Road vehicles -- Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy

ISO 11451-3:2015 specifies methods for testing the immunity of passenger cars and commercial vehicles to electromagnetic disturbances from on-board transmitters connected to an external antenna and portable transmitters with integral antennas, regardless of the vehicle propulsion system (e.g. spark ignition engine, diesel engine, electric motor).

Véhicules routiers -- Méthodes d'essai d'un véhicule soumis à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d'énergie électromagnétique en bande étroite

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01-Jun-2015
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11451-3
Third edition
2015-06-01
Road vehicles — Vehicle test
methods for electrical disturbances
from narrowband radiated
electromagnetic energy —
Part 3:
On-board transmitter simulation
Véhicules routiers — Méthodes d’essai d’un véhicule soumis
à des perturbations électriques par rayonnement d’énergie
électromagnétique en bande étroite —
Partie 3: Simulation des émetteurs embarqués
Reference number
ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Test location .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Absorber lined shielded enclosure (ALSE) ..................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Outdoor test site .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Test instrumentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.2 Signal sources .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.2.1 Transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle .................................................................................... 2

6.2.2 Transmitters with antenna inside the vehicle ........................................................................................ 3

6.3 RF power and field monitoring equipment .................................................................................................................... 3

6.4 Antennas ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.4.1 Transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle .................................................................................... 3

6.4.2 Transmitters with antenna inside the vehicle ........................................................................................ 3

6.5 Stimulation and monitoring of the device under test............................................................................................ 4

7 Test set-up ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.1 Transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle .......................................................................................................... 4

7.1.1 Simulated on-board transmitters ...................................................................................................................... 4

7.1.2 Commercial on-board transmitters ................................................................................................................. 6

7.2 Transmitters with antenna inside the vehicle ............................................................................................................. 7

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.2 Simulated portable transmitters ........................................................................................................................ 7

7.2.3 Commercial portable transmitters ................................................................................................................... 8

8 Test procedure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Test plan .....................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Test method ............................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.3.1 Transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle .................................................................................11

8.3.2 Transmitters with antenna inside the vehicle .....................................................................................12

8.4 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Typical characteristics of on-board transmitters ...................................................................14

Annex B (informative) Guidance on tuning antennas on the vehicle for minimum voltage

standing wave ratio (VSWR) ..................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex C (informative) Examples of simulated portable transmitter antennas ....................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................54

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 32, Electrical

and electronic components and general system aspects.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 11451-3:2007), which has been

technically revised.

ISO 11451 consists of the following parts, under the general title Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for

electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic energy:
— Part 1: General principles and terminology
— Part 2: Off-vehicle radiation source
— Part 3: On-board transmitter simulation
— Part 4: Bulk current injection (BCI)
Annexes A, B and C of of this part of ISO 11451 are for information only.
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Introduction

In recent years, an increasing number of electronic devices for controlling, monitoring, and displaying a

variety of functions have been introduced into vehicle designs. It is necessary to consider the electrical

and electromagnetic environment in which these devices operate.

Electrical and radio frequency disturbances occur during the normal operation of many items of

motor vehicle equipment. They are generated over a wide frequency range with various electrical

characteristics and can be distributed to on-board electronic devices and systems by conduction,

radiation, or both. Narrowband signals generated from sources on or off the vehicle can also be coupled

into the electrical and electronic system, affecting the normal performance of electronic devices. Such

sources of narrowband electromagnetic disturbances include mobile radios and broadcast transmitters.

The characteristics of the immunity of a vehicle to radiated disturbances have to be established.

ISO 11451 provides various test methods for the evaluation of vehicle immunity characteristics (not all

methods need be used to test a vehicle).

ISO 11451 is not intended as a product specification and cannot function as one. Therefore, no specific

values for the test severity level are given.

Protection from potential disturbances needs to be considered in a total system validation, and this can

be achieved using the various parts of ISO 11451.

