Solid mineral fuels -- Vocabulary

ISO 1213-2:2016 defines terms commonly employed in the sampling, testing and analysis of solid mineral fuels. Alternative names are given for several terms. In some cases, however, the use of the alternative name is deprecated (as indicated). An alphabetical index, with numerical cross reference is provided.

Combustibles minéraux solides -- Vocabulaire

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05-Dec-2016
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9020 - International Standard under periodical review
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 1213-2
Second edition
2016-12-15
Solid mineral fuels — Vocabulary —
Part 2:
Terms relating to sampling, testing
and analysis
Combustibles minéraux solides — Vocabulaire —
Partie 2: Termes relatifs à l’échantillonnage, l’essai et l’analyse
Reference number
ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................28

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 27, Solid mineral fuels, Subcommittee SC 1, Coal

preparation: Terminology and performance.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 1213-2:1992), which has been technically

revised.
A list of all parts in the ISO 1213 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
Solid mineral fuels — Vocabulary —
Part 2:
Terms relating to sampling, testing and analysis
1 Scope

This document defines terms commonly employed in the sampling, testing and analysis of solid

mineral fuels.

Alternative names are given for several terms. In some cases, however, the use of the alternative name

is deprecated (as indicated).
An alphabetical index, with numerical cross reference is provided.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
abrasion

loss of material from particle surfaces of a solid mineral fuel, or from other surfaces in contact with the

particles, caused by friction between contacting surfaces
3.2
abrasion index

total mass lost by the abrasion (3.1) of four carbon steel blades when rotated in a specified mass of a

solid mineral fuel under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Expressed in milligrams of metal lost per kilogram of solid mineral fuel.

3.3
abrasion value

resistance to abrasion (3.1) of the coke (3.42) after reaction with carbon dioxide in the CRI test, measured

as the percentage of a sample passing through a 0,5 mm sieve after tumbling under conditions specified

3.4
adiabatic calorimeter

calorimeter that adjusts its jacket temperature constantly to be identical to bomb temperature, thereby

preventing heat losses

Note 1 to entry: The inner calorimeter chamber and the jacket exchange no energy because the water temperature

in both is identical during the test. The water in the external jacket is heated or cooled to match the temperature

change in the calorimeter proper.
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
3.5
accuracy
closeness of agreement between an observation and the “true” value

Note 1 to entry: The accuracy of a result should not be confused with its precision. A result may be precise but it

is only accurate when it is free of bias (3.18).
3.6
adventitious ash
DEPRECATED: extraneous ash

ash arising from mineral matter (3.136) associated with, but not inherent in, a solid mineral fuel

3.7
air-dried basis

means of expressing an analytical result based on the condition in which a solid mineral fuel is in

equilibrium with atmospheric humidity
3.8
air-drying

process of bringing the moisture content of the sample near to equilibrium with the atmosphere, in the

area in which further reduction of the sample are to take place

Note 1 to entry: The solid mineral fuel in this state is composed of absorbed moisture, mineral matter and

organic matter.
3.9
anthracite

coal (3.39) of high rank (3.174), with a low volatile matter (3.239) content and a semi-metallic lustre,

and which does not soften or swell when heated
3.10
apparent relative density

ratio of the mass of a fuel (lump sample) to the mass of an equal volume of water (at the same

temperature), inclusive of any voids within the fuel subjected to the test

Note 1 to entry: The apparent relative density should not be confused with the bulk density (3.25).

3.11
ash

residue obtained by incineration of a solid mineral fuel under specified conditions

3.12
ash analysis
analysis of ash (3.11) for its elemental composition

Note 1 to entry: The elements usually determined are silicon, aluminium, iron, magnesium, manganese, titanium,

calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and sulfur, and these are usually expressed as oxides.

3.13
ash fusibility

characteristic physical state of the ash (3.11) obtained by heating under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Ash fusibility is determined under either oxidizing or reducing atmosphere (3.176) conditions.

Note 2 to entry: See also deformation temperature, sphere temperature (3.215), hemisphere temperature (3.98)

and flow temperature (3.75).
3.14
ash viscosity
measure of the resistance to flow of ash (3.11) in the fused state
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
3.15
as received basis
as sampled basis

means of expressing an analytical result based on the condition where total moisture (3.232) is included

3.16
base/acid ratio

ratio of the mass of basic oxides (iron(III) oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, disodium oxide and

dipotassium oxide) to the mass of acidic oxides (silica, aluminium oxide and titanium (IV) oxide) in

ash (3.11)

Note 1 to entry: This ratio can be used in the determination of the fouling factor (3.81) and the slagging factor.

