Solid mineral fuels -- Vocabulary
ISO 1213-2:2016 defines terms commonly employed in the sampling, testing and analysis of solid mineral fuels. Alternative names are given for several terms. In some cases, however, the use of the alternative name is deprecated (as indicated). An alphabetical index, with numerical cross reference is provided.
Combustibles minéraux solides -- Vocabulaire
Standards Content (sample)
Solid mineral fuels — Vocabulary —
Terms relating to sampling, testing
Combustibles minéraux solides — Vocabulaire —
Partie 2: Termes relatifs à l’échantillonnage, l’essai et l’analyse
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1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Alphabetical index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................28© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 27, Solid mineral fuels, Subcommittee SC 1, Coalpreparation: Terminology and performance.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 1213-2:1992), which has been technicallyrevised.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 1213-2:2016(E)
Solid mineral fuels — Vocabulary —
Terms relating to sampling, testing and analysis
This document defines terms commonly employed in the sampling, testing and analysis of solidmineral fuels.
Alternative names are given for several terms. In some cases, however, the use of the alternative nameis deprecated (as indicated).
An alphabetical index, with numerical cross reference is provided.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
loss of material from particle surfaces of a solid mineral fuel, or from other surfaces in contact with theparticles, caused by friction between contacting surfaces
total mass lost by the abrasion (3.1) of four carbon steel blades when rotated in a specified mass of asolid mineral fuel under specified conditions
Note 1 to entry: Expressed in milligrams of metal lost per kilogram of solid mineral fuel.3.3
resistance to abrasion (3.1) of the coke (3.42) after reaction with carbon dioxide in the CRI test, measured
as the percentage of a sample passing through a 0,5 mm sieve after tumbling under conditions specified3.4
calorimeter that adjusts its jacket temperature constantly to be identical to bomb temperature, therebypreventing heat losses
Note 1 to entry: The inner calorimeter chamber and the jacket exchange no energy because the water temperature
in both is identical during the test. The water in the external jacket is heated or cooled to match the temperaturechange in the calorimeter proper.
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closeness of agreement between an observation and the “true” value
Note 1 to entry: The accuracy of a result should not be confused with its precision. A result may be precise but itis only accurate when it is free of bias (3.18).
DEPRECATED: extraneous ash
ash arising from mineral matter (3.136) associated with, but not inherent in, a solid mineral fuel3.7
means of expressing an analytical result based on the condition in which a solid mineral fuel is inequilibrium with atmospheric humidity
process of bringing the moisture content of the sample near to equilibrium with the atmosphere, in thearea in which further reduction of the sample are to take place
Note 1 to entry: The solid mineral fuel in this state is composed of absorbed moisture, mineral matter andorganic matter.
coal (3.39) of high rank (3.174), with a low volatile matter (3.239) content and a semi-metallic lustre,and which does not soften or swell when heated
apparent relative density
ratio of the mass of a fuel (lump sample) to the mass of an equal volume of water (at the sametemperature), inclusive of any voids within the fuel subjected to the test
Note 1 to entry: The apparent relative density should not be confused with the bulk density (3.25).3.11
residue obtained by incineration of a solid mineral fuel under specified conditions3.12
analysis of ash (3.11) for its elemental composition
Note 1 to entry: The elements usually determined are silicon, aluminium, iron, magnesium, manganese, titanium,
calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and sulfur, and these are usually expressed as oxides.3.13
characteristic physical state of the ash (3.11) obtained by heating under specified conditions
Note 1 to entry: Ash fusibility is determined under either oxidizing or reducing atmosphere (3.176) conditions.
Note 2 to entry: See also deformation temperature, sphere temperature (3.215), hemisphere temperature (3.98)and flow temperature (3.75).
measure of the resistance to flow of ash (3.11) in the fused state
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as received basis
as sampled basis
means of expressing an analytical result based on the condition where total moisture (3.232) is included3.16
ratio of the mass of basic oxides (iron(III) oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, disodium oxide and
dipotassium oxide) to the mass of acidic oxides (silica, aluminium oxide and titanium (IV) oxide) inash (3.11)
Note 1 to entry: This ratio can be used in the determination of the fouling factor (3.81) and the slagging factor.3.17
quantity of a solid mineral fuel produced at one time under relatively uniform conditions3.18
systematic error (3.68) which leads to the average value of a series of results being persistently higheror persistently lower than those obtained using a reference sampling method
Note 1 to entry: Bias is the total systematic error as contrasted to random error. There may be one or more
systematic error components contributing to the bias. A larger systematic difference from the accepted referencevalue is reflected by a larger bias value.
bias of scale
bias (3.18) that is constant and independent of the range of values measured
general descriptive term for coal (3.39) of rank (3.174) between anthracite (3.9) and brown coal andlignite (3.24)
Note 1 to entry: The vitrinites in all coals in the bituminous range melt and form a coke when the coal is heatedabove 400 °C in the absence of air.