NOTE Immunity measurements of complete vehicles are generally able to be carried out only by the vehicle

manufacturer, owing to, for example, high costs of absorber-lined shielded enclosures, the desire to preserve the

secrecy of prototypes, or a large number of different vehicle models. ISO 11452 specifies test methods for the

analysis of component immunity, which are better suited for supplier use.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical
disturbances from narrowband radiated electromagnetic
energy —
Part 3:
On-board transmitter simulation
1 Scope

This part of ISO 11451 specifies methods for testing the immunity of passenger cars and commercial

vehicles to electromagnetic disturbances from on-board transmitters connected to an external antenna

and portable transmitters with integral antennas, regardless of the vehicle propulsion system (e.g.

spark ignition engine, diesel engine, electric motor).
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11451-1, Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated

electromagnetic energy — Part 1: General principles and terminology

ISO 11451-2, Road vehicles — Vehicle test methods for electrical disturbances from narrowband radiated

electromagnetic energy — Part 2: Off-vehicle radiation sources
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11451-1 and the following apply.

3.1
integral antenna

permanent fixed antenna which may be built-in, designed as an indispensable part of the portable

transmitting device
4 Test conditions
The applicable frequency range of the test method is 1,8 MHz to 5,85 GHz.

The user of this part of ISO 11451 shall specify the test severity level or levels over the frequency

bands. Typical on-board transmitter characteristics (frequency bands, power level and modulation)

are given in Annex A.

NOTE Users of this part of ISO 11451 should be aware that Annex A is for information only and cannot be

considered as an exhaustive description of various on-board transmitters available in all countries.

Standard test conditions are given in ISO 11451-1 for the following:
— test temperature;
— supply voltage;
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
— dwell time;
— test signal quality.
5 Test location
5.1 General

This test would typically be performed in an absorber lined shielded enclosure (ALSE). Where national

regulations permit, the test can also be performed at an outdoor test site.
5.2 Absorber lined shielded enclosure (ALSE)

An absorber lined shielded enclosure with the characteristics specified in ISO 11451-2 is adequate

for this test.

NOTE At frequencies where absorbers are not effective, the reflections in the chamber can affect the exposure

of the vehicle.
5.3 Outdoor test site

Where national regulations permit the use of an outdoor test site, the outdoor test site should have an

area with a radius of 10 m free from large metal structures or objects. When performing outdoor test-

site tests, care shall be taken to ensure that harmonic suppression regulations are met.

6 Test instrumentation
6.1 General
The following test instrumentation is used:
— signal sources with internal or external modulation capability;
— power amplifier(s);

— power meter (or equivalent measuring instrument) to measure the forward and reverse power;

— field generating devices: antennas;
— field probes (for environmental monitoring).
6.2 Signal sources
6.2.1 Transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle
Signal sources for transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle can be

— simulated on-board transmitters: use of a signal generator and broadband power amplifier, and

— commercial on-board transmitters installed in vehicle capable of generating radio frequency (RF)

power in their operational frequency ranges with specific output power.

NOTE When using simulated on-board transmitters, it is advisable to place an RF choke (ferrite or powdered

iron toroid, depending on frequency) around the coaxial cable to the antenna, in order to reduce skin currents and

more closely simulate a transmitter installed in the vehicle.
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
6.2.2 Transmitters with antenna inside the vehicle
Signal sources for transmitters with antenna inside the vehicle can be

— simulated portable transmitters: use of a metallic box with similar dimension to the portable

transmitter and amplifier (if needed), and
— commercial portable transmitters with integral antennas.
6.3 RF power and field monitoring equipment

A power meter is required when using simulated on-board transmitters for measuring power to the

antenna. Both forward power and reverse power shall be measured and recorded.
6.4 Antennas
6.4.1 Transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle
6.4.1.1 Simulated on-board transmitters

When an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) antenna is not installed on the vehicle, the antenna(s)

described below shall be used.

— For frequency ranges lower than 30 MHz, loaded antennas shall be used. Loaded antennas employ

lumped or distributed reactive components with a radiating element physically shorter than quarter

wave at resonance.

— For frequency ranges higher than 30 MHz, e.g. for the very high frequency (VHF) and ultra-high

frequency (UHF) bands, quarter wave antennas should be given preference over 5/8 wave antennas,

since there are higher skin currents created by quarter wave antennas.

All antennas shall be tuned on the vehicle for minimum voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR, typically

less than 2:1), unless otherwise specified in the test plan. As a minimum, the VSWR value shall be

recorded with the antenna on the vehicle at the lower and upper band edge and at a middle frequency

(see Annex B for guidance on influence of cable loss and VSWR).

When an OEM antenna is actually installed on the vehicle, this antenna shall be used for the test in the

appropriate frequency range. In this case, the VSWR shall not be adjusted, but shall be recorded.

