Road vehicles — Ergonomic and performance aspects of Camera Monitor Systems — Requirements and test procedures

ISO 16505:2015 gives minimum safety, ergonomic, and performance requirements for Camera Monitor Systems to replace mandatory inside and outside rearview mirrors for road vehicles. It addresses Camera Monitor Systems (CMS) that will be used in road vehicles to present the required outside information of a specific field of view inside the vehicle. These specifications are intended to be independent of different camera and display technologies unless otherwise stated explicitly. ADAS Systems (such as parking aid) are not part of ISO 16505:2015.

Véhicules routiers — Aspects ergonomiques et de performance des caméras embarquées — Exigences et procédures d'essai

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
22-Apr-2015
Withdrawal Date
22-Apr-2015
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
30-Jul-2019
Completion Date
30-Jul-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16505
First edition
2015-05-01
Road vehicles — Ergonomic and
performance aspects of Camera
Monitor Systems — Requirements and
test procedures
Véhicules routiers — Aspects ergonomiques et de performance des
caméras embarquées — Exigences et procédures d’essai
Reference number
ISO 16505:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16505:2015(E)
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© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16505:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Vehicle related terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................. 2

3.2 Mirror related terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 3

3.3 Camera related terms and definitions .............................................................................................................................12

3.4 Monitor related terms and definitions ............................................................................................................................15

3.5 Camera Monitor System based terms and definitions .......................................................................................23

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................32

5 General information and use case definitions....................................................................................................................36

6 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................40

6.1 Intended use ...........................................................................................................................................................................................40

6.1.1 Default view ......................................................................................................................................................................40

6.1.2 Adjusted default view ...............................................................................................................................................40

6.1.3 Temporary modified view ....................................................................................................................................40

6.1.4 Luminance and contrast adjustment ...........................................................................................................41

6.1.5 Overlays ................................................................................................................................................................................41

6.2 Operating readiness (system availability)....................................................................................................................41

6.3 Field of view ...........................................................................................................................................................................................42

6.4 Magnification and resolution ...................................................................................................................................................42

6.4.1 Average magnification factor .............................................................................................................................42

6.4.2 Minimum magnification factor .........................................................................................................................42

6.4.3 Resolution (MTF) .........................................................................................................................................................43

6.5 Magnification aspect ratio ..........................................................................................................................................................44

6.6 Monitor integration inside the vehicle ............................................................................................................................44

6.7 Image quality .........................................................................................................................................................................................45

6.7.1 Monitor isotropy ...........................................................................................................................................................45

6.7.2 Luminance and contrast rendering ..............................................................................................................46

6.7.3 Colour rendering ...........................................................................................................................................................46

6.7.4 Artefacts ...............................................................................................................................................................................47

6.7.5 Sharpness and depth of field ..............................................................................................................................48

6.7.6 Geometric distortion .................................................................................................................................................48

6.7.7 Further image quality requirements ...........................................................................................................48

6.8 Time behaviour ...................................................................................................................................................................................49

6.8.1 Frame rate...........................................................................................................................................................................49

6.8.2 Image formation time ...............................................................................................................................................49

6.8.3 System latency ................................................................................................................................................................49

6.9 Failure behaviour ...............................................................................................................................................................................49

6.10 Quality and further ergonomic requirements ......... ..................................................................................................49

6.10.1 Needs of older persons ............................................................................................................................................49

6.11 Influences from weather and environment ................................................................................................................50

7 Test methods ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................50

7.1 System documentation..................................................................................................................................................................50

7.2 Intended use ...........................................................................................................................................................................................50

7.2.1 Default view ......................................................................................................................................................................50

7.2.2 Adjusted default view ...............................................................................................................................................50

7.2.3 Temporary modified view ....................................................................................................................................50

7.2.4 Luminance and contrast adjustment ...........................................................................................................50

7.2.5 Overlays ................................................................................................................................................................................51

7.3 Operating readiness (system availability)....................................................................................................................51

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16505:2015(E)

7.4 Field of view ...........................................................................................................................................................................................52

7.5 Magnification and resolution ...................................................................................................................................................52

7.5.1 Average magnification factor .............................................................................................................................52

7.5.2 Minimum magnification factor .........................................................................................................................53

7.5.3 Resolution (MTF) .........................................................................................................................................................55

7.6 Magnification aspect ratio ..........................................................................................................................................................57

7.7 Monitor integration inside the vehicle ............................................................................................................................57

7.8 Image quality .........................................................................................................................................................................................58

7.8.1 Monitor isotropy ...........................................................................................................................................................58

7.8.2 Luminance and contrast rendering ..............................................................................................................60

7.8.3 Colour rendering ...........................................................................................................................................................69

7.8.4 Artefacts ...............................................................................................................................................................................72

7.8.5 Sharpness, resolution, and depth of field ................................................................................................73

7.8.6 Geometric distortion .................................................................................................................................................75

7.8.7 Further Image quality requirements ...........................................................................................................75

7.9 Time behaviour ...................................................................................................................................................................................75

