Electronic fee collection -- Test procedures for user and fixed equipment

ISO/TS 14907-2:2016 describes tests that verify on-board unit (OBU) conformance of implementations of functions and data structures, as defined in the implementation conformance statement based on ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015, for electronic fee collection (EFC) applications. After the tests of isolated data items and functions (C.2 to C.4), an example is given for testing of a complete EFC transaction (C.3). It comprises definitions of OBU conformance assessment tests of - basic dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) L7 functionality, - EFC application functions, - EFC attributes (i.e. EFC application information), - the addressing procedures of EFC attributes and (hardware) components [e.g. integrated circuit cards (ICC) and man-machine interfaces (MMI)], - the EFC transaction model, which defines the common elements and steps of any EFC transaction, and - the behaviour of the interface so as to support interoperability on an EFC-DSRC application interface level. The purpose of this part of ISO/TS 14907 is to define tests that - assess OBU capabilities, - assess OBU behaviour, - serve as a guide for OBU conformance evaluation and type approval, - achieve comparability between the results of the corresponding tests applied in different places at different times, and - facilitate communications between parties. Whereas, ISO/TS 14907-2:2016 defines examples of test cases for DSRC and EFC functionality in Annex C, it does not intend to specify a complete test suite for a certain implementation. To compose a test suite for a specific EFC implementation, the test cases may have to be modified and new test cases may have to be defined and added in order for the conformance test to be complete. It can be useful to take into account the following considerations when defining a complete test suite: - small range: "exhaustive testing" of critical interoperability/compatibility features, - large range: testing of boundaries and random values, and - composite types: testing of individual items in sequence or parallel. It is outside the scope of ISO/TS 14907-2:2016 to define tests that assess - performance, - robustness, and - reliability of an implementation. Annex D provides an informative overview of Japanese OBE conformance tests that are based on the ISO/TS 14907 series, in order to illustrate how these can be applied in practice.

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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 14907-2
Third edition
2016-07-15
Electronic fee collection — Test
procedures for user and fixed
equipment —
Part 2:
Conformance test for the on-board
unit application interface
Perception du télépéage — Modes opératoires relatifs aux
équipements embarqués et aux équipements fixes —
Partie 2: Essai de conformité de l’interface d’application de l’unité
embarquée
Reference number
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 OBU and supporting information ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 ICS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 IXIT .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Testing requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Conceptual test architecture ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Conformance test system ............................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.1 Functionality of tester ..............................................................................................................................................10

6.2.2 Conformance testing ........................................................................................................................................... .......11

6.3 Test documentation .........................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Tester ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.2 Test methods and test cases ................................................................................................................................11

6.3.3 Test results .........................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (normative) Implementation conformance statement proforma ...............................................................12

Annex B (normative) Implementation of extra information for testing (IXIT) proforma .........................25

Annex C (informative) OBU test cases ..............................................................................................................................................................29

Annex D (informative) OBE conformance test procedures conducted in Japan ...................................................70

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................75

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/TS 14907-2:2011), which has been

technically revised with the following changes:

— updated references to clauses and annexes in accordance with ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015;

— updated Annex D to reflect current situation in Japan.

ISO/TS 14907 consists of the following parts, under the general title Electronic fee collection — Test

procedures for user and fixed equipment:
— Part 1: Description of test procedures
— Part 2: Conformance test for the on-board unit application interface
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO/TS 14907 describes tests that verify on-board unit (OBU) conformance of

implementations of functions and data structures for electronic fee collection (EFC) applications.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Electronic fee collection — Test procedures for user and
fixed equipment —
Part 2:
Conformance test for the on-board unit application
interface
1 Scope

This part of ISO/TS 14907 describes tests that verify on-board unit (OBU) conformance of

implementations of functions and data structures, as defined in the implementation conformance

statement based on ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015, for electronic fee collection (EFC) applications. After

the tests of isolated data items and functions (C.2 to C.4), an example is given for testing of a complete

EFC transaction (C.3).

The scope of this part of ISO/TS 14907 comprises definitions of OBU conformance assessment tests of

— basic dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) L7 functionality,
— EFC application functions,
— EFC attributes (i.e. EFC application information),

— the addressing procedures of EFC attributes and (hardware) components [e.g. integrated circuit

cards (ICC) and man-machine interfaces (MMI)],

— the EFC transaction model, which defines the common elements and steps of any EFC transaction, and

— the behaviour of the interface so as to support interoperability on an EFC-DSRC application interface

level, see Figure 1.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Figure 1 — The EFC application interface
The purpose of this part of ISO/TS 14907 is to define tests that
— assess OBU capabilities,
— assess OBU behaviour,
— serve as a guide for OBU conformance evaluation and type approval,

— achieve comparability between the results of the corresponding tests applied in different places at

different times, and
— facilitate communications between parties.

Whereas, this part of ISO/TS 14907 defines examples of test cases for DSRC and EFC functionality in

Annex C, it does not intend to specify a complete test suite for a certain implementation. To compose a

test suite for a specific EFC implementation, the test cases may have to be modified and new test cases

may have to be defined and added in order for the conformance test to be complete. It can be useful to

take into account the following considerations when defining a complete test suite

— small range: “exhaustive testing” of critical interoperability/compatibility features,

— large range: testing of boundaries and random values, and
— composite types: testing of individual items in sequence or parallel.
Figure 2 shows the overall procedure of conformance testing.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Figure 2 — Conformance testing process

Figure 3 gives a more detailed picture of the interface between the entity performing the conformance

test and the supplier of the Device Under Test (DUT). By the EFC application specification, the

implementation conformance statement proforma and the implementation extra information for

testing proforma the supplier is requested to provide the DUT (OBU), containing the Implementation

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)

Under Test (IUT), as well as the documentation needed to perform the tests. More details on the content

of the different documents are given in Clause 5 on OBU and supporting information.

NOTE 1 The Device Under Test contains the Implementation Under Test.
Figure 3 — Documentation DUT supplier
It is outside the scope of this part of ISO/TS 14907 to define tests that assess
— performance,
— robustness, and
— reliability of an implementation.

NOTE 2 ISO/TS 14907-1 defines test procedures that are aimed at assessing performance, robustness and

reliability of EFC equipment and systems.

NOTE 3 The ISO/IEC 10373 series defines test methods for proximity, vicinity, integrated circuit(s) cards and

related devices that may be relevant for OBUs that support such cards.

