

The following precautions shall be taken with regards to compatibility of elements when operating UA:

a) Payloads shall not adversely affect the safety of flight operations.

b) On board equipment shall not interfere with the command and control data link.

c) Remote pilot stations models shall be recognised as being compatible for use with the UA with

which they are used based on information provided by the manufacturer of the aircraft and the

manufacturer of the remote pilot station.
10 Operations
10.1 Flight operations

Flight operations refers to all activities pertaining to the flight cycle of a UA. All operations shall be

conducted taking into consideration appropriate rules of the air.

The operator shall take into consideration the laws, regulations and procedures of those states in which

operations are conducted. For each UA type, or variant thereof, in the operator’s fleet, the operator shall

maintain the following information:
a) operational conditions and limitations;
b) authority contact details of the UA state of design;
c) area of operations;
d) special limitations and authorisations;
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
e) mandatory equipment, functionality and performance.

Operators shall define standard operating procedures following a comprehensive risk assessment for

each type of operation which should then be included in the operations manual.
10.2 Operational plan — Flight planning

Operators shall ensure that flight planning is conducted and documented for every flight operation.

Where the local aviation authority regulations for mission planning exist, it is presupposed that

operators ensure that they follow or exceed these requirements. Operational plans shall, as a minimum,

include the following:
a) weather and meteorological minimum;
b) fuel and energy requirements;
c) flight plan where required;
d) if a flight plan is not required, a route to be followed indicating:
1) point of departure;
2) landing point;
3) cruising speeds;
4) cruising levels;
e) airspace classification and restrictions;
f) risk assessment;
g) communications;
h) the actions of the pilot in the event of unforeseen situations;

i) program of autonomous flight of an aircraft in case of failure of the C2 Link;

j) notifications.

In the event an operation is affected by an unmanned aircraft incident or accident, operational plans

shall be retained for a minimum of 12 months, taking into consideration requirements by the applicable

regulation.
10.3 Flight preparation
10.3.1 Pre-flight inspections

Before each flight, the remote pilot (or appropriate crew member) shall conduct a pre-flight inspection

according to the operations manual. This may include the following:
a) visual condition inspection of the UA components;
b) airframe structure;
c) all flight control surfaces and linkages;
d) registration markings, for proper display and legibility;
e) servo motor(s), including attachment point(s);
f) propulsion system;
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 21384-3:2019(E)
g) rotor or fan shrouds, where used, are not damaged;
h) check all power systems;

i) avionics, including control link transceiver, communication/navigation equipment and antenna(s);

j) calibration of UA compass prior to any flight;
k) correct functioning of display panel, if used;

l) ground support equipment, including take-off and landing systems, for planned operation;

m) check that all C2 functions operate correctly;
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.