7.9.1 Frame rate...........................................................................................................................................................................75

7.9.2 Image formation time ...............................................................................................................................................75

7.9.3 System latency ................................................................................................................................................................75

7.10 Failure behaviour ...............................................................................................................................................................................76

7.11 Quality and further ergonomic requirements ......... ..................................................................................................77

7.11.1 Needs of older persons ............................................................................................................................................77

7.12 Influences from weather and environment ................................................................................................................77

8 Functional safety ...............................................................................................................................................................................................77

Annex A (normative) Standard application on class II and IV mirrors in commercial vehicles ..........78

Annex B (informative) Formula applications, explanations, and guidelines ..........................................................83

Annex C (informative) Calculation of the dimensional magnification and of a correction

factor to obtain the angular magnification ........................................................................................................................117

Annex D (informative) Complementary information for resolution measurement ....................................122

Annex E (informative) Correlation between Resolution (MTF) and spatial frequency

measured using SFR method for depth of field evaluation or sharpness evaluation ............131

Annex F (informative) Complementary charts and method for long distance measurements ........136

Annex G (informative) Distortion measurement ..............................................................................................................................139

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................146

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16505:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 35, Lighting

and visibility.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16505:2015(E)
Introduction

The purpose of this International Standard is to give minimum safety, ergonomic, and performance

requirements and test methods for Camera Monitor Systems (CMS) to replace mandatory inside and

outside rearview mirrors for road vehicles (e.g. classes I to IV as defined in UN REGULATION NO. 46).

This International Standard can follow updates of referred national regulations that influence the

included contents.

Where possible, the requirements established for a CMS providing a specific legally prescribed field of

view are based on the properties of conventional state of the art mirror systems providing that field of

view.

The CMS is treated as a functional system in regards to requirement definitions and performance tests.

This International Standard outlines general requirements and test methods regarding the basic aspects

of CMS; e.g. intended use, operating readiness, field of view, magnification, etc.

Furthermore, this International Standard outlines requirements and test methods regarding the

necessary object size and resolution provided by the CMS. Besides the properties of the mirror system

to be replaced, those requirements are also based on physical aspects of the human operator (e.g. visual

acuity).

The given requirements follow the assumption, that the CMS provides an ideal mapping of the real

world scene. To correspond to reality, this International Standard also provides requirements and test

methods for all relevant parameters that worsen the ideal mapping (e.g. isotropy or artefacts).

Finally, this International Standard gives requirements and test methods regarding the aspects of time

behaviour and failure behaviour.

All requirements are established to be as generic as possible, i.e. that these are possible to apply to any of

the covered rearview mirrors. If additional or specific information is required for certain mirrors, these

are provided in separate annexes.

This International Standard declares that CMS replacing legally prescribed mirrors have to be

considered as safety-relevant systems and therefore, relevant safety standards (e.g. ISO 26262) have to

be considered.
vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16505:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Ergonomic and performance aspects
of Camera Monitor Systems — Requirements and test
procedures
1 Scope

This International Standard gives minimum safety, ergonomic, and performance requirements for

Camera Monitor Systems to replace mandatory inside and outside rearview mirrors for road vehicles

(e.g. classes I to IV as defined in UN REGULATION NO. 46). It addresses Camera Monitor Systems (CMS)

that will be used in road vehicles to present the required outside information of a specific field of view

inside the vehicle. These specifications are intended to be independent of different camera and display

technologies unless otherwise stated explicitly. ADAS Systems (such as parking aid) are not part of this

International Standard.

NOTE 1 Mirror classes V and VI (as defined in UN REGULATION NO. 46) are not in scope of this International

Standard since the requirements are already defined in UN REGULATION NO. 46.

NOTE 2 The definitions and requirements in this International Standard are formulated with regard to a

system structure, where one camera captures one legally prescribed field of view and one monitor displays one

legally prescribed field of view. Of course, also other system structures (e. g. with one monitor displaying two

legally prescribed fields of view) are within the scope of this International Standard. For those systems, either the

system supplier or the vehicle manufacturer has to prove that the resulting system fulfils the requirements given

in Clause 6.

NOTE 3 Whenever the phrases “field of view” or “field of vision” are used, then both have the same meaning

and are to be used in parallel.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2813, Paints and varnishes — Determination of gloss value at 20 degrees, 60 degrees and 85 degrees

ISO 9241-302:2008, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 302: Terminology for electronic visual

displays

ISO 9241-305:2008, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 305: Optical laboratory test methods

for electronic visual displays

ISO 9241-307:2008, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 307: Analysis and compliance test

methods for electronic visual displays

ISO 12233:2014, Photography — Electronic still picture imaging — Resolution and spatial frequency

responses

UN REGULATION NO. 46, Uniform provisions concerning the approval of devices for indirect vision and of

motor vehicles with regards to the installation of these devices (ECE homologation)

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16505:2015(E)
3.1 Vehicle related terms and definitions
3.1.1
vehicle

vehicle with a combustion engine and/or electric driving motor, intended for use on the road, with or

without external body components added, having a permissible maximum mass of at least 400 kg and a

maximum design speed equal to or exceeding 50 km/h

Note 1 to entry: Vehicles of categories M1, M2, M3, N1, N2 and N3 (see UN-ECE REGULATION NO. 46).

