Information technology — Office equipment — Determination of chemical emission rates from electronic equipment

ISO/IEC 28360:2015 specifies methods to determine chemical emission rates of Analyte from ICT & CE equipment during intended operation in an Emission Test Chamber (ETC). The methods comprise preparation, sampling (or monitoring) in a controlled ETC, storage and analysis, calculation and reporting of emission rates. This International Standard includes specific methods for equipment using consumables, such as printers, and equipment not using consumables, such as monitors and PC's. Annex A specifies monochrome and colour print patterns for use in the operating phase of EUT using consumables (e.g. paper). Examples of EUT that do not use consumables are: · Monitors and TV sets (CRT, Plasma, LCD, Rear projector, Beamer). · Video (VCR, DVD Player/Recorder, Camcorder). · SAT Receiver (Set-Top Box). · Audio units (CD Player/Recorder, Home theatre Systems, Audio Home Systems, Micro-/Mini, Midi Systems, Amplifier, Receiver). · Portable Audio (CD Player, MP 3 Player, Radio recorder, Clock radio etc). · Computer (desktop, tower, server), portable computers (Notebooks). Emission rates from EUT using consumables may also be determined according to additional requirements identified by "RAL-UZ 171 Option". Calculations use the generalised model and approximations thereof as developed in Annex C. The emission rates determined with this method may be used to compare equipment in the same class. Predictions of "real indoor" concentrations from the determined emission rates are outside the scope of this International Standard.

Technologies de l'information — Équipement de bureau — Détermination des taux d'émission chimique d'un équipement électronique

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
23-Aug-2015
Withdrawal Date
23-Aug-2015
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
03-Sep-2018
Completion Date
03-Sep-2018
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 28360
Third edition
2015-09-01
Corrected version
2016-02-15
Information technology — Office
equipment — Determination of
chemical emission rates from
electronic equipment
Technologies de l’information — Équipement de bureau —
Détermination des taux d’émission chimique d’un équipement
électronique
Reference number
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 2

4 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and abbreviated terms .......................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Symbols .................................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Method overview ................................................................................................................................... 7

7 ETC requirements .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 Construction materials ......................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Air tightness ........................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Air mixing efficiency ............................................................................................................................. 9

8 Determination method .......................................................................................................................... 9

8.1 Test conditions ...................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.2 Operating temperature and relative humidity (rH) ............................................................................. 9

8.1.3 Air exchange rate (n) ............................................................................................................................. 9

8.1.4 Air velocity ............................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1.5 Sampled air flow .................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2 Handling of EUT and ETC ..................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.1 Selection and storage of EUT .............................................................................................................. 9

8.2.2 Loading Factor ....................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.3 ETC purging ......................................................................................................................................... 10

8.2.4 Background concentrations (Cbg) .................................................................................................... 10

8.2.5 EUT unpacking .................................................................................................................................... 10

8.2.6 Preparation of the EUT before testing ............................................................................................... 10

8.2.7 EUT installation ................................................................................................................................... 11

8.2.8 EUT operation during test .................................................................................................................. 12

8.3 VOC, carbonyl compounds ................................................................................................................ 13

8.3.1 Sorbents ............................................................................................................................................... 13

8.3.2 Sample collection ................................................................................................................................ 13

8.3.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 14

8.4 Ozone .................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.4.1 Analyser and sampling line requirements ........................................................................................ 16

8.4.2 Monitoring ............................................................................................................................................ 16

8.4.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 17

8.5 Particulate matter ................................................................................................................................ 17

8.5.1 Weighing and Filter conditioning ...................................................................................................... 18

8.5.2 Sampling............................................................................................................................................... 18

8.5.3 Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 18

8.6 Fine and Ultrafine Particles (FP and UFP) ........................................................................................ 19

8.6.1 General Requirements for Aerosol Measuring Systems (AMS) ..................................................... 20

8.6.2 Measurement ....................................................................................................................................... 22

8.6.3 Calculation ........................................................................................................................................... 22

9 Test report ............................................................................................................................................ 25

Annex A (normative) Print Patterns ................................................................................................................ 28

© ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)

A.1 Monochrome print pattern 5% coverage .......................................................................................... 28

A.2 Colour print pattern, 20% coverage .................................................................................................. 30

Annex B (normative) Preparatory AMS Test Procedures ............................................................................ 31

