Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels

ISO 683-18:2014 specifies the technical delivery requirements for bright steel bars in the drawn or peeled/turned condition and they are intended for mechanical purposes, for example for machine parts. The bright bars are subdivided into the following steel types: a) non-alloy general engineering steels; b) non-alloy free-cutting steels; c) non-alloy and alloy case-hardening steels; d) non-alloy and alloy steels for quenching and tempering; e) stainless steels. In addition ISO 683-18:2014, the general technical delivery requirements of ISO 404 are applicable.

Aciers pour traitement thermique, aciers alliés et aciers pour décolletage

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Published
Publication Date
03-Sep-2014
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6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
04-Aug-2014
Completion Date
04-Sep-2014
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 683-18
Third edition
2014-09-15
Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and
free-cutting steels —
Part 18:
Bright steel products
Aciers pour traitement thermique, aciers alliés et aciers pour
décolletage —
Partie 18: Produits en aciers transformés à froid
Reference number
ISO 683-18:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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ISO 683-18:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 683-18:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Classification and designation ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4.2 Designation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser......................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Mandatory information ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Options/Supplementary or special requirements ................................................................................................... 4

6 Manufacturing process .................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Treatment and surface condition at delivery................................................................................................................ 5

6.3 Traceability of the cast ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and hardenability ............................................................. 5

7.2 Machinability ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.3 Grain size ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.4 Non-metallic inclusions ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.5 Internal soundness .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.6 Decarburization ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.7 Shape, dimensions and tolerances ......................................................................................................................................... 7

7.8 Surface quality ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 Testing procedures and types of documents ................................................................................................................ 8

8.2 Frequency of testing ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3 Specific inspection and testing .................................................................................................................................................. 9

9 Test methods ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

9.1 Chemical analysis .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

9.2 Mechanical tests ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.3 Hardness and hardenability tests ........................................................................................................................................10

9.4 Verification of dimensions .........................................................................................................................................................10

9.5 Retests .........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

10 Marking .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Steel grades and chemical composition according to ISO 630-2, ISO 683-1,

ISO 683-2, ISO 683-3, ISO 683-4 and ISO 16143-2 ..........................................................................................................41

Annex B (normative) Ruling sections for mechanical properties .......................................................................................48

Annex C (normative) Supplementary or special requirements ............................................................................................51

Annex D (normative) Methods for evaluating straightness.......................................................................................................53

Annex E (informative) Designation of steels given in this part of ISO 683 and of comparable grades

covered in various designation systems ...................................................................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................59

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 683-18:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 17, Steel, Subcommittee SC 4, Heat treatable and

alloy steels.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 683-18:1996), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 683 consists of the following parts, under the general title Heat treatable, alloy steels and free-cutting

steels:
— Part 1: Non-alloy steels for quenching and tempering
— Part 2: Alloy steels for quenching and tempering
— Part 3: Case-hardening steels
— Part 4: Free-cutting steels
— Part 5: Nitriding steels
— Part 14: Hot-rolled steels for quenched and tempered springs
— Part 15: Valve steels for internal combustion engines
— Part 17: Ball and roller bearing steels
— Part 18: Bright steel products
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 683-18:2014(E)
Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels —
Part 18:
Bright steel products
1 Scope

1.1 This part of ISO 683 specifies the technical delivery requirements for bright steel bars in the drawn

or peeled/turned condition and they are intended for mechanical purposes, for example for machine

parts. The bright bars are subdivided into the following steel types:
a) non-alloy general engineering steels;
b) non-alloy free-cutting steels;
c) non-alloy and alloy case-hardening steels;
d) non-alloy and alloy steels for quenching and tempering;
e) stainless steels.

1.2 In addition to this part of ISO 683, the general technical delivery requirements of ISO 404 are

applicable.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 148-1, Metallic materials — Charpy pendulum impact test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 286-2, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) — ISO code system for tolerances on linear sizes —

Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance classes and limit deviations for holes and shafts

ISO 377, Steel and steel products — Location and preparation of samples and test pieces for mechanical

testing
ISO 404, Steel and steel products — General technical delivery requirements
ISO 643, Steels — Micrographic determination of the apparent grain size

ISO 683-1, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 1: Non-alloy steels for quenching

and tempering·

ISO 683-2, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 2: Alloy steels for quenching and

tempering

ISO 683-3:— , Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 3: Case-hardening steels

ISO 683-4, Heat-treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels — Part 4: Free-cutting steels