3.17
batch

quantity of a solid mineral fuel produced at one time under relatively uniform conditions

3.18
bias

systematic error (3.68) which leads to the average value of a series of results being persistently higher

or persistently lower than those obtained using a reference sampling method

Note 1 to entry: Bias is the total systematic error as contrasted to random error. There may be one or more

systematic error components contributing to the bias. A larger systematic difference from the accepted reference

value is reflected by a larger bias value.
3.19
bias of scale
bias (3.18) that is constant and independent of the range of values measured
3.20
bituminous coal

general descriptive term for coal (3.39) of rank (3.174) between anthracite (3.9) and brown coal and

lignite (3.24)

Note 1 to entry: The vitrinites in all coals in the bituminous range melt and form a coke when the coal is heated

above 400 °C in the absence of air.

Note 2 to entry: In some countries, coals of rank immediately below that of bituminous coal are referred to as

sub-bituminous coals.
3.21
blast furnace coke
strong, large coke (3.116) for use in blast furnaces

Note 1 to entry: Blast furnace coke is generally produced from blends of bituminous coals (3.20), which may

incorporate additives.

Note 2 to entry: Blast furnace coke usually has a low reactivity to carbon dioxide.

3.22
breakage
particle size reduction (3.155) resulting from impact and/or compression
3.23
breeze
undersize after separating the smallest size of graded coke (3.91)
Note 1 to entry: Breeze is usually less than 10 mm in size.
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
3.24
brown coal and lignite

coals (3.39) of low rank (3.174) characterized by high inherent moisture, high volatile matter (3.239)

and low calorific value

Note 1 to entry: In some countries, the terms are used to describe all low-rank coals up to bituminous coals (3.20).

In other countries, the coals at the higher end of the range are referred to as sub-bituminous coals.

3.25
bulk density

mass of a portion of a solid mineral fuel divided by the volume of the container which is filled by that

portion under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Bulk density values can have range and may depend on previous handling, time and weather.

The values on stockpiles can also vary from loose free fall situations to compacted filled by that portion under

specified conditions.
3.26
bulk sample

sample of large mass, taken in a particular operation for a specific reason such as for float sink

analysis (3.78)
3.27
caking of coal

property of coal (3.39) when heating without access of air to a plastic condition with formation of the

connected non-volatile residue
3.28
caking index

measure of the caking power of a coal in terms of the mechanical strength (3.132) of the coke (3.42)

obtained by carbonization, under specified conditions, of an intimate mixture of the coal (3.39) and

standard anthracite (3.9)
3.29
calorific value gross at constant volume

absolute value of the specific energy of combustion, in joules, for unit mass of a solid fuel burned in

oxygen in a calorimetric bomb under the conditions specified

Note 1 to entry: The products of combustion are assumed to consist of gaseous oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide

and sulfur dioxide, of liquid water (in equilibrium with its vapour) saturated with carbon dioxide under the

conditions of the bomb reaction, and of solid ash, all at the reference temperature.

Note 2 to entry: Equipment such as Adiabatic and or Isothermal bomb calorimeters are used to determine

this result.
3.30
calorific value net at constant volume

absolute value of the specific energy of combustion, in joules, for unit mass of the fuel burned in oxygen

under conditions of constant volume and such that all the water of the reaction remains as water vapour

(in a hypothetical state at 0,1 Mpa), the other products being as for the gross calorific value all at the

reference temperature

Note 1 to entry: The net calorific value at constant volume is the negative value of the net specific energy of

combustion.
3.31
calorific value net at constant pressure

absolute value of the specific heat (enthalpy) of combustion in joules, for unit mass of the fuel burned in

oxygen at constant pressure under such conditions that all the water of the reaction products remains

as water vapour (at 0,1 Mpa), the other products being as for the gross calorific value, all at the reference

temperature
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
3.32
carbominerite
collective term for inter growths of minerals and macerals (3.121)

Note 1 to entry: The various types of carbominerite with their compositions are given in Table 1.