B.1 Procedures for operational readiness of AMS ................................................................................ 31

B.1.1 Particle size concentration range measurements ........................................................................... 31

B.1.2 Particle number concentration range measurements .................................................................... 31

B.2 Procedures for Operational readiness test of Fast AMS ................................................................ 32

B.2.1 Set up of instrument ........................................................................................................................... 32

B.2.2 Zero Check .......................................................................................................................................... 33

B.2.3 Preparation for measurement ............................................................................................................ 33

B.3 Procedures for Operational readiness test of CPC ......................................................................... 34

B.3.1 Preparation .......................................................................................................................................... 34

Annex C (informative) Emission rate model for EUT using consumables ................................................. 36

C.1 Objective .............................................................................................................................................. 36

C.2 Approach ............................................................................................................................................. 36

C.3 General mass balance and concentration equations ..................................................................... 36

C.4 Background SER................................................................................................................................. 36

C.5 Emission during pre-operating phase .............................................................................................. 37

C.6 Emission during operating phase ..................................................................................................... 37

C.7 Emission during post-operating phase ............................................................................................ 40

C.8 Special cases ...................................................................................................................................... 41

C.9 Model for RAL-UZ 171 Option ............................................................................................................ 42

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 45

iv © ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are described

in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the different types of

document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the editorial rules of the

ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on the ISO

list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

ISO/IEC 28360 was prepared by Ecma International (as ECMA-328) and was adopted, under a special “fast-

track procedure”, by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in parallel with its

approval by national bodies of ISO and IEC.
This corrected version of ISO 28360:2015 incorporates the following corrections.

Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been replaced with revised versions containing the correct cross-references.

© ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Introduction

Globally, governmental agencies, academic institutions, environmental organizations and manufacturers have

developed methods to determine chemical emissions from electronic equipment. These attempts however,

resulted in a range of tests from which the results are not necessarily comparable, either qualitatively or

quantitatively.

Following the publications of the 1 edition of ECMA-328 and the “Test method for the determination of

emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from the BAM and Ecma have collaborated to

harmonise methods to determine the chemical emission rates from ICT & CE equipment in this 2 edition.

In addition to stricter test procedures, the second edition uses generalised emission formulae, and their

derivations developed in Annex C, to calculate emission rates from concentrations of analytes that are

measured in Emission Test Chambers.
rd st

The 3 edition was fully aligned with the 1 edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2007 adopted under ISO/IEC JTC 1's

fast track procedure and published in September 2007.

In addition, the 4 edition fixes a number of errata on ISO/IEC 28360:2007 that JTC 1/SC 28 identified.

Following the publications of the 4 edition of ECMA-328 and the “Test method for the determination of

emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from the BAM, WKI, JBMIA and Ecma have

collaborated to harmonise methods to determine the Fine Particle (FP) and Ultrafine Particle (UFP) emissions

from hard copy devices in the 5 edition.
th nd

The 6 edition of ECMA-328 was aligned with the 2 edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2012, and it added a new

ozone calculation method. “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ

122) has been replaced by “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ

171) published in January 2013. Therefore, “RAL-UZ 122 option” is replaced with “RAL-UZ 171 option” in the

6 edition.
vi © ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Information technology — Office equipment — Determination of
chemical emission rates from electronic equipment
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies methods to determine chemical emission rates of Analyte from ICT & CE

equipment during intended operation in an Emission Test Chamber (ETC).

The methods comprise preparation, sampling (or monitoring) in a controlled ETC, storage and analysis,

calculation and reporting of emission rates.

This International Standard includes specific methods for equipment using consumables, such as printers, and

equipment not using consumables, such as monitors and PC’s. Annex A specifies monochrome and colour

print patterns for use in the operating phase of EUT using consumables (e.g. paper).

Examples of EUT that do not use consumables are:
 Monitors and TV sets (CRT, Plasma, LCD, Rear projector, Beamer).
 Video (VCR, DVD Player/Recorder, Camcorder).
 SAT Receiver (Set-Top Box).

 Audio units (CD Player/Recorder, Home theatre Systems, Audio Home Systems, Micro-/Mini, Midi

Systems, Amplifier, Receiver).
 Portable Audio (CD Player, MP 3 Player, Radio recorder, Clock radio etc).
 Computer (desktop, tower, server), portable computers (Notebooks).