6.4.1.2 Commercial on-board transmitters

The vehicle OEM antenna shall be used for the test in the appropriate frequency range. In this case, the

VSWR shall not be adjusted.
6.4.2 Transmitters with antenna inside the vehicle
6.4.2.1 Simulated portable transmitter

Unless otherwise specified the simulated portable transmitter antenna characteristics shall be a passive

antenna as detailed in C.2. Examples of other antennas which can be used are defined in Annex C.

All antennas should have a minimum VSWR (typically less than 4:1), unless otherwise specified in the

test plan. As a minimum, the VSWR value shall be recorded at the lower and upper band edge and at a

middle frequency.
6.4.2.2 Commercial portable transmitters

When a commercial portable transmitter with integral antenna is used, its antenna shall be used for the

test in the appropriate frequency range. In this case, the VSWR shall not be adjusted.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
6.5 Stimulation and monitoring of the device under test

If remote stimulation and monitoring are required in the test plan, the vehicle shall be operated by

actuators which have a minimum effect on the electromagnetic characteristics, e.g. plastic blocks on the

push-buttons, pneumatic actuators with plastic tubes.

Connections to monitoring equipment can be accomplished by using fibre-optics or high resistance

leads. Other types of leads can be used, but they require extreme care to minimize interactions. The

orientation, length and location of such leads shall be carefully documented to ensure repeatability of

test results.

Any electrical connection of monitoring equipment to the vehicle can cause malfunctions of the vehicle.

Extreme care shall be taken to avoid such an effect.
7 Test set-up
7.1 Transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle
7.1.1 Simulated on-board transmitters

The test can be performed with test antenna(s) or with the vehicle’s OEM antenna, as defined in

6.4.1.1.

When a test antenna is used, the location(s) of the transmitting antenna on the vehicle shall be defined

in the test plan. If no specific location(s) are agreed between the users of this part of ISO 11451, the

following location (s) are recommended, as illustrated in Figure 1:

— locations 1 (vehicle roof, front) and 2 (vehicle roof, rear) are the default locations for

frequencies ≥30 MHz;
— location 9 (bumper) is the default location for frequencies <30 MHz.
Key
1 vehicle roof (front) 6 fender (rear, right)
2 vehicle roof (rear) 7 fender (rear, left)
3 vehicle roof (middle) 8 trunk lid (middle)
4 fender (front, right) 9 bumper (middle)
5 fender (front, left)
Figure 1 — Recommended locations for antennas outside the vehicle
4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)

When the vehicle OEM antenna is used, it should be used as it is installed in the vehicle without any

change of antenna characteristics (location, VSWR, etc.).

Examples of test set-up for simulated on-board transmitters are shown in Figure 2 (use of test antenna)

and Figure 3 (use of vehicle OEM antenna).

NOTE When the vehicle OEM antenna is used for multiple transmitters/receivers frequency, it is advisable not

to use a simulated on-board transmitter (with “broadband” amplifier). The amplifier noise level can be sufficient

to degrade some vehicle functions, like GPS satellite reception. The validation of such functions (relative to vehicle

on-board-transmitter immunity) can only be performed with the vehicle OEM on-board transmitter. In this case,

it might be necessary to operate the on-board vehicle transmitter in real conditions. This can be performed by

using specific equipment, like a GSM base station simulator (see 7.1.2 and Figure 4).

Key
1 ALSE
2 RF signal generator (can be outside test facility)
3 power amplifier (can be outside test facility)
4 dual directional coupler (can be outside test facility)
5 power meter (can be outside test facility)
6 test antenna (positions defined in test plan)

Figure 2 — Example of test set-up for simulated on-board transmitter and test antenna

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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Key
1 ALSE
2 RF signal generator (can be outside test facility)
3 power amplifier (can be outside test facility)
4 dual directional coupler (can be outside test facility)
5 power meter (can be outside test facility)
6 vehicle OEM antenna
7 on-board transmitter (disconnected from vehicle antenna)
8 vehicle antenna cable connector

Figure 3 — Example of test set-up for simulated on-board transmitter and vehicle OEM antenna

7.1.2 Commercial on-board transmitters

The vehicle commercial on-board transmitter and OEM antenna should be used as it is installed in the

vehicle, without any change of transmitter and antenna characteristics (location, VSWR, etc.).

An example of test set-up for commercial on-board transmitters is shown in Figure 4.