Annex D provides an informative overview of Japanese OBE conformance tests that are based on the

ISO/TS 14907 series, in order to illustrate how these can be applied in practice.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)

ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for dedicated

short-range communication

EN 12834:2003, Road transport and traffic telematics — Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) —

DSRC application layer
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
access credentials

trusted attestation or secure module that establishes the claimed identity of an object or application

[SOURCE: EN 15509:2014, 3.1]
3.2
attribute

addressable package of data consisting of a single data element or structured sequences of data element

[SOURCE: ISO 17575-1:—, 3.2]
3.3
authenticator
data, possibly encrypted, that is used for authentication
[SOURCE: EN 15509:2014, 3.3]
3.4
channel
information transfer path
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 7498-2:1989, 3.3.13]
3.5
element
DSRC directory containing application information in the form of attributes
[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.11, modified]
3.6
implementation conformance statement

statement of capabilities and options that have been implemented defining to what extent it is compliant

with a given specification
3.7
implementation conformance statement proforma

document, in the form of a questionnaire, which when completed for an implementation or system

becomes an implementation conformance statement (ICS)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 9646-1:1994, 3.3.40]
3.8
implementation extra information for testing

statement containing all of the information related to the implementation under test (IUT) and its

corresponding system under test (SUT) which will enable the testing laboratory to run an appropriate

test suite against that IUT
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19015:2000, 3.20]
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
3.9
implementation extra information for testing proforma

document, in the form of a questionnaire, which when completed for an implementation under test

(IUT) becomes an implementation extra information for testing (IXIT)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 9646-1:1994, 3.3.42]
3.10
on-board equipment

all required equipment on-board a vehicle for performing required EFC functions and communication

services
3.11
on-board unit

single electronic unit on-board a vehicle for performing specific EFC functions and for communication

with external systems

Note 1 to entry: An OBU always includes, in this context, at least the support of the DSRC interface.

3.12
roadside equipment
equipment located along the road, either fixed or mobile
3.13
service primitive

elementary communication service provided by the application layer protocol to the application

processes
[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.18, modified]
3.14
transaction

whole of the exchange of information between two physically separated communication facilities

[SOURCE: ISO 17575-1 :—, 3.21]
3.15
transaction model

functional model describing the general structure of electronic payment transactions

[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.25, modified]
4 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms and variables apply.

AC_CR Access credentials
ACn Acknowledged command/response
ADU Application Data Unit (ISO 14906)
APDU Application Protocol Data Unit (ISO 14906)
AP Application Process (ISO 14906)
ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
AVI Automatic Vehicle Identification
BST Beacon Service Table (ISO 14906)
cf Confirm
DSRC Dedicated Short-Range Communication
6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
DUT Device Under Test
EID Element Identifier
EFC Electronic Fee Collection (ISO 17573)
FTP File Transfer Protocol
ICS Implementation Conformance Statement
I-Kernel Initialization Kernel
IID Invoker Identifier
ind Indication
IUT Implementation Under Test
IXIT Implementation eXtra Information for Testing
L1 Layer 1 of DSRC (physical layer)
L2 Layer 2 of DSRC (data link layer)
L7 Application Layer Core of DSRC
LID Logical Link Control Identifier
LLC Logical Link Control
LPDU LLC Protocol Data Unit
LSDU Link Layer Service Data Unit (EN 12795)
M ManufacturerID (EN 12834)
MAC Medium Access Control
MMI Man-Machine Interface
n.a. Not applicable
NE_OK Command accepted/Response LSDU not yet available (EN 12795)
OBE On-board equipment
OBU On-board unit
ORSE Organization for Road System Enhancement
P Profile, example P denotes Profile 0.
a,b,c,d 0
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PoC Point of Control
PoO Point of Observation
PPDU Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit
PrWA Private Window Allocation (EN 12795)
PrWRq Private Window Request (EN 12795)
req Request
rs Response
RSE Roadside Equipment
SAM Secure Application Module
T-APDU Transfer-Application Protocol Data Unit
T-ASDU Transfer-Application Service Data Unit
T-Kernel Transfer Kernel
TTI Traffic and Traveller Information
VST Vehicle Service Table
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
5 OBU and supporting information

The supplier shall provide the OBU, i.e. the DUT, and the associated information, including:

— OBUs personalized to be able to perform tests according to the ICS and IXIT as defined in 5.1 and

5.2, respectively. At least five samples shall be submitted for test. More samples may be needed if

several different data structures and data contents are required in the tests;

— user’s manual for the OBU, which shall include instructions how to handle the equipment, and may

include further detailed information about the protocol functions;

— implementation conformance statement according to 5.1. The ICS shall include statements regarding

the following:
— layer 7 services that are implemented in the OBU;
— EFC functions (action types) that are implemented in the OBU;
— whether or not data elements are used;

— implementation extra information for testing according to 5.2. The IXIT shall, if applicable, include:

— a statement regarding which layer 2 services shall be used to transfer the L7 services (and EFC

services);

— a description of security calculations in the OBU including a specification of the encryption

algorithm used;

— values of the test Master Keys for calculation and verification of OBU security data such as

authenticators and access credentials.

The supplier should also provide configuration/personalization equipment for the OBU if that ensures

effective testing.
5.1 ICS

The ICS is a statement made by the supplier that claims conformance to a certain specification. The ICS

states which capabilities have been implemented in the specifications. It also states possible limitations

in the implementation of the specification.

This Technical Specification describes testing of implementations according to the following standards:

— EN 12834;
— ISO 14906.
Annex A contains the ICS proforma that shall be used for the ICS.
5.2 IXIT

The IXIT is a statement made by the supplier or an implementer of an IUT which contains or references

all of the information, in addition to that given in the implementation conformance statement, related

to the DUT and its testing environment. The IXIT enables the test laboratory to run an appropriate test

suite against the DUT.

In this Technical Specification, the IXIT specifies the services in the lower communication layers that

shall be used to perform the services to be tested. These services are described e.g. in EN 12795,

EN 12253 and EN 13372.
8 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)

The IXIT shall also contain further information and describe algorithms and procedures that are

not specified in the above standards but are prerequisites to perform the testing. Examples of such

information are
— content of the ApplicationContextMark in the VST,
— calculation of access credentials in DSRC services,
— use of returnCode in DSRC L7 services and EFC functions, and
— calculation of authenticators in EFC functions.

Annex B contains the IXIT proforma that shall be used for the declaration of the IXIT.

6 Testing requirements
6.1 Conceptual test architecture

A remote test method shall be used for the conformance test of OBUs (DUT). Figure 4 shows the

conceptual testing architecture of tester and DUT. The conformance test is only related to the

implementation of the DUT.

The PoC, which is the point where the test events are controlled, shall be implemented inside the tester

on the interface between the application layer and the application process.

The PoO, which is the point where the occurrence of test events is to be observed, shall be implemented

inside the tester on the interface between the application layer and the application process. The PoO

must also interface the data link layer since some tests require observation of the behaviour on this layer.