Emission rates from EUT using consumables may also be determined according to additional requirements

identified by “RAL-UZ 171 Option”.

Calculations use the generalised model and approximations thereof as developed in Annex C.

The emission rates determined with this method may be used to compare equipment in the same class.

Predictions of “real indoor” concentrations from the determined emission rates are outside the scope of this

International Standard.
2 Conformance

Determinations of emission rates and total number of emitted particles conform to this International Standard

when:

1. Executed using a Quality Assurance Project Plan, Quality Assurance and Quality Control as specified in

ISO 16000-9;
2. Tested in a controlled ETC as specified in Clause 7;
3. Sampled/monitored and calculated as specified in Clause 8 and Annex B;
4. Reported as specified in Clause 9.
© ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)

For EUT using consumables, determinations according to additional requirements identified by “RAL-UZ 171

Option” herein conform to the RAL-UZ 171 Option.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ECMA-74, Measurement of Airborne Noise emitted by Information Technology and Telecommunications

Equipment

ISO 554:1976, Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing – Specifications

ISO 13655:1996, Graphic technology – Spectral Measurements and colorimetric computation for graphic arts

images

ISO 16000-3:2001, Indoor air – Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds –

Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air – Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and chamber air

by active sampling on TENAX TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID

ISO 16000-9:2006, Indoor air – Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from

building products and furnishing – Emission test chamber method

ISO 16017-1:2000, Indoor ambient and workplace air - Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds

by sorbent tube / thermal desorption / capillary gas chromatography – Part 1: Pumped sampling

EN 55013:2013, Sound and Television Broadcast Receivers and associated equipment – Radio disturbance

characteristics – Limits and methods for measurement
CIE 15:2004, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage – Colorimetry, 3 edition
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
averaged concentration time series

simple Moving Average of total particle number concentration (Cp) over 31±3 seconds

4.2
averaged ozone concentration time series
Simple Moving Average of ozone concentration (Co3) over 80±5 seconds
4.3
aerosol
suspension of fine solid particles and/or liquid droplets in a gas
4.4
aerosol measuring system
AMS

device for measuring the total number concentration of aerosol particles within a size range at a certain

frequency
2 © ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
4.5
air exchange rate
3 3

ratio (n) of the volume of clean air brought into the ETC per hour [m /h] to the unloaded ETC volume [m ]

4.6
air velocity
air speed [m/s] measured in the unloaded ETC
4.7
analyte

volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbonyl compounds, ozone, particulate matter, fine particles (FP) and

ultrafine particles (UFP)
4.8
condensation particle counter
CPC
AMS capable to measure the total particle number concentration

NOTE AMS consist of a flow meter, a particle counting device, a computer and suitable software. An AMS may also

be equipped with a particle size classifier.
4.9
consumables
toner, ink, paper and ribbon
4.10
emission test chamber
ETC

enclosure with controlled operational parameters for testing analyte mass emitted from EUT

4.11
equipment under test
EUT

functional and complete ICT or CE equipment from which chemical emission rates are determined

4.12
fast AMS
AMS with integrated particle size classifier
4.13
fine particles
particles with particle size / diameter range between 0.1 μm and 2.5 μm
4.14
loading factor
ratio of the EUT volume to the volume of the unloaded ETC
4.15
hard copy devices

class of EUT using Consumables that includes printers, (Photo)copiers and Multi Functional Devices (MFD)

4.16
maximum usage time before testing
MUT

ratio between the total number of prints carried out by the EUT and the printing

speed of the EUT
© ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)

NOTE Maximum usage time is the maximum permitted time of operation before testing in order to consider the EUT

as newly manufactured equipment for testing purposes.
4.17
operating phase
phase in which the EUT is performing its intended functions
4.18
particle
solid or liquid matter with defined physical boundaries suspended in a gas
4.19
particle emission rate
PER

averaged emission rate, i.e. total number of particles in a specified particle size range emitted during the

operating phase
4.20
particle emission rate
PER(t)

time dependent emission rate of particles in a specified particle size range after the start of the operating

phase
4.21
particle loss-rate coefficient

coefficient describes the loss of particles in a specified particle size range in an ETC

4.22
particle size / particle diameter
measurement category to describe the physical dimension of a particle