Table 1 — Types and compositions of carbominerite
Type Volume percentage of minerals
Carbargilite 20 to 60, clay minerals
Carbopyrite 5 to 20, sulfides
Carbankerite 20 to 60, carbonates
Carbosilicite 20 to 60, quartz
Carbopolyminerite 20 to 60, various minerals
The term is used also for carbopolyminerite containing a maximum
of 5 % of mineral matter, provided that sulfides form a substantial part of
the mineral matter.
3.33
carbon in mineral matter
carbon in the mineral matter carbonates of a solid mineral fuel
3.34
carboxyreactivity

rate of reaction of a solid mineral fuel with carbon dioxide under specified conditions

3.35
channel sample

sample of raw coal (3.39) and associated inorganic material taken by removing a channel of even cross-

section from the seam

Note 1 to entry: Where the full section of the seam is not accessible or not required, this term may refer to a

sample taken either from a specifically defined portion of the seam, or from the floor to roof as mined or exposed.

3.36
char

solid, partially or non-agglomerated carbonaceous material produced by the pyrolysis of solid

mineral fuels
3.37
chute
inclined trough for conveying solid mineral fuel to a lower level
3.38
clinkering

aggregation of particles of ash (3.11) after it has melted during the course of combustion of a solid

mineral fuel or during gasification

Note 1 to entry: The aggregated particles may include small amounts of unburnt solid mineral fuel.

3.39
coal

combustible sedimentary rock formed from altered plant remains consolidated under superimposed

strata

Note 1 to entry: The characteristics of different coals are due to differences in source plant material, in

the conditions and the degree of change that the material has undergone in its geological history, and in the

range of impurities present. Coals can be characterized macroscopically by their lithotype composition and

microscopically by their maceral and microlithotype (3.123) compositions.
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
3.40
coalification

process by which accumulated plant matter is compacted and transformed into coal (3.39)

3.41
coefficient of variation

standard deviation (3.216), expressed as a percentage of the absolute value of the arithmetic mean

CV =×100%
where CV is normally denoted as v.
3.42
coke

solid, agglomerated carbonaceous residue produced by the pyrolysis of coal (3.39) in the absence of air

3.43
coke reactivity index
CRI

percentage weight loss of coke (3.42) after reaction with carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide under

specified conditions
3.44
coke strength after reaction
CSR

strength of coke (3.42) after reaction with carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the CRI test,

measured as the percentage retained on either a 10,0 mm or a 9,5 mm sieve after tumbling under

specified conditions
3.45
combustible matter

theoretical state of a solid mineral fuel without moisture and mineral matter (3.136) other than pyritic

sulfur (3.170) and sulfidic sulfur
3.46
combustible sulfur

sulfur which reacts with oxygen when a solid mineral fuel is burnt under specified controlled conditions

Note 1 to entry: Most of the reacted sulfur reports as SO in the chimney gas, but under certain conditions, some

of the sulfur is captured by alkaline minerals in the ash
3.47
common sample
sample collected for more than one intended use
3.48
complete seam profile sample for each bench

collective designation of the coal samples taken separately from each coal bench and band of the tested

seam or a part of it which is a section of a thick seam
3.49
constant mass division

method of increment or sample division (3.194) in which the portions retained from individual

increments (3.106), partial samples (3.153) or gross samples (3.94) are of uniform mass

3.50
continuous sampling

taking of a sample from each consecutive sub-lot (3.221) so that increments (3.106) are taken at uniform

intervals whenever the fuel is handled at the point of sampling
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3.51
correlation coefficient
measure of the degree of correlation between the members of paired sets
3.52
core sample

cylindrical sample of the whole or part of a coal seam obtained from drilling using a coring barrel

Note 1 to entry: The diameter of the core may vary from 50 mm to 1000 mm depending on the reason for which

the sample is required. However, 50 mm to 200 mm is the most common core diameter range.

3.53
crucible swelling number
CSN

number which defines, by reference to a series of standard profiles, the size and shape of the residue

obtained when a specified mass of coal (3.39) is heated in a covered crucible under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: ASTM Standards use the term free swelling index (FSI) for this test.