The PoC and PoO are characterized by a set of ASPs, according to the specifications of the tests. The test

events observed at the PoO may be supplemented by information provided by other sub-units, e.g. MMI

or an IC card if available with the DUT.
Figure 4 — Conceptual architecture of the conformance test
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 9
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
6.2 Conformance test system

The conformance tests shall be performed under controlled conditions by using a test system according

to Figure 5.
Figure 5 — Test facilities
6.2.1 Functionality of tester
6.2.1.1 Reference beacon

The beacon shall be a transparent physical layer interface for DSRC according to European or

International Standards, which means, it shall be able to operate standardized data profiles of DSRC

links. A simple beacon may be used which will only send and receive frames to or from the DUT. The

communication is controlled by the application and data link process of the tester.

Beacon parameters, e.g. the transmitting power, shall be adjustable by the tester.

6.2.1.2 Application and data link process

The tester shall be able to operate the communication link in real time according to data link layer

functionality of European or International Standards. The process shall provide the connection to the

test control and observation process and shall control the sending and reception of frames to and from

the beacon.
6.2.1.3 Test control and observation processes

The test control and observation processes shall be implemented on an appropriately equipped

computer system. The processes shall comply with the definitions of the application and data link layers

defined by European or International Standards and shall be able to generate test suites in reference to

ISO 14906. The control process shall provide functionality to configure the test-bed, to generate test

suites and to perform test suites.

EXAMPLE Test suites may be generated in plain ASCII format and may be retrieved by the real-time control

process via FTP.

While the tests are being performed, all events shall be observed by the PoO process. All results shall

be documented, visualized and be made available for detailed analysis.
10 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
6.2.2 Conformance testing

The tests performed by the tester shall be able to concentrate on EFC-communication protocol aspects,

which are:
— initialization phase (BST-VST exchange);
— application layer services according to EN 12834;
— EFC functions and services according to ISO 14906;
— EFC data and parameters used according to ISO 14906; and
— transaction phase (logical sequence).

The DUT shall be operated in a controlled environment according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

All test suites shall be generated corresponding to the specification of the manufacturer, which shall

describe the behaviour of the DUT in terms of expected messages from the beacon and intended answers

from the DUT. The communication sequence shall be unambiguously defined. The test generation tool

shall be able to check the messages against the European or International DSRC standards. All events of

a DUT are stored by the tester.

The test suites generated shall strictly correspond to the European or International DSRC standards

and to ISO 14906.

The results of the tests shall only be related to the IUT of the DUT. Only the correctness of the

implementation shall be tested, and any assessment of performance, robustness or reliability is

excluded. The results of the tests shall be able to provide confidence that the DUT works according to

ICS, the underlying DSRC standards and to ISO 14906, within the scope of the performed tests.

6.3 Test documentation

The test documentation shall provide comprehensive information of the used tester, the DUT, the tests

carried out, and the gathered test results.
6.3.1 Tester

All relevant information and specifications of the used tester shall be documented in the test report.

The ICS and the IXIT shall be provided by the manufacturer or supplier of the DUT. The ICS and IXIT shall

describe all the capabilities and limitations of the DUT according to Annex A and Annex B, respectively.

6.3.2 Test methods and test cases

A test suite is required which covers all implemented and specified functions of the DUT to be tested

based on the provided ICS and IXIT. Completeness and correctness of the test suite is required to verify

conformity between IUT and specification, including the referenced standards.

The test suite is separated in test groups; each test group consists of a number of test cases. The tester

shall provide a tool which enables the user to specify the test suite and which provides documentation

of the test suite.

The user-defined test suite should be automatically translated in a computer form which is executable

by the tester.
6.3.3 Test results

Each test case carried out shall be documented by the test generation equipment. For each test case,

a verdict shall be given: passed, inconclusive or failed. The results of all test cases shall form the

conformance test report.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 11
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Annex A
(normative)
Implementation conformance statement proforma
A.1 Overview

The forms in this Annex shall be completed by the supplier of the DUT (OBU) to state conformance to

applicable parts in EN 12834 (DSRC L7 standard) and ISO 14906.

When the forms are completed (i.e. Tables A.1 to A.44), this Annex will form the ICS that shall be

submitted to the test laboratory before start of the tests.
A.2 Identification of OBU supplier
Table A.1 — Identification of OBU supplier form
Company
Postal address
Telephone
Contact person
E-mail address
A.3 Identification of OBU
Table A.2 — Identification of OBU form
Brand
Type, Version
Manufacturer ID
Equipment Class
Serial numbers of supplied units
A.4 DSRC application layer implementation
A.4.1 Declaration of application layer features

EN 12834:2003 (DSRC L7) implemented functionality shall be declared by completing Table A.3.

Table A.3 — EN 12834 functionality
Implemented Restrictions or other
Feature(s) Status
Yes/No/n.a. comments
T-KE Fragmentation/defragmentation optional/mand.
Concatenation/deconcatenation optional/mand.
Multiplexing/demultiplexing optional/mand.
NOTE “/” means selecting any number or feature; “n.a.” means “not applicable”.
12 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Table A.3 (continued)
Implemented Restrictions or other
Feature(s) Status
Yes/No/n.a. comments
Fragmentation 1 octet mand.
header
2 octets optional/mand.
3 octets optional/mand.
Service GET optional
Primitives
SET optional
ACTION optional
EVENT-REPORT mand.
INITIALIZATION mand.
I-KE optional/mand.
Timer T (second) 255/0-255
LID for INITIALIZATION.req broadcast/
private
NOTE “/” means selecting any number or feature; “n.a.” means “not applicable”.
A.4.2 Detailed L7 services statement

For each implemented L7 service according to EN 12834:2003, the corresponding table below shall be

completed (i.e. Tables A.4 to A.11). The information is used to control the tests of the service.

A.4.2.1 INITIALIZATION
Table A.4 — INITIALIZATION.req, BST
Data Element Data Type Used/Not used, Restrictions
rsu BeaconID
time Time
profile Profile
mandApplications ApplicationList
nonmandApplications ApplicationList, OPTIONAL
profileList SEQUENCE (SIZE (0..127,...)) OF Profile
Table A.5 — IN
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 14907-2
Third edition
Electronic fee collection — Test
procedures for user and fixed
equipment —
Part 2:
Conformance test for the on-board
unit application interface
Perception du télépéage — Modes opératoires relatifs aux
équipements embarqués et aux équipements fixes —
Partie 2: Essai de conformité de l’interface d’application de l’unité
embarquée
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING

This final draft has been developed within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and pro-

cessed under the ISO-lead mode of collaboration as defined in the Vienna Agreement. The final draft was

established on the basis of comments received during a parallel enquiry on the draft.