NOTE The term particle size is often used as a synonym for particle diameter. The particle diameter is used to assign

a particle to a particle size class (e.g. UFP).
4.23
particulate matter
quantity of particles measured by gravimetric methods
4.24
pre-operating phase

phase in which the EUT is connected to an electrical supply before the EUT is able to enter the operating

phase
NOTE The pre-operating phase can include warming-up and energy saving modes.
4.25
post-operating phase
phase following the operating phase
NOTE The post-operating can include energy saving modes.
4.26
total number of emitted particles
calculated total number of particles emitted in a specified particle size range
4 © ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
4.27
total particle number concentration
particle number concentration in a specified particle size range
4.28
total volatile organic compounds
TVOC

the sum of the concentrations of identified VOC and the concentrations of the converted areas of unidentified

peaks using the toluene response factor

NOTE This definition of “total volatile organic compounds” differs from the definition in ISO 16000-6:2011.

4.29
ultrafine particles
UFP
particles with particle diameter less or equal 0.1 µm
4.30
unit specific emission rate
SER
mass, in micrograms, of a specific analyte emitted per hour

NOTE If more than one EUT is placed in the ETC, the determined SER is divided by the number of EUTs to obtain

the unit specific emission rate SERu.
4.31
volatile organic compounds
VOC
compounds that elute between n-hexane and n-hexadecane on an unpolar GC-column
5 Symbols and abbreviated terms
5.1 Abbreviated terms
AMS Aerosol Measuring System
CE Consumer Electronics
CPC Condensation Particle Counter
DNPH 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
ETC Emission Test Chamber
EUT Equipment Under Test
FP Fine Particles
FID Flame Ionisation Detector
GC/MS Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry
ICT Information and Communication Technology
MFD Multi Functional Device
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethene
© ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
PVC Polyvinylchloride
rH Relative humidity
SER Unit Specific Emission Rate
PER averaged Particle Emission Rate
PER(t) time-dependent Particle Emission Rate
TVOC Total Volatile Organic Compounds
UFP Ultrafine Particles
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
5.2 Symbols
α Factor in the exponential particle decay function [cm ]
β Particle loss-rate coefficient [h ]
C Average mass concentration [µg m ]
C Background mass concentration [µg m ]
C0 Initial mass concentration [µg m ]
C Average mass concentration during pre-operating phase [µg m ]
pre

C Average mass concentration during operating phase and optionally during post-operating

ope
phase [µg m ]
Cp Total particle number concentration [cm ³]
Cp Background particle number concentration [cm ³]
,BG
Co3 Ozone concentration [mg/m3]
d Equivalent Particle Diameter [nm]
mafter Sample filter mass [µg] after sampling
m Sample filter mass [µg] before sampling
before
mbg Sampled mass for chamber background [µg]
m Mass of particulate matter [µg] deposited on the filter
mref-after Reference filter mass [µg] after sampling
m Reference filter mass [µg] before sampling
ref-before
ms Sampled mass [µg]
m Sampled mass [µg] during pre-operating phase
pre
mope Sampled mass [µg] during operating and optionally post-operating phase
6 © ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
n Air exchange rate [h ]
p Atmospheric pressure [Pa]
PER Particle Emission Rate [h ]
R gas constant [PaK-1], (for ozone: 339.8 [PaK-1])
SER Background SER [µg h ]
SER SER during operating and optionally post-operating phase [µg h ]
ope
SER SER for ozone [µg min ]
SERpm SER for particulate matter [µg h ]
SER SER during pre-operating [µg h ]
pre
-1 -1
SER SER per unit [µg h u ]
T Ambient temperature [K]
TP Total Number of Emitted Particles
t Operating phase duration [h]
ope
t Sampling time during operating and optionally post-operating phase [h]
t point in time marking the start of operating phase
start
t point in time marking the end of particle emission
stop
t Pre-operating phase duration [h]
pre
Δt Time-resolution of the UFP measurement [s]
u Number of EUTs units
V ETC volume [m ]
V Sampled air volume [m ]
V Sampled air volume [m ] for determination of Cbg
V Sampled air volume [m ] in pre-operating phase
pre
V Sampled air volume [m ] in operating and optionally post-operating phase
ope
6 Method overview

The flowchart in Figure 1 illustrates the method; clause numbers are indicated in brackets.

© ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Figure 1 — Determination method overview
8 © ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
7 ETC requirements
7.1 Construction materials
ETC construction materials shall comply with ISO 16000-9.
7.2 Air tightness
The ETC air tightness shall be as specified in ISO 16000-9.
7.3 Air mixing efficiency
The air mixing efficiency in the ETC shall be as specified in ISO 16000-9.
8 Determination method
8.1 Test conditions
8.1.1 General

To meet the operational requirements specified herein, ETC parameters such as temperature, relative

humidity and supply airflow shall be controlled and measured at regular intervals and recorded in accordance

with ISO 16000-9 and shall be reported as specified in Clause 9.
8.1.2 Operating temperature and relative humidity (rH)

Tests shall be executed at (23 ± 2) °C and (50  5)% rH according to ISO 554. For EUT used in alternative

climatic conditions, higher operating temperature and humidity conditions may be used

...

INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 28360
Third edition
2015-09-01
Information technology — Office
equipment — Determination of chemical
emission rates from electronic equipment
Technologies de l'information — Équipement de bureau —
Détermination des taux d'émission chimique d'un équipement
électronique
Reference number
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
ISO/IEC 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any

means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission.

Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ vi

1  Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2  Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 2

4  Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

5  Symbols and abbreviated terms .......................................................................................................... 5

5.1  Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2  Symbols .................................................................................................................................................. 6

6  Method overview ................................................................................................................................... 7

7  ETC requirements .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1  Construction materials ......................................................................................................................... 9

7.2  Air tightness ........................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3  Air mixing efficiency ............................................................................................................................. 9

8  Determination method .......................................................................................................................... 9

8.1  Test conditions ...................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.1  General ................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.2  Operating temperature and relative humidity (rH) ............................................................................. 9

8.1.3  Air exchange rate (n) ............................................................................................................................. 9

8.1.4  Air velocity ............................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1.5  Sampled air flow .................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2  Handling of EUT and ETC ..................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.1  Selection and storage of EUT .............................................................................................................. 9

8.2.2  Loading Factor ..................................................................................................................................... 10

8.2.3 ETC purging ......................................................................................................................................... 10

8.2.4  Background concentrations (Cbg) .................................................................................................... 10

8.2.5  EUT unpacking .................................................................................................................................... 10

8.2.6  Preparation of the EUT before testing ............................................................................................... 10

8.2.7  EUT installation ................................................................................................................................... 11

8.2.8  EUT operation during test .................................................................................................................. 12

8.3  VOC, carbonyl compounds ................................................................................................................ 13

8.3.1  Sorbents ............................................................................................................................................... 13

8.3.2  Sample collection ................................................................................................................................ 13

8.3.3  Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 14

8.4  Ozone .................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.4.1  Analyser and sampling line requirements ........................................................................................ 16

8.4.2  Monitoring ............................................................................................................................................ 16

8.4.3  Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 16

8.5  Particulate matter ................................................................................................................................ 17

8.5.1  Weighing and Filter conditioning ...................................................................................................... 18

8.5.2  Sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 18

8.5.3  Emission rate calculation ................................................................................................................... 18

8.6  Fine and Ultrafine Particles (FP and UFP) ........................................................................................ 19

8.6.1  General Requirements for Aerosol Measuring Systems (AMS) ..................................................... 20

8.6.2  Measurement ....................................................................................................................................... 22

8.6.3  Calculation ........................................................................................................................................... 22

9  Test report ............................................................................................................................................ 25

Annex A (normative) Print Patterns ................................................................................................................ 28

© ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)

A.1  Monochrome print pattern 5% coverage ...........................................................................................28

A.2  Colour print pattern, 20% coverage ...................................................................................................30

Annex B (normative) Preparatory AMS Test Procedures .............................................................................31

B.1  Procedures for operational readiness of AMS .................................................................................31

B.1.1  Particle size concentration range measurements ............................................................................31

B.1.2  Particle number concentration range measurements .....................................................................31

B.2  Procedures for Operational readiness test of Fast AMS .................................................................32

B.2.1  Set up of instrument ............................................................................................................................32

B.2.2  Zero Check ...........................................................................................................................................33

B.2.3  Preparation for measurement .............................................................................................................33

B.3  Procedures for Operational readiness test of CPC ..........................................................................34

B.3.1  Preparation ...........................................................................................................................................34

Annex C (informative) Emission rate model for EUT using consumables ..................................................36

C.1  Objective ...............................................................................................................................................36