Note 2 to entry: In some countries, coals of rank immediately below that of bituminous coal are referred to assub-bituminous coals.
blast furnace coke
strong, large coke (3.116) for use in blast furnaces
Note 1 to entry: Blast furnace coke is generally produced from blends of bituminous coals (3.20), which mayincorporate additives.
Note 2 to entry: Blast furnace coke usually has a low reactivity to carbon dioxide.3.22
particle size reduction (3.155) resulting from impact and/or compression
undersize after separating the smallest size of graded coke (3.91)
Note 1 to entry: Breeze is usually less than 10 mm in size.
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brown coal and lignite
coals (3.39) of low rank (3.174) characterized by high inherent moisture, high volatile matter (3.239)and low calorific value
Note 1 to entry: In some countries, the terms are used to describe all low-rank coals up to bituminous coals (3.20).
In other countries, the coals at the higher end of the range are referred to as sub-bituminous coals.3.25
mass of a portion of a solid mineral fuel divided by the volume of the container which is filled by thatportion under specified conditions
Note 1 to entry: Bulk density values can have range and may depend on previous handling, time and weather.
The values on stockpiles can also vary from loose free fall situations to compacted filled by that portion underspecified conditions.
sample of large mass, taken in a particular operation for a specific reason such as for float sinkanalysis (3.78)
caking of coal
property of coal (3.39) when heating without access of air to a plastic condition with formation of theconnected non-volatile residue
measure of the caking power of a coal in terms of the mechanical strength (3.132) of the coke (3.42)
obtained by carbonization, under specified conditions, of an intimate mixture of the coal (3.39) andstandard anthracite (3.9)
calorific value gross at constant volume
absolute value of the specific energy of combustion, in joules, for unit mass of a solid fuel burned inoxygen in a calorimetric bomb under the conditions specified
Note 1 to entry: The products of combustion are assumed to consist of gaseous oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide
and sulfur dioxide, of liquid water (in equilibrium with its vapour) saturated with carbon dioxide under the
conditions of the bomb reaction, and of solid ash, all at the reference temperature.
Note 2 to entry: Equipment such as Adiabatic and or Isothermal bomb calorimeters are used to determinethis result.
calorific value net at constant volume
absolute value of the specific energy of combustion, in joules, for unit mass of the fuel burned in oxygen
under conditions of constant volume and such that all the water of the reaction remains as water vapour
(in a hypothetical state at 0,1 Mpa), the other products being as for the gross calorific value all at thereference temperature
Note 1 to entry: The net calorific value at constant volume is the negative value of the net specific energy ofcombustion.
calorific value net at constant pressure
absolute value of the specific heat (enthalpy) of combustion in joules, for unit mass of the fuel burned in
oxygen at constant pressure under such conditions that all the water of the reaction products remains
as water vapour (at 0,1 Mpa), the other products being as for the gross calorific value, all at the referencetemperature
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collective term for inter growths of minerals and macerals (3.121)
Note 1 to entry: The various types of carbominerite with their compositions are given in Table 1.Table 1 — Types and compositions of carbominerite
Type Volume percentage of minerals
Carbargilite 20 to 60, clay minerals
Carbopyrite 5 to 20, sulfides
Carbankerite 20 to 60, carbonates
Carbosilicite 20 to 60, quartz
Carbopolyminerite 20 to 60, various minerals
The term is used also for carbopolyminerite containing a maximum
of 5 % of mineral matter, provided that sulfides form a substantial part of
the mineral matter.
carbon in mineral matter
carbon in the mineral matter carbonates of a solid mineral fuel
rate of reaction of a solid mineral fuel with carbon dioxide under specified conditions3.35
sample of raw coal (3.39) and associated inorganic material taken by removing a channel of even cross-section from the seam
Note 1 to entry: Where the full section of the seam is not accessible or not required, this term may refer to a
sample taken either from a specifically defined portion of the seam, or from the floor to roof as mined or exposed.3.36
solid, partially or non-agglomerated carbonaceous material produced by the pyrolysis of solidmineral fuels
inclined trough for conveying solid mineral fuel to a lower level
aggregation of particles of ash (3.11) after it has melted during the course of combustion of a solidmineral fuel or during gasification
Note 1 to entry: The aggregated particles may include small amounts of unburnt solid mineral fuel.3.39
combustible sedimentary rock formed from altered plant remains consolidated under superimposedstrata
Note 1 to entry: The characteristics of different coals are due to differences in source plant material, in
the conditions and the degree of change that the material has undergone in its geological history, and in the
range of impurities present. Coals can be characterized macroscopically by their lithotype composition andmicroscopically by their maceral and microlithotype (3.123) compositions.