ISO 3887, Steels — Determination of depth of decarburization
1) To be published. (Revision of ISO 683-11:2012.)
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ISO 683-18:2014(E)
ISO 4885, Ferrous products — Heat treatments — Vocabulary

ISO 4948-1, Steels — Classification — Part 1: Classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based on

chemical composition

ISO 4948-2, Steels — Classification — Part 2: Classification of unalloyed and alloy steels according to main

quality classes and main property or application characteristics
ISO/TS 4949, Steel names based on letter symbols

ISO 4967, Steel — Determination of content of non-metallic inclusions — Micrographic method using

standard diagrams
ISO 6506-1, Metallic materials — Brinell hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 6929, Steel products — Vocabulary
ISO/TR 9769, Steel and iron — Review of available methods of analysis
ISO 10474, Steel and steel products — Inspection documents

ISO 14284, Steel and iron — Sampling and preparation of samples for the determination of chemical

composition

ISO 16143-2, Stainless steels for general purposes — Part 2: Corrosion-resistant semi-finished products,

bars, rods and sections
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 377, ISO 4885, ISO 4948-1,

ISO 4948-2, ISO 6929, ISO 14284 and the following apply.
3.1
bright steel products

are drawn or peeled/turned bars with smoother surface quality and better dimensional accuracy in

comparison with hot-rolled bars
3.2
drawn products

products of various cross-sectional shapes obtained, after descaling, by cold drawing of hot-rolled bars

or rod, on a drawing bench (cold deformation without removing material)

Note 1 to entry: This operation gives the product special features with respect to shape, dimensional accuracy

and surface finish. Products in lengths are delivered straightened, products of small cross-section may also be

supplied in coils.
3.3
peeled/turned products

steel bars of circular cross-section having the same features of drawn products concerning shape,

dimensional accuracy and bright surface finish but without work hardening

Note 1 to entry: They are produced by peeling on a peeling machine usually followed by straightening and by

polishing. The removal of metal by peeling is carried out in such a way that the bright product is generally free

from surface defects and decarburization coming from the hot-rolling process.
3.4
ground products

drawn or peeled/turned round bars given an improved surface quality and dimensional accuracy by

grinding or by grinding and polishing
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ISO 683-18:2014(E)
3.5
thickness
nominal dimension of the product
Note 1 to entry: That means:
a) the diameter in the case of rounds;
b) the lateral length in the case of squares;
c) the width over flats in the case of hexagons;

d) the shorter lateral length in the case of flats (rectangular bars) and wide-flats.

For special sections, ‘thickness’ has to be defined at the time of enquiry and order.

3.6
out-of round

difference between the smallest and largest dimension measured across the pairs of opposing points at

a common cross-section
3.7
ruling section
that section for which the specified mechanical properties shall apply

Note 1 to entry: Independent of the actual shape and dimensions of the cross-section of the product, the size of its

ruling section is always given by a diameter. This corresponds to the diameter of an “equivalent round bar”. That

is a round bar which, at the position of its cross-section specified for taking the test pieces for the mechanical

tests, will, when being cooled from austenitizing temperature, show the same cooling rate as the actual ruling

section of the product concerned at its position for taking the test pieces.
4 Classification and designation
4.1 Classification

The classification of the relevant steel grades is allocated in accordance with ISO 4948-1 and ISO 4948-2.

The general engineering and the free cutting steels are quality steels. The steels for case hardening, for

quenching and tempering and the stainless steels are special steels.
4.2 Designation

For the steel grades covered by this document, the steel names given in the relevant tables are allocated

in accordance with ISO/TS 4949.
5 Information to be supplied by the purchaser
5.1 Mandatory information

The manufacturer shall obtain the following information from the purchaser at the time of enquiry and

order:
a) quantity (mass, number of bars) to be delivered;
b) shape of the product (e.g. round, hexagon, square, flat);
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ISO 683-18:2014(E)

c) the dimensions and tolerances of the product, see 7.7 and Tables 3 and 16 to 18;

d) reference to this part of ISO 683, i.e ISO 683-18;

e) the designation of the steel grade and the delivery condition (see Tables 5 to 15);

f) standard designation for a test report 2.2 or, if required, any other type of inspection document in

accordance with ISO 10474.
5.2 Options/Supplementary or special requirements

A number of options are specified in this part of ISO 683 and listed below. If the purchaser does not

indicate the wish to implement any of these options, the products will be supplied in accordance with

the basic specifications of this part of ISO 683 (see 5.1).

