Wildland firefighting personal protective equipment -- Requirements and test methods

This document specifies the minimum performance requirements and methods of test for personal protective equipment (PPE), gloves, that cover the hands whilst wildland firefighting. This document covers the general design of the PPE, the minimum levels of performance for the materials employed and the methods of test used. This PPE is not intended to provide protection during fire entrapment. A risk assessment (see ISO/TR 21808) can be undertaken to determine if the gloves covered by this document are suitable for their intended use and the expected exposure. This document does not cover PPE for structural firefighting (see ISO 11999‑4), for use against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards, or for use where a reflective outer surface is required (see ISO 15538). Activities in support of wildland firefighting, such as the cutting of trees and the use of a chainsaw can require additional protection to that provided in this document. Users can refer to the relevant standards for the requirements associated with such protection.

Équipement de protection individuelle pour la lutte contre les feux d'espaces naturels -- Exigences et méthodes d'essai

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Status
Published
Publication Date
01-Dec-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
29-Oct-2019
Completion Date
02-Dec-2019
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16073-4
First edition
2019-11
Wildland firefighting personal
protective equipment —
Requirements and test methods —
Part 4:
Gloves
Équipement de protection individuelle pour la lutte contre les feux
d'espaces naturels — Exigences et méthodes d'essai —
Partie 4: Gants
Reference number
ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Gloves ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Design requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 Component assembly ................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.2 Wristlet or cuff ................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.3 Glove sizing ........................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Sampling, pretreatments and preconditioning .................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1.1 Inspection .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.1.2 Testing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Pretreatments .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2.1 Pretreatment by laundering or dry cleaning ........................................................................................... 3

5.2.2 Flexing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Preconditioning ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3.1 Dry conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3.2 Wet conditioning .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Performance requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Thermal requirements ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.1 Flame resistance .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.2.2 Heat transfer — Flame exposure ....................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.3 Heat transfer — Radiant exposure ................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.4 Heat transfer — Conductive exposure .......................................................................................................... 6

6.2.5 Materials' thermal stability .................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.6 Materials' thermal shrinkage ................................................................................................................................ 7

6.3 Mechanical requirements .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.3.1 Abrasion resistance ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.2 Cut resistance ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.3 Tear resistance ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.4 Puncture resistance ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Ergonomic requirements ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.1 Dexterity.................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4.2 Grip .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.4.3 Donning test ......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7 Marking and labelling ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Label durability and legibility .................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Compliance marking requirements ...................................................................................................................................10

8 Manufacturer's information ..................................................................................................................................................................10

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Guidelines for personal protective equipment design ......................................................12

Annex B (normative) Grip test — Gloves .......................................................................................................................................................13

Annex C (normative) Ease of donning and doffing test ..................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................17

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC94, Personal safety — Personal protective

equipment, Subcommittee SC 14, Firefighters' personal equipment.

This first edition of ISO 16073-4, together with ISO 16073-1 to ISO 16073-7 cancels and replaces

ISO 16073:2011.
The main changes are as follows:
— the content has been reviewed and separated into several parts.
— the respiratory protection has been deleted from the document.
A list of all parts in the ISO 16073 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
Introduction

Wildland firefighting involves work carried out mostly in summer temperatures and for many hours,

during which the firefighter can develop high levels of metabolic heat. Therefore, the personal protective

equipment (PPE) is required to be light, flexible and commensurate with the risks to which the firefighter

can be exposed in order to be effective without introducing excessive heat stress to the wearer.

It is important to train firefighters in the selection, use, care and maintenance of the PPE covered by

this document, including an understanding of its limitations.

It is intended that a risk assessment be undertaken to determine if the PPE covered by this document is

suitable for its intended use and the expected exposure.

This document provides minimum performance requirements for wildland firefighters' PPE designed

for use for extended periods during wildland firefighting.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
Wildland firefighting personal protective equipment —
Requirements and test methods —
Part 4:
Gloves
1 Scope

This document specifies the minimum performance requirements and methods of test for personal

protective equipment (PPE), gloves, that cover the hands whilst wildland firefighting.

