Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) -- Test method for total electrical conductivity of conductive fine ceramics

This document specifies the test method for the determination of total electrical conductivity of conductive fine ceramics by the DC (direct current) four-terminal method. The test method applies to conductive fine ceramics which have an ionic transference number of 0,01 or less. The applicable conductivity range is from 1 S cm−1 to 1 000 S cm−1 and the temperature range is up to 1 000 °C. The values expressed in the test method are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI). This document is intended for industrial product quality control and material development of conductive fine ceramics used in electrodes, e.g. fuel cells, batteries and water electrolysis.

Céramiques techniques -- Méthode d'essai pour la conductivité électrique totale des céramiques techniques conductrices

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Status
Published
Publication Date
04-Jul-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
28-May-2021
Completion Date
05-Jul-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23331
First edition
2021-07
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics,
advanced technical ceramics) —
Test method for total electrical
conductivity of conductive fine
ceramics
Céramiques techniques — Méthode d'essai pour la conductivité
électrique totale des céramiques techniques conductrices
Reference number
ISO 23331:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23331:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23331:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Measurement system......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Furnace .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Voltmeter...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.4 Constant direct current (DC) supply .................................................................................................................................... 4

6.5 Wire electrodes and lead wires ................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.6 Caliper ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.7 Micrometer ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Test piece ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Shape and dimensions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Surface roughness ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7.3 Density ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.4 Configuration of four wire electrodes ................................................................................................................................. 5

7.5 Number of test pieces ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.1 Dimension measurement of a test piece ........................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Heating of a test piece ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.3 Maintenance of gas composition and gas flow rate ................................................................................................. 6

8.4 Measurement of total electrical conductivity ............................................................................................................... 6

9 Calculation of total electrical conductivity ............................................................................................................................... 6

10 Expression of total electrical conductivity ................................................................................................................................ 7

10.1 The value of total electrical conductivity ......................................................................................................................... 7

10.2 The expression of total electrical conductivity ........................................................................................................... 7

11 Analysis of precision and uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................ 7

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23331:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 206, Fine ceramics.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23331:2021(E)
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical
ceramics) — Test method for total electrical conductivity of
conductive fine ceramics
1 Scope

This document specifies the test method for the determination of total electrical conductivity of

conductive fine ceramics by the DC (direct current) four-terminal method. The test method applies

to conductive fine ceramics which have an ionic transference number of 0,01 or less. The applicable

−1 −1

conductivity range is from 1 S cm to 1 000 S cm and the temperature range is up to 1 000 °C. The

values expressed in the test method are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI).

This document is intended for industrial product quality control and material development of

conductive fine ceramics used in electrodes, e.g. fuel cells, batteries and water electrolysis.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3611, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment: Micrometers for

external measurements — Design and metrological characteristics

ISO 6145-7, Gas analysis — Preparation of calibration gas mixtures using dynamic methods — Part 7:

Thermal mass-flow controllers

ISO 13385-1, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment — Part 1:

Design and metrological characteristics of callipers

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 18754, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Determination of density

and apparent porosity
ISO 80000-1, Quantities and units — Part 1: General
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
total electrical conductivity
electrical conduction where both electrons and ions carry the electrical charges
3.2
electronic conduction
electrical conduction where electrons (or holes) carry the electrical charges
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 23331:2021(E)
3.3
conductive fine ceramic

substance whose electrical conduction is primarily governed by electronic conduction (3.2) rather than

ionic conduction

Note 1 to entry: In this document the term indicates a fine ceramic with an ionic transference number of 0,01 or

less.

Note 2 to entry: If the ionic transference number is unknown, it shall be confirmed to be smaller than 0,01 using

a proper method such as the potentiostatic polarization method, the galvanostatic polarization method or the

electromotive force (EMF) method at a temperature range, prior to the measurements.

3.4
DC four-terminal method

method for measuring total electrical conductivity (3.1) using direct current (DC) with four terminals

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Note 2 to entry: Other electrode configurations are acceptable as well. Four
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23331
ISO/TC 206
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics,
Secretariat: JISC
advanced technical ceramics) —
Voting begins on:
2021­04­01 Test method for total electrical
conductivity of conductive fine
Voting terminates on:
2021­05­27
ceramics
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 23331:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23331:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23331:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Measurement system......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Furnace .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.3 Voltmeter...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.4 Constant direct current (DC) supply .................................................................................................................................... 4

6.5 Wire electrodes and lead wires ................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.6 Caliper ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.7 Micrometer ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7 Test piece ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Shape and dimensions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Surface roughness ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7.3 Density ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.4 Configuration of four wire electrodes ................................................................................................................................. 5

7.5 Number of test pieces ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

8.1 Dimension measurement of a test piece ........................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Heating of a test piece ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.3 Maintenance of gas composition and gas flow rate ................................................................................................. 6

8.4 Measurement of total electrical conductivity ............................................................................................................... 6

9 Calculation of total electrical conductivity ............................................................................................................................... 6

10 Expression of total electrical conductivity ................................................................................................................................ 7

10.1 The value of total electrical conductivity ......................................................................................................................... 7

10.2 The expression of total electrical conductivity ........................................................................................................... 7

11 Analysis of precision and uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................ 7

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23331:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 206, Fine ceramics.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23331:2021(E)
Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical
ceramics) — Test method for total electrical conductivity of
conductive fine ceramics
1 Scope

This document specifies the test method for the determination of total electrical conductivity of

conductive fine ceramics by the DC (direct current) four-terminal method. The test method applies

to conductive fine ceramics which have an ionic transference number of 0,01 or less. The applicable

−1 −1

conductivity range is from 1 S cm to 1 000 S cm and the temperature range is up to 1 000 °C. The

values expressed in the test method are in accordance with the International System of Units (SI).

This document is intended for industrial product quality control and material development of

conductive fine ceramics used in electrodes, e.g. fuel cells, batteries and water electrolysis.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3599, Vernier callipers reading to 0,1 and 0,05 mm

ISO 3611, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — Dimensional measuring equipment: Micrometers for

external measurements — Design and metrological characteristics
ISO 6906, Vernier callipers reading to 0,02 mm

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 18754, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) — Determination of density

and apparent porosity
ISO 80000­1, Quantities and units — Part 1: General
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
total electrical conductivity
electrical conduction where both electrons and ions carry the electrical charges
3.2
electronic conduction
electrical conduction where electrons (or holes) carry the electrical charges
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23331:2021(E)
3.3
conductive fine ceramic

substance whose electrical conduction is primarily governed by electronic conduction (3.2) rather than

ionic conduction

Note 1 to entry: In this document the term indicates a fine ceramic with an ionic transference number of 0,01 or less.

Note 2 to entry: If the ionic transference number is unknown, it shall be confirmed to be smaller than 0,01 using

a proper method such as the potentiostatic polarization method, the galvanostatic polarization method or the

electromotive force (EMF) method at a temperature range, prior to the measurements.

3.4
DC four-terminal method

method for measuring total electrical conductivity (3.1) using direct current (DC) with four terminals

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Note 2 to entry: Ot
...

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