This final draft is hereby submitted to the ISO member bodies and to the CEN member bodies for a parallel

two-month approval vote in ISO and formal vote in CEN.
Positive votes shall not be accompanied by comments.
Negative votes shall be accompanied by the relevant technical reasons.
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 OBU and supporting information ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 ICS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 IXIT .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Testing requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Conceptual test architecture ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Conformance test system ............................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.1 Functionality of tester ..............................................................................................................................................10

6.2.2 Conformance testing ..................................................................................................................................................11

6.3 Test documentation .........................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Tester ......................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Test methods and test cases ................................................................................................................................12

6.3.3 Test results .........................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (normative) Implementation conformance statement proforma ...............................................................13

Annex B (normative) Implementation of extra information for testing (IXIT) proforma .........................26

Annex C (informative) OBU test cases ..............................................................................................................................................................30

Annex D (informative) OBE conformance test procedures conducted in Japan ...................................................68

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................73

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/TS 14907-2:2011), which has been

technically revised with the following changes:

— updated references to clauses and annexes in accordance with ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015;

— updated Annex D to reflect current situation in Japan.

ISO/TS 14907 consists of the following parts, under the general title Electronic fee collection — Test

procedures for user and fixed equipment:
— Part 1: Description of test procedures
— Part 2: Conformance test for the on-board unit application interface
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO/TS 14907 describes tests that verify on-board unit (OBU) conformance of

implementations of functions and data structures for electronic fee collection (EFC) applications.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
Electronic fee collection — Test procedures for user and
fixed equipment —
Part 2:
Conformance test for the on-board unit application interface
1 Scope

This part of ISO/TS 14907 describes tests that verify on-board unit (OBU) conformance of

implementations of functions and data structures, as defined in the implementation conformance

statement based on ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015, for electronic fee collection (EFC) applications. After

the tests of isolated data items and functions (C.1 to C.2), an example is given for testing of a complete

EFC transaction (C.3).

The scope of this part of ISO/TS 14907 comprises definitions of OBU conformance assessment tests of

— basic dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) L7 functionality,
— EFC application functions,
— EFC attributes (i.e. EFC application information),

— the addressing procedures of EFC attributes and (hardware) components [e.g. integrated circuit

cards (ICC) and man-machine interfaces (MMI)],

— the EFC transaction model, which defines the common elements and steps of any EFC transaction, and

— the behaviour of the interface so as to support interoperability on an EFC-DSRC application interface

level, see Figure 1.
Figure 1 — The EFC application interface
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
The purpose of this part of ISO/TS 14907 is to define tests that
— assess OBU capabilities,
— assess OBU behaviour,
— serve as a guide for OBU conformance evaluation and type approval,

— achieve comparability between the results of the corresponding tests applied in different places at

different times, and
— facilitate communications between parties.

Whereas, this part of ISO/TS 14907 defines examples of test cases for DSRC and EFC functionality in

Annex C, it does not intend to specify a complete test suite for a certain implementation. To compose a

test suite for a specific EFC implementation, the test cases may have to be modified and new test cases

may have to be defined and added in order for the conformance test to be complete. It can be useful to

take into account the following considerations when defining a complete test suite

— small range: “exhaustive testing” of critical interoperability/compatibility features,

— large range: testing of boundaries and random values, and
— composite types: testing of individual items in sequence or parallel.
Figure 2 shows the overall procedure of conformance testing.
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
Figure 2 — Conformance testing process

Figure 3 gives a more detailed picture of the interface between the entity performing the conformance

test and the supplier of the Device Under Test (DUT). By the EFC application specification, the

implementation conformance statement proforma and the implementation extra information for

testing proforma the supplier is requested to provide the DUT (OBU), containing the Implementation

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)

Under Test (IUT), as well as the documentation needed to perform the tests. More details on the content

of the different documents are given in Clause 5 on OBU and supporting information.

NOTE 1 The Device Under Test contains the Implementation Under Test.
Figure 3 — Documentation DUT supplier
It is outside the scope of this part of ISO/TS 14907 to define tests that assess
— performance,
— robustness, and
— reliability of an implementation.

NOTE 2 ISO/TS 14907-1 defines test procedures that are aimed at assessing performance, robustness and

reliability of EFC equipment and systems.

NOTE 3 The ISO/IEC 10373 series defines test methods for proximity, vicinity, integrated circuit(s) cards and

related devices that may be relevant for OBUs that support such cards.

Annex D provides an informative overview of Japanese OBE conformance tests that are based on the

ISO/TS 14907 series, in order to illustrate how these can be applied in practice.

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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for dedicated

short-range communication

EN 12834:2003, Road transport and traffic telematics — Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) —

DSRC application layer
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
access credentials

trusted attestation or secure module that establishes the claimed identity of an object or application

[SOURCE: EN 15509:2014, 3.1]
3.2
attribute

addressable package of data consisting of a single data element or structured sequences of data element

[SOURCE: ISO 17575-1:—, 3.2]
3.3
authenticator
data, possibly encrypted, that is used for authentication
[SOURCE: EN 15509:2014, 3.3]
3.4
channel
information transfer path
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 7498-2:1989, 3.3.13]
3.5
element
DSRC directory containing application information in the form of attributes
[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.11, modified]
3.6
implementation conformance statement

statement of capabilities and options that have been implemented defining to what extent it is compliant

with a given specification
3.7
implementation conformance statement proforma

document, in the form of a questionnaire, which when completed for an implementation or system

becomes an implementation conformance statement (ICS)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 9646-1:1994, 3.3.40]
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
3.8
implementation extra information for testing

statement containing all of the information related to the implementation under test (IUT) and its

corresponding system under test (SUT) which will enable the testing laboratory to run an appropriate

test suite against that IUT
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19015:2000, 3.20]
3.9
implementation extra information for testing proforma

document, in the form of a questionnaire, which when completed for an implementation under test

(IUT) becomes an implementation extra information for testing (IXIT)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 9646-1:1994, 3.3.42]
3.10
on-board equipment

all required equipment on-board a vehicle for performing required EFC functions and

communication services
3.11
on-board unit

single electronic unit on-board a vehicle for performing specific EFC functions and for communication

with external systems

Note 1 to entry: An OBU always includes, in this context, at least the support of the DSRC interface.

3.12
roadside equipment
equipment located along the road, either fixed or mobile
3.13
service primitive

elementary communication service provided by the application layer protocol to the application processes

[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.18, modified]
3.15
transaction

whole of the exchange of information between two physically separated communication facilities

[SOURCE: ISO 17575-1 :—, 3.21]
3.16
transaction model

functional model describing the general structure of electronic payment transactions

[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.25, modified]
4 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms and variables apply.