[SOURCE: ISO 13043, definition 3.1]
3.1.2
vehicle coordinate system

positive x-axis pointing into the opposite of the forward movement direction of the vehicle, the z-axis

being orthogonal to the ground plane pointing upwards and the y-axis pointing to the right seen in

forward movement direction thus forming a right handed coordinate system
3.1.3
driver’s ocular points
points that are uniquely defined for each vehicle
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: These points are related to data given by the vehicle manufacturer following definitions of the

responsible national body.

EXAMPLE “The driver’s ocular points” means two points 65 mm apart and 635 mm vertically above point R

of the driver’s seat as defined in Annex 8. The straight line joining these points runs perpendicular to the vertical

longitudinal median plane of the vehicle. The centre of the segment joining the two ocular points is in a vertical

longitudinal plane which has to pass through the centre of the driver’s designated seating position, as specified

by the vehicle manufacturer.”
3.1.4
driver’s ocular reference point
middle point between the two ocular points of the driver
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Note 2 to entry: The abbreviation ORP can be used for this point.
Key
ocular points
ocular reference point
Figure 1 — Driver’s ocular reference point

EXAMPLE The two ocular points of the driver uses 635 mm vertically above point R as shown in the example

given in 3.1.3.
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16505:2015(E)
3.2 Mirror related terms and definitions
3.2.1
mirror
device with a reflective surface mounted to the bodywork of a vehicle

Note 1 to entry: It is used to see the required outside information of a specific field of view by indirect vision.

Note 2 to entry: The definitions in the subclauses from 3.2.2 to 3.2.28 assume an ideal mirror and do not deal with

artefacts like low quality surface, dirt, etc.
3.2.2
mirror distance to driver ocular reference point
distance from the driver’s ocular reference point to the centre of the mirror
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
Note 2 to entry: It is denoted as a and is measured in metres.
mirror

Note 3 to entry: The mirror distance to driver ocular reference point influences the resolution and the magnification

requirements for a CMS replacing a mirror. The designed resolution and magnification of a CMS should take into

account that this distance is usually lower than the maximum values given in the following subclauses.

3.2.3
maximum mirror distance to driver ocular reference point (driver side)

maximum value for a as found in existing homologated vehicles for the given mirror class on the

mirror
driver side
Note 1 to entry: It is denoted as a and is measured in metres:
mirror/driver/max
— for class I UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,05 m;
mirror/driver/max
— for class II UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,7 m;
mirror/driver/max

— for class III UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,2 m;

mirror/driver/max
— for class IV UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,7 m.
mirror/driver/max

Note 2 to entry: The above values represent the maximum distances for MY 2013 mass produced vehicles (based

upon 2013 survey).

Note 3 to entry: See B.6.2 for more information on the values for class II and class IV mirrors.

3.2.4
maximum mirror distance to driver ocular reference point (passenger side)

maximum value for a as found in existing homologated vehicles for the given mirror class on the

mirror
passenger side
Note 1 to entry: It is denoted as a and is measured in metres:
mirror/passenger/max
— for class II UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as a = 2,6 m;
mirror/passenger/max

— for class III UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as a = 1,9 m;

mirror/passenger/max
— for class IV UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as a = 2,6 m;
mirror/passenger/max

— for main mirrors on cab-over-engine type trucks according to Japanese REGULATION NO. 44, this value is

defined as a = 2,5 m;
mirror/passenger/max

— for main mirrors on motor vehicles with a passenger capacity of 11 persons or more according to the Japanese

REGULATION NO. 44, this value is defined as a = 2,5 m.
mirror/passenger/max

— for vehicle category of Japanese REGULATION refer to Japanese REGULATION NO. 44.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 16505:2015(E)

Note 2 to entry: The above values represent the maximum distances for MY 2013 mass produced vehicles (based

upon 2013 survey).

Note 3 to entry: See B.6.3 for more information on the values for class II and class IV mirrors.

Note 4 to entry: Japanese REGULATION main mirror means “Those mirrors used mainly for observing obstacles

showing up around the rear portion on the left side of the vehicle”.
3.2.5
mirror viewing angle

total angle between the ray leaving the eye-point and reaching an object after being reflected from the

mirror surface, i.e. two times the angle between the driver’s line of sight and the surface normal of the

mirror
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 3.
Note 2 to entry: It is denoted as β and is measured in degrees.
mirror
3.2.6
minimum mirror viewing angle (driver side)

minimum value for β as found in existing homologated vehicles for the given mirror class on the

mirror
driver side
Note 1 to entry: It is denoted as β and is measured in degrees:
mirror/driver/min
— for class I UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as β = 20 °;
mirror/driver/min
— for class II UN REGULATION NO. 46 mirrors, this value is defined as β
...

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