a) Reference testing for products used in the quenched and tempered condition (for steels for quenching

and tempering only, see Table 1, footnote d and C.2);

b) any fine grain requirement and verification of fine grain size (see 7.3 and C.3);

c) non-destructive testing (see 7.5 and C.4);
d) the disposition of tolerances in accordance with 7.7 and C.5;

e) end conditions may be specified at the time of enquiry and order in accordance with C.6;

f) product analysis (see 7.1.2, Table 20 and C.7);

g) for a minimum reduction ratio or minimum thickness deformation (see 6.1 and C.8)

h) temporary corrosion protection (see 6.2.1 and C.9);
i) any requirement to special marking (see Clauses 10 and C.10)

j) any additionally requirement concerning the surface condition, i.e. ground surface +G or polished

surface +PL for round bars (see 6.2.2 and Table 3);

k) surface quality class if another than the standard class is requested (see 7.8 and Table 4);

l) verification of the straightness (see 7.7, Table 19 and Annex D);

m) any requirement to the hardenability (+H, +HH, +HL), for special steels only (see 7.1.4);

n) any requirement regarding the permissible depth of decarburization (see 7.6);
o) impact test at a temperature lower than room temperature (see 9.2.2).
EXAMPLE 1

2 t round bars with nominal diameter 20 mm, tolerance h9, stock length 6000 mm made of steel grade C45

according to this standard in delivery condition +C, surface quality class 1 and a test report 2.2 as specified in

ISO 10474.
2 t round bars 20 h9 × stock 6000
steel grade ISO 683-18 - C45+C
Inspection document ISO 10474 - 2.2
EXAMPLE 2

3 t round bars with nominal diameter 80 mm, tolerance h8, stock length 6000 mm made of steel grade X5CrNi18–10

according to this standard in process route +2B, surface quality class 3, with surface condition +2G and a certificate

3.1 as specified in ISO 10474.
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 683-18:2014(E)
3 t round bars 80 h8 × stock 6000
steel grade ISO 683-18 - X5CrNi18–10+2B+2G
Inspection certificate ISO 10474 - 3.1
6 Manufacturing process
6.1 General

The manufacturing process of the steel and of the products is with the restrictions given by the

requirements in 6.2 and 6.3 left to the discretion of the manufacturer.

For minimum reduction ratio or minimum thickness deformation ratio of rolled and forged products,

see C.8.
6.2 Treatment and surface condition at delivery
6.2.1 Treatment condition

The treatment and heat-treatment condition (if any) at the time of delivery must comply with the

condition agreed in the order and shall be one of the conditions indicated in Table 1 or Table 2.

Bright steel products in cold drawn or peeled/turned condition are coated with a light film of grease

from processing, for bright steel products in a finally heat treated condition the manufacturer chooses

the rust protection after heat treatment.

The usual light application of ordinary grease or oil does not afford positive protection against rusting,

particularly in the presence of condensation water. The use of a selected rust inhibitor or a special type

of packing shall, if required, be agreed at the time of enquiry and order, see C.9.

6.2.2 Particular surface conditions

Table 3 shows the possible surface conditions and tolerance classes according to ISO 286-2 at delivery.

6.3 Traceability of the cast
Each product shall be traceable to the cast, see Clause 10.
7 Requirements
7.1 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and hardenability
7.1.1 General

Combination of usual treatment conditions at the time of delivery and requirements concerning chemical

composition and mechanical properties are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
7.1.2 Chemical composition

The chemical composition of the steels determined by the cast analysis, shall comply to ISO 630-2,

ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2, ISO 683-3, ISO 683-4 and ISO 16143-2. The grades and the chemical composition of

the steels are listed for information in Annex A for ISO 630-2, ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2, ISO 683-3, ISO 683-4

and ISO 16143-2.

Permissible deviations between the limiting values for cast analysis and the values for product analysis

are given in the corresponding tables of ISO 630-2, ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2, ISO 683-3, ISO 683-4 and

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ISO 683-18:2014(E)

ISO 16143-2. The product analysis shall be carried out when specified at the time of enquiry and order

(see C.7).

If steels for case hardening or for quenching and tempering are ordered with hardenability requirements

according to ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2 and ISO 683-3, such hardenability requirements shall be considered as

the governing criteria for acceptance. In such cases, the cast analysis may deviate by the values given in

ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2 and ISO 683-3:—, Table 3, footnote b.