AC_CR Access credentials
ACn Acknowledged command/response
ADU Application Data Unit (ISO 14906)
APDU Application Protocol Data Unit (ISO 14906)
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
AP Application Process (ISO 14906)
ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
AVI Automatic Vehicle Identification
BST Beacon Service Table (ISO 14906)
cf Confirm
DSRC Dedicated Short-Range Communication
DUT Device Under Test
EID Element Identifier
EFC Electronic Fee Collection (ISO 17573)
FTP File Transfer Protocol
ICS Implementation Conformance Statement
I-Kernel Initialization Kernel
IID Invoker Identifier
ind Indication
IUT Implementation Under Test
IXIT Implementation eXtra Information for Testing
L1 Layer 1 of DSRC (physical layer)
L2 Layer 2 of DSRC (data link layer)
L7 Application Layer Core of DSRC
LID Logical Link Control Identifier
LLC Logical Link Control
LPDU LLC Protocol Data Unit
LSDU Link Layer Service Data Unit (EN 12795)
M ManufacturerID (EN 12834)
MAC Medium Access Control
MMI Man-Machine Interface
n.a. Not applicable
NE_OK Command accepted/Response LSDU not yet available (EN 12795)
OBE On-board equipment
OBU On-board unit
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
ORSE Organization for Road System Enhancement
P Profile, example P denotes Profile 0.
a,b,c,d 0
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PoC Point of Control
PoO Point of Observation
PPDU Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit
PrWA Private Window Allocation (EN 12795)
PrWRq Private Window Request (EN 12795)
req Request
rs Response
RSE Roadside Equipment
SAM Secure Application Module
T-APDU Transfer-Application Protocol Data Unit
T-ASDU Transfer-Application Service Data Unit
T-Kernel Transfer Kernel
TTI Traffic and Traveller Information
VST Vehicle Service Table
5 OBU and supporting information

The supplier shall provide the OBU, i.e. the DUT, and the associated information, including:

— OBUs personalized to be able to perform tests according to the ICS and IXIT as defined in 5.1 and

5.2, respectively. At least five samples shall be submitted for test. More samples may be needed if

several different data structures and data contents are required in the tests;

— user’s manual for the OBU, which shall include instructions how to handle the equipment, and may

include further detailed information about the protocol functions;

— implementation conformance statement according to 5.1. The ICS shall include statements regarding

the following:
— layer 7 services that are implemented in the OBU;
— EFC functions (action types) that are implemented in the OBU;
— whether or not data elements are used;

— implementation extra information for testing according to 5.2. The IXIT shall, if applicable, include:

— a statement regarding which layer 2 services shall be used to transfer the L7 services (and

EFC services);

— a description of security calculations in the OBU including a specification of the encryption

algorithm used;
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)

— values of the test Master Keys for calculation and verification of OBU security data such as

authenticators and access credentials.

The supplier should also provide configuration/personalization equipment for the OBU if that ensures

effective testing.
5.1 ICS

The ICS is a statement made by the supplier that claims conformance to a certain specification. The ICS

states which capabilities have been implemented in the specifications. It also states possible limitations

in the implementation of the specification.

This Technical Specification describes testing of implementations according to the following standards:

— EN 12834;
— ISO 14906.
Annex A contains the ICS proforma that shall be used for the ICS.
5.2 IXIT

The IXIT is a statement made by the supplier or an implementer of an IUT which contains or references

all of the information, in addition to that given in the implementation conformance statement, related

to the DUT and its testing environment. The IXIT enables the test laboratory to run an appropriate test

suite against the DUT.

In this Technical Specification, the IXIT specifies the services in the lower communication layers that

shall be used to perform the services to be tested. These services are described e.g. in EN 12795,

EN 12253 and EN 13372.

The IXIT shall also contain further information and describe algorithms and procedures that are

not specified in the above standards but are prerequisites to perform the testing. Examples of such

information are
— content of the ApplicationContextMark in the VST,
— calculation of access credentials in DSRC services,
— use of returnCode in DSRC L7 services and EFC functions, and
— calculation of authenticators in EFC functions.

Annex B contains the IXIT proforma that shall be used for the declaration of the IXIT.

6 Testing requirements
6.1 Conceptual test architecture

A remote test method shall be used for the conformance test of OBUs (DUT). Figure 4 shows the

conceptual testing architecture of tester and DUT. The conformance test is only related to the

implementation of the DUT.

The PoC, which is the point where the test events are controlled, shall be implemented inside the tester

on the interface between the application layer and the application process.

The PoO, which is the point where the occurrence of test events is to be observed, shall be implemented

inside the tester on the interface between the application layer and the application process. The PoO

must also interface the data link layer since some tests require observation of the behaviour on this layer.

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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)

The PoC and PoO are characterized by a set of ASPs, according to the specifications of the tests. The test

events observed at the PoO may be supplemented by information provided by other sub-units, e.g. MMI

or an IC card if available with the DUT.
Figure 4 — Conceptual architecture of the conformance test
6.2 Conformance test system

The conformance tests shall be performed under controlled conditions by using a test system

according to Figure 5.
Figure 5 — Test facilities
6.2.1 Functionality of tester
6.2.1.1 Reference beacon

The beacon shall be a transparent physical layer interface for DSRC according to European or

International Standards, which means, it shall be able to operate standardized data profiles of DSRC

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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)

links. A simple beacon may be used which will only send and receive frames to or from the DUT. The

communication is controlled by the application and data link process of the tester.

Beacon parameters, e.g. the transmitting power, shall be adjustable by the tester.

6.2.1.2 Application and data link process

The tester shall be able to operate the communication link in real time according to data link layer

functionality of European or International Standards. The process shall provide the connection to

the test control and observation process and shall control the sending and reception of frames to and

from the beacon.
6.2.1.3 Test control and observation processes

The test control and observation processes shall be implemented on an appropriately equipped

computer system. The processes shall comply with the definitions of the application and data link layers

defined by European or International Standards and shall be able to generate test suites in reference to

ISO 14906. The control process shall provide functionality to configure the test-bed, to generate test

suites and to perform test suites.

EXAMPLE Test suites may be generated in plain ASCII format and may be retrieved by the real-time control

process via FTP.

While the tests are being performed, all events shall be observed by the PoO process. All results shall

be documented, visualized and be made available for detailed analysis.
6.2.2 Conformance testing

The tests performed by the tester shall be able to concentrate on EFC-communication protocol

aspects, which are:
— initialization phase (BST-VST exchange);
— application layer services according to EN 12834;
— EFC functions and services according to ISO 14906;
— EFC data and parameters used according to ISO 14906; and
— transaction phase (logical sequence).

The DUT shall be operated in a controlled environment according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

All test suites shall be generated corresponding to the specification of the manufacturer, which shall

describe the behaviour of the DUT in terms of expected messages from the beacon and intended answers

from the DUT. The communication sequence shall be unambiguously defined. The test generation tool

shall be able to check the messages against the European or International DSRC standards. All events of

a DUT are stored by the tester.

The test suites generated shall strictly correspond to the European or International DSRC standards

and to ISO 14906.