This document covers the general design of the PPE, the minimum levels of performance for the

materials employed and the methods of test used. This PPE is not intended to provide protection during

fire entrapment. A risk assessment (see ISO/TR 21808) can be undertaken to determine if the gloves

covered by this document are suitable for their intended use and the expected exposure.

This document does not cover PPE for structural firefighting (see ISO 11999-4), for use against chemical,

biological, radiological and nuclear hazards, or for use where a reflective outer surface is required (see

ISO 15538).

Activities in support of wildland firefighting, such as the cutting of trees and the use of a chainsaw

can require additional protection to that provided in this document. Users can refer to the relevant

standards for the requirements associated with such protection.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 139, Textiles — Standard atmospheres for conditioning and testing

ISO 3146:2000, Plastics — Determination of melting behaviour (melting temperature or melting range) of

semi-crystalline polymers by capillary tube and polarizing-microscope methods

ISO 3175-1, Textiles — Professional care, drycleaning and wetcleaning of fabrics and garments — Part 1:

Assessment of performance after cleaning and finishing

ISO 6330:2019, Textiles — Domestic washing and drying procedures for textile testing

ISO 6942:2002, Protective clothing — Protection against heat and fire — Method of test: Evaluation of

materials and material assemblies when exposed to a source of radiant heat

ISO 9151, Protective clothing against heat and flame — Determination of heat transmission on exposure

to flame

ISO 12127-1, Clothing for protection against heat and flame — Determination of contact heat transmission

through protective clothing or constituent materials — Part 1: Contact heat produced by heating cylinder

ISO 12947-4, Textiles — Determination of the abrasion resistance of fabrics by the Martindale method —

Part 4: Assessment of appearance change

ISO 14116:2015, Protective clothing — Protection against flame — Limited flame spread materials,

material assemblies and clothing
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16073-4:2019(E)

ISO 15025, Protective clothing — Protection against flame — Method of test for limited flame spread

ISO 17493, Clothing and equipment for protection against heat — Test method for convective heat

resistance using a hot air circulating oven

ISO/TR 19591, Personal protective equipment for firefighters — Standard terms and definitions

ISO 21420:2019, Protective gloves — General requirements and test methods
ISO 23388:2018, Protective gloves against mechanical risks

EN 13087-1:2000, Protective helmets — Test methods — Part 1: Conditions and conditioning

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 19591 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Gloves
4.1 Design requirements
4.1.1 Component assembly

Gloves shall consist of a component assembly meeting the performance requirements of this document.

This component assembly shall be permitted to be configured as a continuous or joined single layer or

as continuous or joined multiple layers. Recommendation for general considerations of gloves design

are given in Annex A.
4.1.2 Wristlet or cuff

Where gloves are provided with a cuff or a wristlet or both, the sample glove body and the cuff and/or

wristlet shall extend circumferentially at least 50 mm beyond the wrist crease, taking into consideration

the requirement specified in ISO 21420:2019, 4.1.

Where gloves are not provided with a cuff or a wristlet, the sample glove body shall extend

circumferentially at least 50 mm beyond the wrist crease, which is a 25 mm addition to the requirement

ISO 21420:2019, 4.1.

The cuff or wristlet shall provide a protective interface with clothing used for wildland firefighting.

NOTE For more information, see ISO/TS 11999-2.
4.1.3 Glove sizing
4.1.3.1 Minimum sizing

Gloves shall be provided in a minimum of eight unique and distinct sizes. The manufacturer shall

indicate the range in hand circumference and hand length for wearers of each glove size, as determined

in ISO 21420:2019, Annex A.

NOTE The intent of this requirement is to allow manufacturers to report information to the user, which

assists in their selection of the appropriate size. Standard sizes are not defined by this document.

2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
5 Sampling, pretreatments and preconditioning
5.1 Sampling
5.1.1 Inspection

Inspection for determining compliance with the design requirements specified in 4.1 shall be performed

on whole gloves.
5.1.2 Testing
5.1.2.1 Specimens

Testing for determining material and component compliance with the requirements specified in

Clause 6 shall be performed on samples representative of materials and components used in the actual

construction of the protective glove.

If suitably sized representative materials and components for the respective test method cannot be

obtained, samples from the glove shall be used as specified in the performance requirement.