WARNING — Due to hazardous effects to health and environmental problems of Pb, it is

recommended to use instead steels only with sulfur and other innocuous free-cutting element

additions.
7.1.3 Mechanical properties

For steels ordered in one of the treatment condition in Tables 1 and 2, the requirements for mechanical

properties specified in Tables 5 to 15 apply (except for stainless steel bars ordered in condition +2D for

which the mechanical properties are to be found in ISO 16143-2). The mechanical property values given

in Tables 5 to 15 apply to test pieces which have been taken and prepared in accordance with Figure 1.

In this case, the normal and narrowed hardenability values given in ISO 683-1, ISO 683-2 for special

steels and the narrowed hardenability values in ISO 683-3 for alloy special steels are for guidance

purposes only.

For stainless steel bars which are intentionally cold work hardened in order to increase their 0,2-proof

strength to a specific level, the mechanical properties at room temperature as specified in Table 15

apply. For these products, the mechanical properties are prime, with the condition a secondary property.

NOTE In this Tables 5 to 14, grades alloyed with further elements for better machinability are not explicitly

mentioned, but the mechanical properties are also valid for them (see Tables A.1 to A.5).

7.1.4 Hardenability

Unless otherwise agreed for alloy case-hardening steels, the hardenability requirements given in

ISO 683-3:—, Table 5 apply. If agreed at the time of enquiry and order, alloy case-hardening steels with

restricted hardenability scatterbands given in ISO 683-3:—, Table 6 shall be supplied and these values

apply in addition to Table 1, columns 6 and 7.

If special steels for quenching and tempering are ordered by using the designations to normal or to

narrowed hardenability scatterbands, the values of hardenability given in ISO 683-1 or ISO 683-2 apply

in addition to Table 1, columns 8 and 9.

NOTE In Tables 9 to 11, grades alloyed with further elements for better machinability are not explicitly

mentioned, but the mechanical properties are also valid for them (see Tables A.3 and A.4).

7.2 Machinability

All non-stainless steels are machinable in the conditions ‘soft annealed’ (+A) and treated to ferrite/pearlite

structure (+FP).

Where improved machinablity is required the grades with a specified sulfur or lead range should be

ordered and/or with a specific treatment to improve machinability (see also footnote b in Tables A.1,

A.3 and A.4).

Free-cutting steels with low carbon content have their best machinability in the cold drawn condition.

NOTE Non-leaded steels with comparable chemical composition generally have identical mechanical

properties but often lower machinability than leaded steels.
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ISO 683-18:2014(E)
7.3 Grain size

Unless otherwise agreed at the time of enquiry and order the grain size of the general engineering, free-

cutting steels, the non-alloy steels for quenching and tempering and the stainless steels shall be left to

the discretion of the manufacturer. If a fine grain structure is required for non-alloy steels for quenching

and tempering or for case-hardening or quenched and tempered free-cutting steels, Annex C, Option C.3

shall be ordered.

NOTE If direct hardening treatment is used for free-cutting case-hardening steels, a fine grain structure

should be ordered.

The case-hardening and the alloy steels for quenching and tempering shall have a fine grain structure

with an austenite grain size of 5 or finer, when tested in accordance with ISO 643. Only for verification

see C.3.
7.4 Non-metallic inclusions
7.4.1 Microscopic inclusions

The special steels shall have a certain degree of cleanness, however, verification of the non-metallic

inclusion content requires a special agreement. If there is such an agreement at the time of enquiry and

order the microscopically non-metallic inclusion content shall be determined to an agreed procedure

and within agreed limits (see ISO 4967 or another regional standard: i.e. EN 10247 or JIS G 0555)

NOTE For grades with specified minimum sulfur content, the agreement should only concern the oxides.

7.4.2 Macroscopic inclusions

This requirement is applicable for the verification of the macroscopic inclusions in special steels. If

verification is agreed then the method and acceptance limits shall be agreed at the time of enquiry and

order.
7.5 Internal soundness

Where appropriate, requirements relating to the internal soundness of the products shall be agreed at

the time of enquiry and order (see C.4).
7.6 Decarburization

For non-stainless steels for quenching and tempering, requirements relating to the permissible depth of

decarburization may be agreed at the time of enquiry and order.

The depth of decarburization shall be determined in accordance with the micrographic method specified

in ISO 3887.
7.7 Shape, dimensions and tolerances

The tolerance class on thickness (and width for flats) shall comply with the requirements agreed at

the time of enquiry and order and shall be in accordance with Table 3. If there is no agreement on the

tolerance class the bright products are delivered with the standard tolerance class given in Table 3. The

tolerance class and the corresponding tolerances are given in Table 16 for rounds, squares and hexagons

and in Table 17 for
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