C.2  Approach ..............................................................................................................................................36

C.3  General mass balance and concentration equations ......................................................................36

C.4  Background SER..................................................................................................................................36

C.5  Emission during pre-operating phase ...............................................................................................37

C.6  Emission during operating phase ......................................................................................................37

C.7  Emission during post-operating phase .............................................................................................40

C.8  Special cases .......................................................................................................................................41

C.9  Model for RAL-UZ 171 Option .............................................................................................................42

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................45

iv © ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees

established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC

technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental

and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information

technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are described

in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the different types of

document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the editorial rules of the

ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on the ISO

list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO's adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

ISO/IEC 28360 was prepared by Ecma International (as ECMA-328) and was adopted, under a special "fast-

track" procedure, by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in parallel with its

approval by national bodies of ISO and IEC.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 28360:2012), which has been technically

revised.
© ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Introduction

Globally, governmental agencies, academic institutions, environmental organizations and manufacturers have

developed methods to determine chemical emissions from electronic equipment. These attempts however,

resulted in a range of tests from which the results are not necessarily comparable, either qualitatively or

quantitatively.

Following the publications of the 1 edition of ECMA-328 and the “Test method for the determination of

emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from the BAM and Ecma have collaborated to

harmonise methods to determine the chemical emission rates from ICT & CE equipment in this 2 edition.

In addition to stricter test procedures, the second edition uses generalised emission formulae, and their

derivations developed in Annex C, to calculate emission rates from concentrations of analytes that are

measured in Emission Test Chambers.
rd st

The 3 edition was fully aligned with the 1 edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2007 adopted under ISO/IEC JTC 1's

fast track procedure and published in September 2007.

In addition, the 4 edition fixes a number of errata on ISO/IEC 28360:2007 that JTC 1/SC 28 identified.

Following the publications of the 4 edition of ECMA-328 and the “Test method for the determination of

emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from the BAM, WKI, JBMIA and Ecma have

collaborated to harmonise methods to determine the Fine Particle (FP) and Ultrafine Particle (UFP) emissions

from hard copy devices in the 5 edition.
th nd

The 6 edition of ECMA-328 was aligned with the 2 edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2012, and it added a new

ozone calculation method. “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ

122) has been replaced by “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ

171) published in January 2013. Therefore, “RAL-UZ 122 option” is replaced with “RAL-UZ 171 option” in the

6 edition.
vi © ISO/IEC 2015 — All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Information technology — Office equipment — Determination of
chemical emission rates from electronic equipment
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies methods to determine chemical emission rates of Analyte from ICT & CE

equipment during intended operation in an Emission Test Chamber (ETC).

The methods comprise preparation, sampling (or monitoring) in a controlled ETC, storage and analysis,

calculation and reporting of emission rates.

This International Standard includes specific methods for equipment using consumables, such as printers, and

equipment not using consumables, such as monitors and PC’s. Annex A specifies monochrome and colour

print patterns for use in the operating phase of EUT using consumables (e.g. paper).

Examples of EUT that do not use consumables are:
 Monitors and TV sets (CRT, Plasma, LCD, Rear projector, Beamer).
 Video (VCR, DVD Player/Recorder, Camcorder).
 SAT Receiver (Set-Top Box).

 Audio units (CD Player/Recorder, Home theatre Systems, Audio Home Systems, Micro-/Mini, Midi

Systems, Amplifier, Receiver).
 Portable Audio (CD Player, MP 3 Player, Radio recorder, Clock radio etc).
 Computer (desktop, tower, server), portable computers (Notebooks).

Emission rates from EUT using consumables may also be determined according to additional requirements

identified by “RAL-UZ 171 Option”.

Calculations use the generalised model and approximations thereof as developed in Annex C.

The emission rates determined with this method may be used to compare equipment in the same class.

Predictions of “real indoor” concentrations from the determined emission rates are outside the scope of this

International Standard.
2 Conformance

Determinations of emission rates and total number of emitted particles conform to this International Standard

when:

1. Executed using a Quality Assurance Project Plan, Quality Assurance and Quality Control as specified in

ISO 16000-9;
2. Tested in a controlled ETC as specified in Clause 7;
3. Sampled/monitored and calculated as specified in Clause 8 and Annex B;
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
4. Reported as specified in Clause 9.