The testing laboratory shall be permitted to also use sample materials cut from representative

protective gloves.
5.1.2.2 Exposure surface
In all surface tests, the outermost surface shall be exposed.
5.1.2.3 Interpretation criteria

All the individual results of the specimens of a test shall meet the performance requirement. Depending

on test methods, take either the average or worst result. If a material exhibits differing behaviour for

a property in the length and cross directions of the material, the resultant property value shall be the

value obtained in the lesser performing direction. In the event that only one specimen fails, another set

of specimens shall be tested and all the individual results of this second set of specimens shall meet the

requirements. Otherwise, the sample is considered to have failed the requirement.

5.2 Pretreatments
5.2.1 Pretreatment by laundering or dry cleaning
5.2.1.1 Laundering

When pretreatment is specified as part of the test procedure or performance requirements, the test

materials shall be cycled through five cleaning cycles. Washing shall be carried out in accordance with

procedure 6N as specified in ISO 6330:2019, Table B.1, at (60 ± 3) °C using a front-loading horizontal

drum machine with a detergent which achieves a pH of 7,0. Drying shall be carried out in accordance

with ISO 6330:2019, 10.2.1 (Procedure F - Tumble drying), unless otherwise specified in the care

labelling.
A laundry bag shall not be used.

If the manufacturer’s instructions indicate that cleaning is not allowed, then testing shall be carried out

on new material.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
5.2.1.2 Dry cleaning

Materials that are labelled as dry cleaning only shall be dry cleaned five times in accordance with

ISO 3175-1.
A laundry bag shall not be used.
5.2.2 Flexing

After the five cleaning cycles, sample gloves shall be donned by a test subject and shall be flexed by

making a tight fist 10 times during a 30 s period.
Gloves for which cleaning is not allowed are exempted from this requirement.
5.3 Preconditioning
5.3.1 Dry conditioning

Unless otherwise specified in the specific test methods, all sample gloves and sample specimens shall

be conditioned at a temperature of (20 ± 2) °C and a relative humidity of (65 ± 4) % for at least 24 h in

accordance with ISO 139.

Sample gloves and sample specimens shall be tested within 5 min of removal from conditioning.

NOTE This conditioning is used in some cases after washing pretreatment to ensure that the gloves are

totally dry before testing.
5.3.2 Wet conditioning

Sample gloves or sample specimens shall be conditioned by completely immersing the glove or glove

specimen in water at a temperature of (20 ± 2) °C for 2 min. If gloves are used, the glove specimen shall

be first filled with water prior to immersion.

Sample gloves or sample specimens shall be removed from the water, hung in a vertical position for

5 min with the fingers uppermost and then laid horizontal with textile blotting paper both under and

over the specimen, under a pressure of 3,5 kPa for a period of 20 min.
Sample gloves or sample specimens shall be tested within 5 min of conditioning.
6 Performance requirements
6.1 General requirements
All gloves shall meet the performance requirements of this clause.

All gloves shall meet the innocuousness requirements as detailed in ISO 21420:2019, 4.2.

6.2 Thermal requirements
6.2.1 Flame resistance
6.2.1.1 Test on component assembly

The glove component assembly, when tested in accordance with ISO 15025:2016, 9.1.2 (Procedure A -

Surface ignition) after the pre-treatment specified in 5.2 and preconditioning specified in 5.3.1, shall

meet ISO 14116:2015, 7.3 (index 3), as follows:
4 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
Table 1 — Requirements for limited flame spread on component assembly
Properties Requirements

No specimen shall permit any part of the lowest boundary of any flame to reach the

Flame spread
upper or either vertical edge.
Flaming debris No specimen shall give flaming or molten debris.

No specimen shall give hole formation of 5 mm or greater in any direction, except for an

Hole formation
interlining that is used for specific protection other than flame protection.
Afterglow time shall be ≤2 s.
Afterglow

A glowing inside the charred area is defined in ISO 15025 as afterglow without combus-

tion and, for the purpose of this clause, shall not be regarded as afterglow.
Afterflame Afterflame time shall be ≤2 s.

If the glove assembly incorporates wristlet material, this material shall be tested separately by applying

the flame to the outer surface of the wristlet material.

