Road vehicles -- Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions

This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system detection and activation performance of active safety systems. This document specifies the properties of a vehicle target that will allow it to represent a passenger vehicle in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. The document addresses the detection requirements for a vehicle target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future sensing technologies. It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as performance requirements for the target carrier. This document specifies the properties of the vehicle target for simulation of rear-end scenarios, with overlap greater than 50 %. The specifications of vehicle targets in this document are intended to address current and anticipated test protocols related to safety critical events in which the subject vehicle approaches a stopped, braking or slower moving (target) vehicle from behind and in the forward path of the subject vehicle. This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events. Performance criteria for the active safety system are also not addressed.

Véhicules routiers - Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers de la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions de sécurité active

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Nov-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
24-Oct-2018
Completion Date
27-Nov-2018
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ISO 19206-1:2018 - Road vehicles -- Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19206-1
First edition
2018-12
Road vehicles — Test devices for
target vehicles, vulnerable road users
and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 1:
Requirements for passenger vehicle
rear-end targets
Véhicules routiers - Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers de
la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions de
sécurité active —
Partie 1: Exigences pour cibles d'arrière de véhicules particuliers
Reference number
ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Vehicle target specifications ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Vehicle classes and target applicability ............................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Reference dimensional measurements .............................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Safety considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Repairability .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.5 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Vehicle target response to sensing technologies ................................................................................................................ 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Optical requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.3 Stability of dimensions for optical recognition ..................................................................................... 5

6.2.4 Viewing angles ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2.5 Features related to optical requirements ................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Radar requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.3.1 Reference measurements of radar properties ....................................................................................... 5

6.3.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.3 Radar cross section, static measurements and requirements .................................................. 5

6.3.4 Radar recognition features of vehicle target ........................................................................................... 5

6.3.5 Stability of dimensions for radar recognition ......................................................................................... 5

6.4 Thermal requirements for Far Infrared vision systems ...................................................................................... 6

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4.3 Thermal characteristics ............................................................................................................................................. 6

6.5 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Motion and positioning during test for VT including target carrier system ..........................................6

7.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Longitudinal positioning ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.2.1 Speed range for operation ....................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.2 Accelerations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Lateral positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3.2 Yaw angle ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.3.3 Lateral position ................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.4 Vertical positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.4.2 Pitch angle ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.4.3 Vertical motions ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

Annex A (informative) Vehicle classes ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

Annex B (normative) Sensor-specific recognition properties ................................................................................................10

Annex C (normative) Vehicle target measurements and measurement equipment .......................................13

Annex D (informative) Field verification of vehicle target properties ...........................................................................16

Annex E (informative) Examples of existing vehicle rear-end targets ...........................................................................17

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................20

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19206 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
Introduction

ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) and Active Safety systems are designed to support

decision-making for the driver, extend the driver’s awareness of the traffic situation with advanced

warnings, improve the behaviour of the vehicle, and even take over vehicle control in an emergency

situation. The goal is to completely avoid an accident or at least reduce the severity of an accident.

Testing of active safety systems requires documentation of test materials, test environment, testing

procedures, and performance criteria. This document series addresses the specification of test target

objects for traffic scenarios representing vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects in the

forward path of the subject vehicle.

This document addresses the specification of vehicle rear-end test targets (see Annex E for examples

of existing vehicle rear-end targets). A future part of this document series is intended to address also

other configurations (3D targets).

A surrogate vehicle target needs to represent a real vehicle in terms of detectability and movement. It

should also provide safety for the subject vehicle and test operators in the event that contact is made

between the subject vehicle and the target. Crashworthiness and durability requirements for the vehicle

target require that the material and construction of the vehicle target are adapted to fit the purposes.

Test cases usually address both stationary and moving vehicle targets and, as such, the physical

construction of the target accommodates a target carrier system capable of mimicking realistic

motions. This document includes requirements on the target carrier system as applicable.

Targets described in this document series may be used for system development or applied in conjunction

with existing standards, or standards under development, for assessment of ADAS and active safety

functions of vehicles.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles,
vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 1:
Requirements for passenger vehicle rear-end targets
1 Scope

This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system

detection and activation performance of active safety systems.

This document specifies the properties of a vehicle target that will allow it to represent a passenger

vehicle in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. The document addresses

the detection requirements for a vehicle target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at

the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future sensing technologies.

It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as

performance requirements for the target carrier.

This document specifies the properties of the vehicle target for simulation of rear-end scenarios,

with overlap greater than 50 %. The specifications of vehicle targets in this document are intended

to address current and anticipated test protocols related to safety critical events in which the subject

vehicle approaches a stopped, braking or slower moving (target) vehicle from behind and in the forward

path of the subject vehicle.