The results of the tests shall only be related to the IUT of the DUT. Only the correctness of the

implementation shall be tested, and any assessment of performance, robustness or reliability is

excluded. The results of the tests shall be able to provide confidence that the DUT works according to

ICS, the underlying DSRC standards and to ISO 14906, within the scope of the performed tests.

6.3 Test documentation

The test documentation shall provide comprehensive information of the used tester, the DUT, the tests

carried out, and the gathered test results.
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
6.3.1 Tester

All relevant information and specifications of the used tester shall be documented in the test report.

The ICS and the IXIT shall be provided by the manufacturer or supplier of the DUT. The ICS and IXIT shall

describe all the capabilities and limitations of the DUT according to Annex A and Annex B, respectively.

6.3.2 Test methods and test cases

A test suite is required which covers all implemented and specified functions of the DUT to be tested

based on the provided ICS and IXIT. Completeness and correctness of the test suite is required to verify

conformity between IUT and specification, including the referenced standards.

The test suite is separated in test groups; each test group consists of a number of test cases. The tester

shall provide a tool which enables the user to specify the test suite and which provides documentation

of the test suite.

The user-defined test suite should be automatically translated in a computer form which is executable

by the tester.
6.3.3 Test results

Each test case carried out shall be documented by the test generation equipment. For each test case,

a verdict shall be given: passed, inconclusive or failed. The results of all test cases shall form the

conformance test report.
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
Annex A
(normative)
Implementation conformance statement proforma
A.1 Overview

The forms in this Annex shall be completed by the supplier of the DUT (OBU) to state conformance to

applicable parts in EN 12834 (DSRC L7 standard) and ISO 14906.

When the forms are completed (i.e. Tables A.1 to A.44), this Annex will form the ICS that shall be

submitted to the test laboratory before start of the tests.
A.2 Identification of OBU supplier
Table A.1 — Identification of OBU supplier form
Company
Postal address
Telephone
Contact person
E-mail address
A.3 Identification of OBU
Table A.2 — Identification of OBU form
Brand
Type, Version
Manufacturer ID
Equipment Class
Serial numbers of supplied units
A.4 DSRC application layer implementation
A.4.1 Declaration of application layer features

EN 12834:2003 (DSRC L7) implemented functionality shall be declared by completing Table A.3.

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ISO/TS 14907-2:2015(E)
Table A.3 — EN 12834 functionality
Implemented Restrictions or other
Feature(s) Status
Yes/No/n.a. comments
T-KE Fragmentation/defragmentation optional/mand.
Concatenation/deconcatenation optional/mand.
Multiplexing/demultiplexing optional/mand.
Fragmentation 1 octet mand.
header
2 octets optional/mand.
3 octets optional/mand.
Service GET optional
Primitives
SET option
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 14907-2
Third edition
Electronic fee collection — Test
procedures for user and fixed
equipment —
Part 2:
Conformance test for the on-board
unit application interface
Perception du télépéage — Modes opératoires relatifs aux
équipements embarqués et aux équipements fixes —
Partie 2: Essai de conformité de l’interface d’application de l’unité
embarquée
Reference number
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5 OBU and supporting information ....................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 ICS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 IXIT .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Testing requirements ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 Conceptual test architecture ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Conformance test system ............................................................................................................................................................10

6.2.1 Functionality of tester ..............................................................................................................................................10

6.2.2 Conformance testing ........................................................................................................................................... .......11

6.3 Test documentation .........................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.1 Tester ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.3.2 Test methods and test cases ................................................................................................................................12

6.3.3 Test results .........................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (normative) Implementation conformance statement proforma ...............................................................13

Annex B (normative) Implementation of extra information for testing (IXIT) proforma .........................26

Annex C (informative) OBU test cases ..............................................................................................................................................................30

Annex D (informative) OBE conformance test procedures conducted in Japan ...................................................68

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................73

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO/TS 14907-2:2011), which has been

technically revised with the following changes:

— updated references to clauses and annexes in accordance with ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015;

— updated Annex D to reflect current situation in Japan.

ISO/TS 14907 consists of the following parts, under the general title Electronic fee collection — Test

procedures for user and fixed equipment:
— Part 1: Description of test procedures
— Part 2: Conformance test for the on-board unit application interface
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO/TS 14907 describes tests that verify on-board unit (OBU) conformance of

implementations of functions and data structures for electronic fee collection (EFC) applications.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
Electronic fee collection — Test procedures for user and
fixed equipment —
Part 2:
Conformance test for the on-board unit application interface
1 Scope

This part of ISO/TS 14907 describes tests that verify on-board unit (OBU) conformance of

implementations of functions and data structures, as defined in the implementation conformance

statement based on ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015, for electronic fee collection (EFC) applications. After

the tests of isolated data items and functions (C.2 to C.3), an example is given for testing of a complete

EFC transaction (C.4).

The scope of this part of ISO/TS 14907 comprises definitions of OBU conformance assessment tests of

— basic dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) L7 functionality,
— EFC application functions,
— EFC attributes (i.e. EFC application information),

— the addressing procedures of EFC attributes and (hardware) components [e.g. integrated circuit

cards (ICC) and man-machine interfaces (MMI)],

— the EFC transaction model, which defines the common elements and steps of any EFC transaction, and

— the behaviour of the interface so as to support interoperability on an EFC-DSRC application interface

level, see Figure 1.
Figure 1 — The EFC application interface
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 14907-2:2016(E)
The purpose of this part of ISO/TS 14907 is to define tests that
— assess OBU capabilities,
— assess OBU behaviour,
— serve as a guide for OBU conformance evaluation and type approval,

— achieve comparability between the results of the corresponding tests applied in different places at

different times, and
— facilitate communications between parties.

Whereas, this part of ISO/TS 14907 defines examples of test cases for DSRC and EFC functionality in

Annex C, it does not intend to specify a complete test suite for a certain implementation. To compose a

test suite for a specific EFC implementation, the test cases may have to be modified and new test cases

may have to be defined and added in order for the conformance test to be complete. It can be useful to

take into account the following considerations when defining a complete test suite

— small range: “exhaustive testing” of critical interoperability/compatibility features,

— large range: testing of boundaries and random values, and
— composite types: testing of individual items in sequence or parallel.
Figure 2 shows the overall procedure of conformance testing.
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Figure 2 — Conformance testing process

Figure 3 gives a more detailed picture of the interface between the entity performing the conformance

test and the supplier of the Device Under Test (DUT). By the EFC application specification, the

implementation conformance statement proforma and the implementation extra information for

testing proforma the supplier is requested to provide the DUT (OBU), containing the Implementation

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Under Test (IUT), as well as the documentation needed to perform the tests. More details on the content

of the different documents are given in Clause 5 on OBU and supporting information.

NOTE 1 The Device Under Test contains the Implementation Under Test.
Figure 3 — Documentation DUT supplier
It is outside the scope of this part of ISO/TS 14907 to define tests that assess
— performance,
— robustness, and
— reliability of an implementation.