If the glove assembly incorporates seams, specimens of the component assembly containing seams

shall be tested separately by applying the flame to the seam portion of the component assembly with

the seam oriented vertically.
6.2.1.2 Test on whole glove

If suitably sized representative materials cannot be obtained, the whole glove shall be used for testing.

Use the test method in accordance with ISO 15025:2016, 9.1.2 (Procedure A - Surface ignition) where

the burner is placed below the glove such that it is in a plane with the vertical middle line of the middle

finger (Point A of Figure 1) and is perpendicular to the surface of the glove.

The burner is mounted at an angle of (30 ± 3)° to the vertical. The distance between the top of the

burner and Point A shall be (20 ± 2) mm.

Performance shall be determined using the poorest results from all areas of the glove that are tested.

Figure 1 — Mounting of test glove
The glove shall meet ISO 14116:2015, 7.3 (index 3), as follows:
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 16073-4:2019(E)
Table 2 — Requirements for limited flame spread on whole glove
Properties Requirements

No specimen shall permit any part of the lowest boundary of any flame to reach the

Flame spread
upper or either vertical edge.
Flaming debris No specimen shall give flaming or molten debris.

No specimen shall give hole formation of 5 mm or greater in any direction, except for an

Hole formation
interlining that is used for specific protection other than flame protection.
Afterglow time shall be ≤2 s.
Afterglow

A glowing inside the charred area is defined in ISO 15025 as afterglow without combus-

tion and, for the purpose of this clause, shall not be regarded as afterglow.
Afterflame Afterflame time shall be ≤2 s.

If the glove assembly incorporates wristlet material, this material shall be tested separately, applying

the flame to the outer surface of the wristlet material.
6.2.2 Heat transfer — Flame exposure

The glove component assembly, when tested in accordance with ISO 9151 after the pre-treatment

specified in 5.2 and preconditioning specified in 5.3.1, shall give the following minimum performance:

Table 3 — Heat transfer — Flame exposure requirements
Performance requirements
HTI ≥ 9 s
(HTI – HTI ) ≥ 3 s
24 12

Where different, the palm and backside and/or fingertips of the glove shall be tested. The performance

of the glove shall be determined using the lowest mean results for each part.
6.2.3 Heat transfer — Radiant exposure

When tested in accordance with ISO 6942:2002, 4.2 (Method B), with a heat flux density of 20 kW/m

after the pre-treatment specified in 5.2 and preconditioning specified in 5.3.1, the glove shall have the

following minimum level.
Table 4 — Heat transfer — Radiant exposure requirements
Performance requirements
RHTI ≥ 11 s
(RHTI – RHTI ) ≥ 4 s
24 12

Where different, the palm and backside and/or fingertips of the glove shall be tested. The performance

of the glove shall be determined using the lowest mean results for each side.
6.2.4 Heat transfer — Conductive exposure

The glove component assembly, when tested in accordance with ISO 12127-1 at a contact temperature

of 250 °C after the pre-treatment specified in 5.2 and preconditioning specified in 5.3.1, shall give the

following minimum performance:
Table 5 — Heat transfer — Conductive exposure requirement
Performance requirement
t ≥ 6 s
6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16073-4:2019(E)

Where different, the palm and backside and/or fingertips of the glove shall be tested. The performance

of the glove shall be determined using the lowest mean results for each side.
6.2.5 Materials' thermal stability

The sewing threads utilized in the construction of the protective gloves, when tested in accordance

with ISO 3146:2000, Clause 5 (Method B), at a temperature of (260 ± 5) °C, shall not melt.

Table 6 — Materials’ thermal stability requirement
Performance requirement
Shall not melt
6.2.6 Materials' thermal shrinkage

When complete glove specimens are tested in accordance with ISO 17493 at a temperature of

(180 ± 5) °C, no glove shall melt, drip, ignite or shrink by more than 5 % in length or width.

Table 7 — Materials’ thermal shrinkage requirements
Performance requirements
No melting, dripping, igniting or shrinking by more than 5 % in length or width
6.3 Mechanical requirements
6.3.1 Abrasion resistance

Specimens of the outer material from the palm area of the glove body component assembly, when

tested in accordance with ISO 23388:2018, 6.1 after the preconditioning specified in 5.3.1, shall give the

following minimum performance.
Table 8 — Materials’ abra
...

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