This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events.

Performance criteria for the active safety system are also not addressed.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8855:2011, Road vehicles — Vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability — Vocabulary

ISO 8608, Mechanical vibration — Road surface profiles — Reporting of measured data

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8855:2011 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
3.1
subject vehicle
vehicle with active safety system to be tested
3.2
vehicle target

test device representing a vehicle in the forward path of the subject vehicle used to test active

safety systems

Note 1 to entry: This document addresses test devices representing the rear-end of a vehicle.

3.3
target structure

physical structure used to activate sensor systems representing the body of a vehicle

3.4
target carrier
mechanical system used to move the target structure according to a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: It may be self-contained within, or supporting the target structure or external devices connected

with cables, beams, or similar structures.
Note 2 to entry: Target structure fixation is included in the target carrier.
3.5
measurement equipment

equipment used to record the position and motions of the vehicle target relative to the subject vehicle to

ensure that the test protocol is followed within prescribed tolerances and to record data documenting

the function of the active safety system and allowing its performance to be assessed

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
CCD Charge-Coupled Device
FIR Far Infrared
LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging
NIR Near Infrared
PMD Photonic Mixer Device
RCS Radar Cross Section
5 Vehicle target specifications
5.1 Vehicle classes and target applicability

The vehicle targets specified in this document refer to passenger cars and in particular the smaller and

more common B and C class cars. See Annex A for more information.

The vehicle targets are intended for testing of systems designed to mitigate or avoid collisions in which

the subject vehicle approaches a stopped, braking, or slower moving vehicle (target) from behind and in

the forward path of the subject vehicle.

The vehicle target should withstand impacts for all rear collision overlap situations.

2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)

For system tests, the range of potential collision situations of interest includes those having 50 % up to

100 % vehicle target width overlap.

The rear-end target should not be used in offset scenarios where subject vehicle sensors will view the

side of the vehicle target.

Figure 1 shows the ISO definition of overlap. It should be noted that the overlap is related to one of the

vehicles involved.

NOTE Vehicle width overlap specifications are typically described in a test procedure.

EXAMPLE The Euro NCAP AEB test procedure specifies 100 % vehicle width overlap.
Key
A overlap
B offset

Figure 1 — Overlap and offset definition (approximately 60 % overlap frontal collision shown)

(Source: ISO 6813)
5.2 Reference dimensional measurements

Reference measurements for the vehicle target should come from a representative sample of vehicles

from the B/C class that were manufactured within five years prior to the publication date of this

document.
General dimensions of the vehicle fleet are given in Annex A.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
5.3 Safety considerations

Drivers of the subject vehicle shall not be exposed to any substantial risk of personal injury. The vehicle

target and its components should not cause more than cosmetic damage to the subject vehicle when

struck at a relative velocity of 60 km/h. The conditions specified by the test procedure application shall

be taken into consideration.

NOTE Test procedures for specific applications typically indicate what measures are taken to reduce the

risk of injury and vehicle damage. These measures can include instructions to disable subject vehicle systems

such as supplementary occupant restraints, seatbelt pre-tensioners, vulnerable user protection systems, etc.

EXAMPLE The US NHTSA test procedure for crash imminent brake system performance evaluation specifies

that the subject vehicle airbags be disabled. The Euro NCAP AEB test procedure specifies that if a vehicle is

equipped with a deployable pedestrian/VRU protection system, this system must be deactivated before the

testing commences.
5.4 Repairability

The vehicle target should be easily reassembled or repaired after minor contacts. Field repairs should

be possible to perform with hand tools. After repair or reassembly, the vehicle target shall be checked

according to 6.5.
5.5 Environmental conditions

The vehicle target shall fulfil all requirements in an ambient temperature range of −5 °C to +40 °C. The

vehicle target shall not deteriorate under storage temperatures in the range of −40 °C to +80 °C when

properly stored.

NOTE The specified temperature range recognises that there are substantial technical challenges achieving

a cost-effective target fulfilling the requirements at lower temperatures than −5 °C.

6 Vehicle target response to sensing technologies
6.1 General

Requirements related to sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this

document are listed in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. A vehicle target intended for use with a specific set of sensing

technologies needs only to meet the requirements of those technologies.
6.2 Optical requirements
6.2.1 General

Sensors operating on optical principles include CCD and CMOS camera sensors, stereo camera sensors,

Photonic Mixer Devices (PMD) and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). These systems cover

visible and near infrared (NIR) light frequency spectra. PMD and LIDAR are more reliant on infrared

reflectivity of the target surface.
6.2.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with

the description of the vehicle models. The version of the vehicle target and the target carrier shall be

traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
General dimensions of the vehicle fleet are given in Annex A.
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
6.2.3 Stability of dimensions for optical recognition

Target surface shall not flutter or vibrate unrealistically due to aerodynamic effects for a speed up to

50 km/h and a side wind of up to 10 m/s. Local fluttering should not exceed 10 mm perpendicularly

from the reference surface. Distortion of the vehicle shape should not exceed 10 mm in any direction.