NOTE 2 ISO/TS 14907-1 defines test procedures that are aimed at assessing performance, robustness and

reliability of EFC equipment and systems.

NOTE 3 The ISO/IEC 10373 series defines test methods for proximity, vicinity, integrated circuit(s) cards and

related devices that may be relevant for OBUs that support such cards.

Annex D provides an informative overview of Japanese OBE conformance tests that are based on the

ISO/TS 14907 series, in order to illustrate how these can be applied in practice.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

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ISO 14906:2011/Amd1:2015, Electronic fee collection — Application interface definition for dedicated

short-range communication

EN 12834:2003, Road transport and traffic telematics — Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) —

DSRC application layer
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
access credentials

trusted attestation or secure module that establishes the claimed identity of an object or application

[SOURCE: EN 15509:2014, 3.1]
3.2
attribute

addressable package of data consisting of a single data element or structured sequences of data element

[SOURCE: ISO 17575-1:—, 3.2]
3.3
authenticator
data, possibly encrypted, that is used for authentication
[SOURCE: EN 15509:2014, 3.3]
3.4
channel
information transfer path
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 7498-2:1989, 3.3.13]
3.5
element
DSRC directory containing application information in the form of attributes
[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.11, modified]
3.6
implementation conformance statement

statement of capabilities and options that have been implemented defining to what extent it is compliant

with a given specification
3.7
implementation conformance statement proforma

document, in the form of a questionnaire, which when completed for an implementation or system

becomes an implementation conformance statement (ICS)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 9646-1:1994, 3.3.40]
3.8
implementation extra information for testing

statement containing all of the information related to the implementation under test (IUT) and its

corresponding system under test (SUT) which will enable the testing laboratory to run an appropriate

test suite against that IUT
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 19015:2000, 3.20]
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3.9
implementation extra information for testing proforma

document, in the form of a questionnaire, which when completed for an implementation under test

(IUT) becomes an implementation extra information for testing (IXIT)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 9646-1:1994, 3.3.42]
3.10
on-board equipment

all required equipment on-board a vehicle for performing required EFC functions and

communication services
3.11
on-board unit

single electronic unit on-board a vehicle for performing specific EFC functions and for communication

with external systems

Note 1 to entry: An OBU always includes, in this context, at least the support of the DSRC interface.

3.12
roadside equipment
equipment located along the road, either fixed or mobile
3.13
service primitive

elementary communication service provided by the application layer protocol to the application processes

[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.18, modified]
3.14
transaction

whole of the exchange of information between two physically separated communication facilities

[SOURCE: ISO 17575-1 :—, 3.21]
3.15
transaction model

functional model describing the general structure of electronic payment transactions

[SOURCE: ISO 14906:2011, 3.25, modified]
4 Abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviated terms and variables apply.

AC_CR Access credentials
ACn Acknowledged command/response
ADU Application Data Unit (ISO 14906)
APDU Application Protocol Data Unit (ISO 14906)
AP Application Process (ISO 14906)
ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
AVI Automatic Vehicle Identification
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BST Beacon Service Table (ISO 14906)
cf Confirm
DSRC Dedicated Short-Range Communication
DUT Device Under Test
EID Element Identifier
EFC Electronic Fee Collection (ISO 17573)
FTP File Transfer Protocol
ICS Implementation Conformance Statement
I-Kernel Initialization Kernel
IID Invoker Identifier
ind Indication
IUT Implementation Under Test
IXIT Implementation eXtra Information for Testing
L1 Layer 1 of DSRC (physical layer)
L2 Layer 2 of DSRC (data link layer)
L7 Application Layer Core of DSRC
LID Logical Link Control Identifier
LLC Logical Link Control
LPDU LLC Protocol Data Unit
LSDU Link Layer Service Data Unit (EN 12795)
M ManufacturerID (EN 12834)
MAC Medium Access Control
MMI Man-Machine Interface
n.a. Not applicable
NE_OK Command accepted/Response LSDU not yet available (EN 12795)
OBE On-board equipment
OBU On-board unit
ORSE Organization for Road System Enhancement
P Profile, example P denotes Profile 0.
a,b,c,d 0
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PoC Point of Control
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PoO Point of Observation
PPDU Physical Layer Protocol Data Unit
PrWA Private Window Allocation (EN 12795)
PrWRq Private Window Request (EN 12795)
req Request
rs Response
RSE Roadside Equipment
SAM Secure Application Module
T-APDU Transfer-Application Protocol Data Unit
T-ASDU Transfer-Application Service Data Unit
T-Kernel Transfer Kernel
TTI Traffic and Traveller Information
VST Vehicle Service Table
5 OBU and supporting information

The supplier shall provide the OBU, i.e. the DUT, and the associated information, including:

— OBUs personalized to be able to perform tests according to the ICS and IXIT as defined in 5.1 and

5.2, respectively. At least five samples shall be submitted for test. More samples may be needed if

several different data structures and data contents are required in the tests;

— user’s manual for the OBU, which shall include instructions how to handle the equipment, and may

include further detailed information about the protocol functions;

— implementation conformance statement according to 5.1. The ICS shall include statements regarding

the following:
— layer 7 services that are implemented in the OBU;
— EFC functions (action types) that are implemented in the OBU;
— whether or not data elements are used;

— implementation extra information for testing according to 5.2. The IXIT shall, if applicable, include:

— a statement regarding which layer 2 services shall be used to transfer the L7 services (and

EFC services);

— a description of security calculations in the OBU including a specification of the encryption

algorithm used;

— values of the test Master Keys for calculation and verification of OBU security data such as

authenticators and access credentials.

The supplier should also provide configuration/personalization equipment for the OBU if that ensures

effective testing.
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5.1 ICS

The ICS is a statement made by the supplier that claims conformance to a certain specification. The ICS

states which capabilities have been implemented in the specifications. It also states possible limitations

in the implementation of the specification.

This Technical Specification describes testing of implementations according to the following standards:

— EN 12834;
— ISO 14906.
Annex A contains the ICS proforma that shall be used for the ICS.
5.2 IXIT

The IXIT is a statement made by the supplier or an implementer of an IUT which contains or references

all of the information, in addition to that given in the implementation conformance statement, related

to the DUT and its testing environment. The IXIT enables the test laboratory to run an appropriate test

suite against the DUT.

In this Technical Specification, the IXIT specifies the services in the lower communication layers that

shall be used to perform the services to be tested. These services are described e.g. in EN 12795,

EN 12253 and EN 13372.

The IXIT shall also contain further information and describe algorithms and procedures that are

not specified in the above standards but are prerequisites to perform the testing. Examples of such

information are
— content of the ApplicationContextMark in the VST,
— calculation of access credentials in DSRC services,
— use of returnCode in DSRC L7 services and EFC functions, and
— calculation of authenticators in EFC functions.