3.54
crush (verb)

action of reducing the particle size of a sample to produce particles at the required nominal top size

(3.144) required
Note 1 to entry: See also grind (3.93).
3.55
cut coke

screened coke (3.42) from which the oversize has been reduced by mechanical means and rescreened

3.56
cutter
mechanical sampling device which extracts increments (3.106)
3.57
deformation interval
softening interval

interval between the deformation temperature (3.58) and the hemisphere temperature (3.98)

3.58
deformation temperature

temperature at which deformation of a test piece prepared from ash (3.11), by a specified procedure,

occurs

Note 1 to entry: When using cylindrical (or cubicoidal) test pieces, a change of the surface and the rounding of the

edges at the rim or corner.

Note 2 to entry: When using pyramidal test pieces, the rounding of the tip of the test piece. Shrinkage or distortion

of the test piece, or rounding of cracks and fins, are not criteria for deformation and should be ignored if the tip

and edges remain sharp.
3.59
dial divisions per minute
ddpm
measure of stirrer rotation rate, in the Gieseler Plastometer method

Note 1 to entry: There are 100 dial divisions for each full 360° rotation of the stirrer. The fluidity (3.77) result is

expressed as total dial division turned by the stirrer in a one-minute time period

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3.60
dilatation

measure of the volume change produced by heating a coal (3.39) through its plastic range (3.162) under

specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: Similar tests with their own specified conditions have been developed historically, including

Audibert-Arnu and the Ruhr Coal test.
3.61
dirt band
DEPRECATED: shale band

layer of mineral matter (3.136) lying parallel to the bedding plane in a seam of coal (3.39)

3.62
divided increment

part obtained from the division of the increment (3.106) in order to decrease its mass

Note 1 to entry: Such division may be done with or without prior size reduction.
3.63
dry ash-free basis

means of expressing an analytical result based on a hypothetical condition in which the solid mineral

fuel is considered to be free from both moisture and ash (3.11)
3.64
dry basis

means of expressing an analytical result based on the condition in which the solid mineral fuel is free

from moisture
3.65
dry mineral-matter-free basis

means of expressing an analytical result based on a hypothetical condition in which the solid mineral

fuel is considered to be free from both moisture and mineral matter (3.136)
3.66
duplicate determination

determination of a characteristic on two portions of the same test sample (3.226) carried out by the

same operator using the same apparatus but at different times
3.67
duplicate sampling
particular case of replicate sampling (3.185) with only two replicate samples
3.68
error

difference between the observation and the accepted reference value as defined in ISO 5725-1:1994

3.69
falling stream

stream of solid mineral fuel in free fall, for example, from the end of a conveyor

3.70
final fluidity temperature

temperature at which stirrer rotation rate reached 1 ddpm in the Gieseler Plastometer test

3.71
fixed carbon

remainder after the percentages of the moisture in the analysis sample, ash (3.11) and volatile matter

(3.239) are subtracted from 100 reported on an air-dried basis
Note 1 to entry: Fixed carbon may also be calculated to different bases.
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3.72
fixed mass division

method of sample division (3.194) in which the mass retained is predetermined and independent of the

mass of the feed
3.73
fixed rate division

method of increment or sample division (3.194) in which the portions retained from individual

increments (3.106), partial samples (3.153) or gross samples (3.94) have a mass proportional to the mass

of the increment, partial sample or gross sample

Note 1 to entry: In fixed rate division, the mass of sample retained is a fixed proportion of the mass of the feed.

3.74
fixed sulfur

sulfur which is present in the solid residue (non-volatile) after the pyrolysis of a solid mineral fuel at a

particular temperature
3.75
flow temperature

temperature at which a test piece, prepared from ash (3.11) by a specified procedure, loses its profile

and flows to the extent that its height is one third of its height at the hemisphere temperature (3.98)

3.76
flattened-heap method

method of sample division (3.194) in which a sample is flattened and divided into identical rectangles

and from each rectangle, one increment (3.106) is taken using a scoop and bump plate and combined

into a divided sample
3.77
fluidity

measure of the viscosity of a coal (3.39) in its plastic state determined under specified conditions

3.78
float sink analysis

laboratory procedure for analysing raw coal samples, using organic and/or other high specific gravity

solutions adjusted to various gravities to predict ash (3.11) levels and yield for coal product(s) and

reject(s) in a coal preparation plant
3.79
formed coke

coke (3.42) specially prepared from coal (3.39) by processes involving the compaction of particles into

a regularly shaped artefact
3.80
forms of sulfur

collective term for the pyritic sulphur (3.170), sulfate sulfur (3.222) and organic sulfur (3.149) in a solid

mineral fuel

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this definition, elemental sulfur and monosulfides, which may be present in

certain solid mineral fuels, are disregarded.
3.81
fouling factor

measure of the tendency of ash (3.11) to form sintered deposits in the convective zone of a furnace

3.82
fouling index
empirical estimate of the fouling propensity of coal ash
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3.83
foundry coke
very strong, very large, dense coke (3.42) for use in foundry cupola furnaces

Note 1 to entry: It is prepared in coke ovens from selected coking coal blends, and may incorporate additives.