6.2.4 Viewing angles
Viewing angles for which target should be valid, at a distance of 10 m:
— Horizontal ±5°;

— Vertical up to 10° from above if used with vehicles having high sensor positioning (e.g. commercial

vehicles, SUVs).
6.2.5 Features related to optical requirements

For camera based systems, lighter colours of vehicle targets shall be used. Silver or grey is recommended.

Contrast to background should be considered.

Features representing the rear lights, reflectors, and registration plate are required.

General requirements for the size and position of these features are available in e.g. 407/2011/EC, UN-

ECE R3, UN-ECE R48, FMVSS 108.

Features necessary for the optical recognition as specified in Annex B shall be followed.

6.3 Radar requirements
6.3.1 Reference measurements of radar properties

At the time of publication of this document, automotive applications of radar are using 24 GHz and

76 GHz – 81 GHz.
6.3.2 Reference measurements

Reference measurements for the vehicle target should come from a representative sample of vehicles

from the B/C class that were manufactured within five years prior to the publication date of this

document.

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with

the description of the vehicle models. The version of the vehicle target and the target carrier shall be

traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
6.3.3 Radar cross section, static measurements and requirements

Requirements for the measurement of radar cross section are given in Annex C, C.3.

6.3.4 Radar recognition features of vehicle target

Features necessary for radar recognition as specified in Annex B shall be followed.

6.3.5 Stability of dimensions for radar recognition

Target surface shall not flutter or vibrate due to aerodynamic effects more than a normal car for a

speed up to 50 km/h and a side wind of up to 10 m/s. Local fluttering should not cause radar signature

to vary, including micro-doppler effects.
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)
6.4 Thermal requirements for Far Infrared vision systems

The vehicle target is defined as possessing the optical characteristics according to 6.2 with features

added to provide response to thermal sensing. Inclusion of passive thermal sensor requirements is

optional.
6.4.1 General

Far Infrared (FIR) vision systems can provide information to active safety systems in conditions of low

light or otherwise limited visibility. A thermal camera detects FIR electromagnetic radiation with a

wavelength in the range of 8 μm to 14 μm. Imaging is provided by means of an appropriate camera.

6.4.2 Reference measurements

When technology specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with the

description of the measured subjects and/or target. The version of the target and the target carrier

shall be traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
6.4.3 Thermal characteristics

Vehicle targets commonly in use at the time of publication of this document do not feature vehicle-

specific FIR characteristics. Developers of vehicle targets that incorporate such characteristics should

ensure that the characteristics are comparable to typical vehicles represented by the target.

Characterization of these properties should follow the main steps below:
1) Measurement of reference vehicles;
2) Establishment of boundaries;

3) Verification that the vehicle target FIR measurements are within the specified boundaries.

6.5 Calibration

The vehicle target manufacturer shall provide a certificate detailing which test information has been

used to verify the product performance and which sensor technologies it conforms to.

Calibration shall be based on representative characteristics of the applied detection technology as

described in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4, and the related Annexes.
For field verification of vehicle target functionality, see Annex D.
7 Motion and positioning during test for VT including target carrier system
7.1 General requirements

The target carrier system shall be capable of positioning the target within tolerances required by the

test procedure application. Repeatable test performance requires that subject and vehicle target relative

speed and position shall be consistent between test repetitions. Unless more stringent requirements

are needed by a specific test procedure, the positioning requirements outlined in this section are the

minimum requirements for the vehicle target. Requirements and recommendations for measurement

equipment are given in Annex C.

The following requirements and recommendations apply to the target carrier system:

— All visible parts of the target carrier system should be coloured to minimize the contrast with

background, e.g. grey, to approximate the test area road surface. In case of a uniform background

the colour shade of the background can be used;
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ISO 19206-1:2018(E)

— The target carrier system and resulting motion of the vehicle target shall minimally affect target

characteristics (radar, optical signature, etc.);

— The target carrier shall accelerate and decelerate in a smooth manner, except for actions intended

to avoid impact or damage.

The positioning requirements in 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4 are with reference to a coordinate system oriented

with the vehicle target. The longitudinal axis is parallel with the direction of travel.

7.2 Longitudinal positioning
7.2.1 Speed range for operation

Maximum speed shall be at least 50 km/h (13,9 m/s). The speed control accuracy shall be ±1 km/h

(±0,3 m/
...

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