For EUT using consumables, determinations according to additional requirements identified by “RAL-UZ 171

Option” herein conform to the RAL-UZ 171 Option.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ECMA-74, Measurement of Airborne Noise emitted by Information Technology and Telecommunications

Equipment

ISO 554:1976, Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing – Specifications

ISO 13655:1996, Graphic technology – Spectral Measurements and colorimetric computation for graphic arts

images

ISO 16000-3:2001, Indoor air – Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds –

Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air – Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and chamber air

by active sampling on TENAX TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS/FID

ISO 16000-9:2006, Indoor air – Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from

building products and furnishing – Emission test chamber method

ISO 16017-1:2000, Indoor ambient and workplace air - Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds

by sorbent tube / thermal desorption / capillary gas chromatography – Part 1: Pumped sampling

EN 55013:2013, Sound and Television Broadcast Receivers and associated equipment – Radio disturbance

characteristics – Limits and methods for measurement
CIE 15:2004, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage – Colorimetry, 3 edition
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
averaged concentration time series

simple Moving Average of total particle number concentration (Cp) over 31±3 seconds

4.2
averaged ozone concentration time series
Simple Moving Average of ozone concentration (Co3) over 80±5 seconds
4.3
aerosol
suspension of fine solid particles and/or liquid droplets in a gas
4.4
aerosol measuring system
AMS

device for measuring the total number concentration of aerosol particles within a size range at a certain

frequency
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
4.5
air exchange rate
3 3

ratio (n) of the volume of clean air brought into the ETC per hour [m /h] to the unloaded ETC volume [m ]

4.6
air velocity
air speed [m/s] measured in the unloaded ETC
4.7
analyte

volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbonyl compounds, ozone, particulate matter, fine particles (FP) and

ultrafine particles (UFP)
4.8
condensation particle counter
CPC
AMS capable to measure the total particle number concentration

NOTE AMS consist of a flow meter, a particle counting device, a computer and suitable software. An AMS may also

be equipped with a particle size classifier.
4.9
consumables
toner, ink, paper and ribbon
4.10
emission test chamber
ETC

enclosure with controlled operational parameters for testing analyte mass emitted from EUT

4.11
equipment under test
EUT

functional and complete ICT or CE equipment from which chemical emission rates are determined

4.12
fast AMS
AMS with integrated particle size classifier
4.13
fine particles
particles with particle size / diameter range between 0.1 μm and 2.5 μm
4.14
loading factor
ratio of the EUT volume to the volume of the unloaded ETC
4.15
hard copy devices

class of EUT using Consumables that includes printers, (Photo)copiers and Multi Functional Devices (MFD)

4.16
maximum usage time before testing
MUT

ratio between the total number of prints carried out by the EUT and the printing

speed of the EUT
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)

NOTE Maximum usage time is the maximum permitted time of operation before testing in order to consider the EUT

as newly manufactured equipment for testing purposes.
4.17
operating phase
phase in which the EUT is performing its intended functions
4.18
particle
solid or liquid matter with defined physical boundaries suspended in a gas
4.19
particle emission rate
PER

averaged emission rate, i.e. total number of particles in a specified particle size range emitted during the

operating phase
4.20
particle emission rate
PER(t)

time dependent emission rate of particles in a specified particle size range after the start of the operating

phase
4.21
particle loss-rate coefficient

coefficient describes the loss of particles in a specified particle size range in an ETC

4.22
particle size / particle diameter
measurement category to describe the physical dimension of a particle

NOTE The term particle size is often used as a synonym for particle diameter. The particle diameter is used to assign

a particle to a particle size class (e.g. UFP).
4.23
particulate matter
quantity of particles measured by gravimetric methods
4.24
pre-operating phase

phase in which the EUT is connected to an electrical supply before the EUT is able to enter the operating

phase
NOTE The pre-operating phase can include warming-up and energy saving modes.
4.25
post-operating phase
phase following the operating phase
NOTE The post-operating can include energy saving modes.
4.26
total number of emitted particles
calculated total number of particles emitted in a specified particle size range
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
4.27
total particle number concentration
particle number concentration in a specified particle size range
4.28
total volatile organic compounds
TVOC

the sum of the concentrations of identified VOC and the concentrations of the converted areas of unidentified

peaks using the toluene response factor

NOTE This definition of “total volatile organic compounds” differs from the definition in ISO 16000-6:2011.