Many cokes including foundry and blast furnace cokes (3.21) have several functions, provide carbon for reduction,

heat to melt the metal, support the burden and finally aid permeability for passage of CO and CO.

3.84
free moisture

moisture which is lost by the solid mineral fuel sample in attaining approximate equilibrium with the

atmosphere to which it is exposed
Note 1 to entry: This term sometimes called surface moisture.
3.85
froth flotation laboratory test

laboratory procedure for the froth flotation testing of fine coal (3.39) less than 0,5 mm under specified

conditions
3.86
fuel

energy carriers intended for energy conversion such as coal (3.39) or coke (3.42)

3.87
fuel ratio

ratio of fixed carbon (3.71) to volatile matter (3.239) on the same basis of analysis

3.88
gas coke

coke (3.42)usually made from high volatile bituminous coal (3.20) at high temperature in gas making

carbonization plants
3.89
general analysis

determination of the chemical and physical characteristics of a solid mineral fuel, other than the

determination of total moisture (3.232)
3.90
general analysis test sample

sample, crushed to pass a sieve, of nominal size of 212 μm, complying with ISO 3310-1, used for the

determination of most chemical and some physical characteristics of a solid mineral fuel

3.91
graded coke
coke (3.42) which has been screened between two specified sizes
3.92
Gray-King coke type

type, denoted by a letter, with a subscript in certain cases, which defines, by reference to a series of

standard profiles, the size, strength and texture of the coke (3.42) residue obtained when a specified

mass of coal (3.39) is heated in a retort tube under specified conditions
3.93
grind (verb)
DEPRECATED: mill (verb)
action of reducing the particle size of a sample to produce fine particles
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3.94
gross sample

quantity of a solid mineral fuel consisting of all the increments (3.106) or partial samples (3.153) taken

from a sub-lot (3.221), either in the condition as taken or after the increments have been individually

reduced and/or divided
3.95
hand placing

operation by which an attempt is made to pass each particle of solid mineral fuel through a stationary

sieve by presenting it to the sieve in all possible orientations but without the use of force

3.96
hand shaking
manual shaking

operation in which a sieve is held in the hands and is given a gentle horizontal oscillatory motion

3.97
hardgrove grindability index

measure of the grindability of a coal (3.39) determined by testing a specially prepared sample in

standard apparatus
3.98
hemisphere temperature

temperature at which the height of a test piece, prepared from ash (3.11) by a specified procedure, is

equal to half the width of the base, and its shape becomes approximately hemispherical

3.99
high temperature coke

solid, agglomerated carbonaceous residue of the pyrolysis of coal (3.39) at temperatures above 850 °C

3.100
humic acid

group of complex organic, amorphous compounds of high relative molecular mass occurring as free

acids and as metal salts (humates) in coal (3.39), which can be extracted by a sodium hydroxide solution

3.101
huminite

group of medium grey macerals (3.121) having reflectances (3.177) generally between those of the

associated darker liptinites (3.117) and the lighter inertinites (3.109)
3.102
hydrogen in mineral matter

hydrogen in the water of constitution (3.243) in the mineral matter (3.136) of a solid mineral fuel

3.103
hydroreactivity

rate of reaction of a solid mineral fuel with water vapour under specified conditions

3.104
hygroscopic moisture of brown coals and lignites

part of total moisture (3.232) which is retained by a brown coal or lignite after exposing it to the

atmosphere and allowing it to attain a constant mass, at 20 °C ± 2 °C and (70 ± 5) % relative humidity

3.105
ignition temperature

minimum temperature at which a solid mineral fuel liberates enough volatile matter (3.239) to form,

together with the surrounding atmosphere, a flammable mixture
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ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
3.106
increment
portion of fuel (3.86) extracted in a single operation of the sampling device
Note 1 to entry:
...

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