6 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Key
1 ALSE
2 on-board transmitter (connected to vehicle antenna)
3 vehicle OEM antenna
4 antenna (when necessary)
5 base station simulator inside or outside test facility (when necessary)
6 vehicle antenna cable connector
Figure 4 — Example of test set-up for commercial on-board transmitter
7.2 Transmitters with antenna inside the vehicle
7.2.1 General

The location(s) of a simulated or commercial portable transmitter in the vehicle shall be defined in the

test plan. If no specific location(s) are agreed between the users of this part of ISO 11451, the following

location(s) are recommended:

— at the driver’s head position (centred on the back of the seat at a height of 0,8 m from the seat

cushion, with the seat in medium position), antenna in vertical polarization;

— at the passenger’s head position (centred the back of the seat at a height of 0,8 m from the seat

cushion, with the seat in medium position), antenna in vertical polarization;

— in specified places where a portable transmitter can be placed, i.e. between front seats, on the

vehicle’s centre console, storage compartments;

— at the rear passenger’s head position (centred on the back of the seat at a height of 0,8 m from the

seat cushion, with the seat in medium position), antenna in vertical polarization.

7.2.2 Simulated portable transmitters

An example of test set-up for simulated portable transmitters is shown in Figure 5.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Key
1 ALSE
2 RF signal generator (can be outside test facility)
3 power amplifier (can be outside test facility)
4 dual directional coupler (can be outside test facility)
5 power meter (can be outside test facility)
6 simulated portable transmitter (positions defined in test plan)
Figure 5 — Example of test set-up for simulated portable transmitters
7.2.3 Commercial portable transmitters

Examples of test set-up for commercial portable transmitters are shown in Figures 6 and 7 (use of base

station simulator).

NOTE Certain RF systems (e.g. GSM phones) transmit with different RF power levels and frequencies. In such

cases, the test might not necessarily be performed at the maximum RF power level. To control output power and

frequency, either devices with modified software or base station simulators can be used.

8 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Key
1 ALSE
2 commercial portable transmitter (positions defined in test plan)
Figure 6 — Example of test set-up for commercial portable transmitters
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
Key
1 ALSE
2 commercial portable transmitter (positions defined in test plan)
3 base station simulator inside or outside test facility
4 antenna (when necessary)

Figure 7 — Example of test set-up for commercial portable transmitters and base station simulator

8 Test procedure
8.1 General

The general arrangement of vehicle, transmitter(s) and associated equipment represents a standardized

test condition. Any deviations from the standard test configuration shall be agreed upon prior to testing

and recorded in the test report.

The vehicle shall be made to operate under typical loading and operating conditions. These operating

conditions shall be clearly defined in the test plan.
8.2 Test plan

Prior to performing the tests, a test plan shall be generated which shall include:

— test set-up;
— frequency range(s) and associated modulation(s);
— duration of transmission;
— antenna location and polarization;

— routing of the coaxial cable to the antenna in the vehicle (for simulated on-board transmitters);

— vehicle mode of operation;
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ISO 11451-3:2015(E)
— vehicle monitoring conditions;
— vehicle acceptance criteria;
— vehicle exposure methodology (simulated or commercial transmitter);

— simulated portable transmitter antenna or commercial transmitter antenna location;

— definition of test severity levels;
— maximum antenna VSWR value if necessary;
— test report content;
— any special instructions and changes from the standard test.
8.3 Test method

IMPORTANT — The appropriate guidelines (national regulation, ICNIRP [1][2] etc.) shall be

followed for the protection of the test personnel.
8.3.1 Transmitters with antenna outside the vehicle
8.3.1.1 Simulated on-board transmitters
8.3.1.1.1 General

The vehicle, antenna(s) and associated equipment are installed as described in 7.1.1.

The test severity levels are defined in terms of root-mean-square (RMS) power measured for a continuous

wave (CW) signal.
8.3.1.1.2 OEM antenna configuration

The reference parameter for the test is the forward power at the vehicle’s antenna cable terminal.

For vehicles with an OEM antenna, the test shall at least be performed with this configuration even if

tests are also performed with test antenna(s).

With the power amplifier output connected at the OEM antenna cable terminal, increase the forward

power level until the predetermined level is achieved. For modulated signals, the peak conservation

principle shall be applied as defined in ISO 11451-1. Perform the test at fr
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