4.29
ultrafine particles
UFP
particles with particle diameter less or equal 0.1 µm
4.30
unit specific emission rate
SER
mass, in micrograms, of a specific analyte emitted per hour

NOTE If more than one EUT is placed in the ETC, the determined SER is divided by the number of EUTs to obtain

the unit specific emission rate SERu.
4.31
volatile organic compounds
VOC
compounds that elute between n-hexane and n-hexadecane on an unpolar GC-column
5 Symbols and abbreviated terms
5.1 Abbreviated terms
AMS Aerosol Measuring System
CE Consumer Electronics
CPC Condensation Particle Counter
DNPH 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
ETC Emission Test Chamber
EUT Equipment Under Test
FP Fine Particles
FID Flame Ionisation Detector
GC/MS Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry
ICT Information and Communication Technology
MFD Multi Functional Device
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethene
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
PVC Polyvinylchloride
rH Relative humidity
SER Unit Specific Emission Rate
PER averaged Particle Emission Rate
PER(t) time-dependent Particle Emission Rate
TVOC Total Volatile Organic Compounds
UFP Ultrafine Particles
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
5.2 Symbols
α Factor in the exponential particle decay function [cm ]
β Particle loss-rate coefficient [h ]
C Average mass concentration [µg m ]
C Background mass concentration [µg m ]
C Initial mass concentration [µg m ]
C Average mass concentration during pre-operating phase [µg m ]
pre

C Average mass concentration during operating phase and optionally during post-operating

ope
phase [µg m ]
C Total particle number concentration [cm ³]
Cp Background particle number concentration [cm ³]
,BG
Co3 Ozone concentration [mg/m3]
d Equivalent Particle Diameter [nm]
m Sample filter mass [µg] after sampling
after
m Sample filter mass [µg] before sampling
before
m Sampled mass for chamber background [µg]
m Mass of particulate matter [µg] deposited on the filter
m Reference filter mass [µg] after sampling
ref-after
m Reference filter mass [µg] before sampling
ref-before
m Sampled mass [µg]
m Sampled mass [µg] during pre-operating phase
pre
m Sampled mass [µg] during operating and optionally post-operating phase
ope
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
n Air exchange rate [h ]
p Atmospheric pressure [Pa]
PER Particle Emission Rate [h ]
R gas constant [PaK-1], (for ozone: 339.8 [PaK-1])
SER Background SER [µg h ]
SER SER during operating and optionally post-operating phase [µg h ]
ope
SER SER for ozone [µg min ]
SER SER for particulate matter [µg h ]
SER SER during pre-operating [µg h ]
pre
-1 -1
SER SER per unit [µg h u ]
T Ambient temperature [K]
TP Total Number of Emitted Particles
t Operating phase duration [h]
ope
t Sampling time during operating and optionally post-operating phase [h]
t point in time marking the start of operating phase
start
t point in time marking the end of particle emission
stop
t Pre-operating phase duration [h]
pre
∆t Time-resolution of the UFP measurement [s]
u Number of EUTs units
V ETC volume [m ]
V Sampled air volume [m ]
V Sampled air volume [m ] for determination of C
bg bg
V Sampled air volume [m ] in pre-operating phase
pre
V Sampled air volume [m ] in operating and optionally post-operating phase
ope
6 Method overview

The flowchart in Figure 1 illustrates the method; clause numbers are indicated in brackets.

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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
Figure 1 — Determination method overview
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ISO/IEC 28360:2015(E)
7 ETC requirements
7.1 Construction materials
ETC construction materials shall comply with ISO 16000-9.
7.2 Air tightness
The ETC air tightness shall be as specified in ISO 16000-9.
7.3 Air mixing efficiency
The air mixing efficiency in the ETC shall be as specified in ISO 16000-9.
8 Determination method
8.1 Test conditions
8.1.1 General

To meet the operational requirements specified herein, ETC parameters such as temperature, relative

humidity and supply airflow shall be controlled and measured at regular intervals and recorded in accordance

with ISO 16000-9 and shall be reported as specified in Clause 9.
8.1.2 Operating temperature and relative humidity (rH)

Tests shall be executed at (23 ± 2) °C and (50  5)% rH according to ISO 554. For EUT used in alternative

climatic conditions, higher operating temperature and humidity conditions may be used

...

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