Welding for aerospace applications — Visual inspection of welds

ISO 19828:2017 specifies the requirements for visual inspection of welds in metallic materials and requirements for qualification and certification of personnel for visual weld inspection. ISO 19828:2017 is also applicable to the visual inspection of the joint prior to or between welding sequences, and of brazed joints. In this case, the contents of theoretical and practical training will need to be adapted accordingly.

Soudage pour applications aérospatiales — Inspection visuelle des soudures

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Apr-2017
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Completion Date
05-Sep-2022
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ISO 19828:2017 - Welding for aerospace applications -- Visual inspection of welds
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19828
First edition
2017-04
Welding for aerospace applications —
Visual inspection of welds
Soudage pour applications aérospatiales — Inspection visuelle des
soudures
Reference number
ISO 19828:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19828:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19828:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Documentation of visual weld inspection result ................................................................................................................ 2

6 Inspection conditions and equipment ........................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 Post weld inspection condition ................................................................................................................................................. 2

6.2 Lighting conditions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.3 Inspection equipment ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.4 Direct inspection ................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.5 Indirect inspection ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.6 Limitations of visual inspection ............................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Personnel qualification ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.2 Eye sight requirements .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Education and experience ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Employer and examiner ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

9 Training .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

10 Examination requirements........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

11 Re-examination ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

12 Certification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

13 Recertification ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

14 Loss of certification ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

14.1 Expiration .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

14.2 Suspension .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

14.3 Revocation................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Content of recommended training for fusion welding .........................................................8

Annex B (informative) Content of recommended training for welding with pressure .................................10

Annex C (informative) Inspection report ......................................................................................................................................................12

Annex D (informative) Examples of inspection equipment .......................................................................................................13

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 19828:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,

Subcommittee SC 14, Welding and brazing in aerospace.

Requests for official interpretations of any aspect of this document should be directed to the Secretariat

of ISO/TC 44/SC 14 via your national standards body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at

www .iso .org.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19828:2017(E)
Welding for aerospace applications — Visual inspection
of welds
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements for visual inspection of welds in metallic materials and

requirements for qualification and certification of personnel for visual weld inspection.

This document is also applicable to the visual inspection of the joint prior to or between welding

sequences, and of brazed joints. In this case, the contents of theoretical and practical training will need

to be adapted accordingly.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 18490, Non-destructive testing — Evaluation of vision acuity of NDT personnel

EN 4179 , Aerospace series — Qualification and approval of personnel for non-destructive testing

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www. iso. org/o bp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www.e lectropedia. org/
3.1
authorization

written statement by an employer that an individual is entitled to perform visual weld inspection

within the organization
3.2
examiner

person who is designated by the employer to certify and recertify visual weld inspectors

Note 1 to entry: The examiner can be at the employer’s or an external organization.

3.3
employer

organization employing or contracting the services of one or more individuals who perform visual weld

inspection, including self-employed individuals
[10]
1) Under a Memorandum of Understanding, this is identical to NAS 410 .
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19828:2017(E)
3.4
inspection plan

document providing an overview of the sequence of inspections and tests, including appropriate

resources and procedures to be referenced by the manufacturing plan
[SOURCE: ISO 13880:1999, 3.7]
3.5
weld zone
zone containing the weld metal and the heat-affected zones
[SOURCE: ISO/TR 25901-1:2016, 2.1.2.3]
4 General

Weld zones shall meet all specified requirements, as defined in the applicable engineering documents

and as detailed in an inspection plan.

As a minimum, the following aspects shall be included in the visual inspection process of weld zones:

a) presence and location of joints as specified in drawings;
b) appearance (e.g. colouration, oxidation, contamination);

c) visible discontinuities (e.g. surface cracks, lack of fusion, overlaps, undercut, spatter);

d) joint dimension (e.g. fillet weld size, weld reinforcement, weld width);
e) joint geometry (e.g. mismatch, concavity);

f) welds shall be correctly located according to drawing or engineering definition.

5 Documentation of visual weld inspection result

The result of visual weld inspection shall be documented. This can be done by a personalized inspector

stamp and/or signature in the manufacturing documentation.

If a comprehensive inspection report is requested, the recommended minimum requirements are given

in Annex C.
6 Inspection conditions and equipment
6.1 Post weld inspection condition

Unless otherwise specified, weld zones shall be inspected in the as-welded condition.

In case of a mechanical weld zone rework (dressing) or re-welding, the weld zone shall be re-inspected

after rework or re-welding.

If, as an aid to manufacture, any attachment that is temporarily welded to the component to facilitate

production or assembly is removed, it shall be removed in a way that the component is not damaged.

The area where the attachment was fixed shall be inspected for defects.

Where there is doubt as to the result of visual inspection, the engineering/design authority shall be

consulted.
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ISO 19828:2017(E)
6.2 Lighting conditions

The lighting conditions for inspection are best achieved by oblique dominant illumination combined

with subdued background lighting. The minimum white light illumination of a 1 000 lx shall be available

within the inspection area.
6.3 Inspection equipment
Examples of equipment applicable to visual inspection are given in Annex D.
6.4 Direct inspection

For direct inspection, there shall be a direct line of sight to the surface being inspected.

Direct inspection may be performed with the aid of magnification up to maximum 10×.

For direct inspection, the access shall be sufficient to view the surface to be inspected within a

maximum of 400 mm. The angle of inspection should not be less than 30° (see Figure 1), unless required

by specific lighting and surface texture condition. Indirect inspection may be used to supplement direct

inspection.

NOTE The optimum angle of inspection depends on surface textures and lighting conditions.

Range of angles for direct inspection.
Figure 1 — Access for direct inspection
6.5 Indirect inspection

Indirect inspection using visual aids (for example, mirrors, borescopes, fibre optics or cameras) shall

be applied when the access for inspection in accordance with Figure 1 is not possible or as specified by

the engineering/design authority.

Equipment used shall be suitable for inspecting all features to enable assessment of discontinuities

defined within the relevant quality acceptance standards.

The lighting may be adjusted to improve the contrast between surface features and background.

Lighting conditions of 6.2 may not apply to indirect inspection.
6.6 Limitations of visual inspection

When a weld zone cannot be completely visually inspected, the engineering/design authority shall be

informed.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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