Annex B contains the IXIT proforma that shall be used for the declaration of the IXIT.

6 Testing requirements
6.1 Conceptual test architecture

A remote test method shall be used for the conformance test of OBUs (DUT). Figure 4 shows the

conceptual testing architecture of tester and DUT. The conformance test is only related to the

implementation of the DUT.

The PoC, which is the point where the test events are controlled, shall be implemented inside the tester

on the interface between the application layer and the application process.

The PoO, which is the point where the occurrence of test events is to be observed, shall be implemented

inside the tester on the interface between the application layer and the application process. The PoO

must also interface the data link layer since some tests require observation of the behaviour on this layer.

The PoC and PoO are characterized by a set of ASPs, according to the specifications of the tests. The test

events observed at the PoO may be supplemented by information provided by other sub-units, e.g. MMI

or an IC card if available with the DUT.
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Figure 4 — Conceptual architecture of the conformance test
6.2 Conformance test system

The conformance tests shall be performed under controlled conditions by using a test system

according to Figure 5.
Figure 5 — Test facilities
6.2.1 Functionality of tester
6.2.1.1 Reference beacon

The beacon shall be a transparent physical layer interface for DSRC according to European or

International Standards, which means, it shall be able to operate standardized data profiles of DSRC

links. A simple beacon may be used which will only send and receive frames to or from the DUT. The

communication is controlled by the application and data link process of the tester.

Beacon parameters, e.g. the transmitting power, shall be adjustable by the tester.

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6.2.1.2 Application and data link process

The tester shall be able to operate the communication link in real time according to data link layer

functionality of European or International Standards. The process shall provide the connection to

the test control and observation process and shall control the sending and reception of frames to and

from the beacon.
6.2.1.3 Test control and observation processes

The test control and observation processes shall be implemented on an appropriately equipped

computer system. The processes shall comply with the definitions of the application and data link layers

defined by European or International Standards and shall be able to generate test suites in reference to

ISO 14906. The control process shall provide functionality to configure the test-bed, to generate test

suites and to perform test suites.

EXAMPLE Test suites may be generated in plain ASCII format and may be retrieved by the real-time control

process via FTP.

While the tests are being performed, all events shall be observed by the PoO process. All results shall

be documented, visualized and be made available for detailed analysis.
6.2.2 Conformance testing

The tests performed by the tester shall be able to concentrate on EFC-communication protocol

aspects, which are:
— initialization phase (BST-VST exchange);
— application layer services according to EN 12834;
— EFC functions and services according to ISO 14906;
— EFC data and parameters used according to ISO 14906; and
— transaction phase (logical sequence).

The DUT shall be operated in a controlled environment according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

All test suites shall be generated corresponding to the specification of the manufacturer, which shall

describe the behaviour of the DUT in terms of expected messages from the beacon and intended answers

from the DUT. The communication sequence shall be unambiguously defined. The test generation tool

shall be able to check the messages against the European or International DSRC standards. All events of

a DUT are stored by the tester.

The test suites generated shall strictly correspond to the European or International DSRC standards

and to ISO 14906.

The results of the tests shall only be related to the IUT of the DUT. Only the correctness of the

implementation shall be tested, and any assessment of performance, robustness or reliability is

excluded. The results of the tests shall be able to provide confidence that the DUT works according to

ICS, the underlying DSRC standards and to ISO 14906, within the scope of the performed tests.

6.3 Test documentation

The test documentation shall provide comprehensive information of the used tester, the DUT, the tests

carried out, and the gathered test results.
6.3.1 Tester

All relevant information and specifications of the used tester shall be documented in the test report.

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The ICS and the IXIT shall be provided by the manufacturer or supplier of the DUT. The ICS and IXIT shall

describe all the capabilities and limitations of the DUT according to Annex A and Annex B, respectively.

6.3.2 Test methods and test cases

A test suite is required which covers all implemented and specified functions of the DUT to be tested

based on the provided ICS and IXIT. Completeness and correctness of the test suite is required to verify

conformity between IUT and specification, including the referenced standards.

The test suite is separated in test groups; each test group consists of a number of test cases. The tester

shall provide a tool which enables the user to specify the test suite and which provides documentation

of the test suite.

The user-defined test suite should be automatically translated in a computer form which is executable

by the tester.
6.3.3 Test results

Each test case carried out shall be documented by the test generation equipment. For each test case,

a verdict shall be given: passed, inconclusive or failed. The results of all test cases shall form the

conformance test report.
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Annex A
(normative)
Implementation conformance statement proforma
A.1 Overview

The forms in this Annex shall be completed by the supplier of the DUT (OBU) to state conformance to

applicable parts in EN 12834 (DSRC L7 standard) and ISO 14906.

When the forms are completed (i.e. Tables A.1 to A.44), this Annex will form the ICS that shall be

submitted to the test laboratory before start of the tests.
A.2 Identification of OBU supplier
Table A.1 — Identification of OBU supplier form
Company
Postal address
Telephone
Contact person
E-mail address
A.3 Identification of OBU
Table A.2 — Identification of OBU form
Brand
Type, Version
Manufacturer ID
Equipment Class
Serial numbers of supplied units
A.4 DSRC application layer implementation
A.4.1 Declaration of application layer features

EN 12834:2003 (DSRC L7) implemented functionality shall be declared by completing Table A.3.

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Table A.3 — EN 12834 functionality
Implemented Restrictions or other
Feature(s) Status
Yes/No/n.a. comments
T-KE Fragmentation/defragmentation optional/mand.
Concatenation/deconcatenation optional/mand.
Multiplexing/demultiplexing optional/mand.
Fragmentation 1 octet mand.
header
2 octets optional/mand.
3 octets optional/mand.
Service GET optional
Primitives
SET optional
ACTION optional
EVENT-REPORT mand.
INITIALIZATION mand.
I-KE optional/mand.
Timer T (second) 255/0-255
LID for INITIALIZATION.req broadcast/
private
NOTE “/” means selecting any number or feature; “n.a.” means “not applicable”.
A.4.2 Detailed L7 services statement

For each implemented L7 service according to EN 12834:2003, the corresponding table below shall be

completed (i.e. Tables A.4 to A.11). The information is used to control the tests of the service.

A.4.2.1 INITIALIZATION
Table A.4 — INITIALIZATION.req, BST
Data Element Data Type Used/Not used, Restrictions
rsu BeaconID
time Time
profile Profile
mandApplications ApplicationList
nonmandApplications ApplicationList, OPTIONAL
profileList SEQUENCE (SIZE (0..127,...)) OF Profile
Table A.5 — INITIALIZATION.rs, VST
Data Element Data Type Used/Not used, Restrictio
...

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