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process by which accumulated plant matter is compacted and transformed into coal (3.39)3.41
coefficient of variation
standard deviation (3.216), expressed as a percentage of the absolute value of the arithmetic meanCV =×100%
where CV is normally denoted as v.
solid, agglomerated carbonaceous residue produced by the pyrolysis of coal (3.39) in the absence of air3.43
coke reactivity index
percentage weight loss of coke (3.42) after reaction with carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide underspecified conditions
coke strength after reaction
strength of coke (3.42) after reaction with carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in the CRI test,
measured as the percentage retained on either a 10,0 mm or a 9,5 mm sieve after tumbling underspecified conditions
theoretical state of a solid mineral fuel without moisture and mineral matter (3.136) other than pyriticsulfur (3.170) and sulfidic sulfur
sulfur which reacts with oxygen when a solid mineral fuel is burnt under specified controlled conditions
Note 1 to entry: Most of the reacted sulfur reports as SO in the chimney gas, but under certain conditions, someof the sulfur is captured by alkaline minerals in the ash
sample collected for more than one intended use
complete seam profile sample for each bench
collective designation of the coal samples taken separately from each coal bench and band of the testedseam or a part of it which is a section of a thick seam
constant mass division
method of increment or sample division (3.194) in which the portions retained from individual
increments (3.106), partial samples (3.153) or gross samples (3.94) are of uniform mass3.50
taking of a sample from each consecutive sub-lot (3.221) so that increments (3.106) are taken at uniformintervals whenever the fuel is handled at the point of sampling
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measure of the degree of correlation between the members of paired sets
cylindrical sample of the whole or part of a coal seam obtained from drilling using a coring barrel
Note 1 to entry: The diameter of the core may vary from 50 mm to 1000 mm depending on the reason for which
the sample is required. However, 50 mm to 200 mm is the most common core diameter range.3.53
crucible swelling number
number which defines, by reference to a series of standard profiles, the size and shape of the residue
obtained when a specified mass of coal (3.39) is heated in a covered crucible under specified conditions
Note 1 to entry: ASTM Standards use the term free swelling index (FSI) for this test.3.54
action of reducing the particle size of a sample to produce particles at the required nominal top size(3.144) required
Note 1 to entry: See also grind (3.93).
screened coke (3.42) from which the oversize has been reduced by mechanical means and rescreened3.56
mechanical sampling device which extracts increments (3.106)
interval between the deformation temperature (3.58) and the hemisphere temperature (3.98)3.58
temperature at which deformation of a test piece prepared from ash (3.11), by a specified procedure,occurs
Note 1 to entry: When using cylindrical (or cubicoidal) test pieces, a change of the surface and the rounding of theedges at the rim or corner.
Note 2 to entry: When using pyramidal test pieces, the rounding of the tip of the test piece. Shrinkage or distortion
of the test piece, or rounding of cracks and fins, are not criteria for deformation and should be ignored if the tipand edges remain sharp.
dial divisions per minute
measure of stirrer rotation rate, in the Gieseler Plastometer method
Note 1 to entry: There are 100 dial divisions for each full 360° rotation of the stirrer. The fluidity (3.77) result is
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measure of the volume change produced by heating a coal (3.39) through its plastic range (3.162) underspecified conditions
Note 1 to entry: Similar tests with their own specified conditions have been developed historically, includingAudibert-Arnu and the Ruhr Coal test.
DEPRECATED: shale band
layer of mineral matter (3.136) lying parallel to the bedding plane in a seam of coal (3.39)3.62
part obtained from the division of the increment (3.106) in order to decrease its massNote 1 to entry: Such division may be done with or without prior size reduction.
dry ash-free basis
means of expressing an analytical result based on a hypothetical condition in which the solid mineralfuel is considered to be free from both moisture and ash (3.11)
means of expressing an analytical result based on the condition in which the solid mineral fuel is freefrom moisture
dry mineral-matter-free basis
means of expressing an analytical result based on a hypothetical condition in which the solid mineralfuel is considered to be free from both moisture and mineral matter (3.136)
determination of a characteristic on two portions of the same test sample (3.226) carried out by thesame operator using the same apparatus but at different times
particular case of replicate sampling (3.185) with only two replicate samples
difference between the observation and the accepted reference value as defined in ISO 5725-1:19943.69
stream of solid mineral fuel in free fall, for example, from the end of a conveyor3.70
final fluidity temperature
temperature at which stirrer rotation rate reached 1 ddpm in the Gieseler Plastometer test3.71
remainder after the percentages of the moisture in the analysis sample, ash (3.11) and volatile matter(3.239) are subtracted from 100 reported on an air-dried basis
Note 1 to entry: Fixed carbon may also be calculated to different bases.
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fixed mass division
method of sample division (3.194) in which the mass retained is predetermined and independent of themass of the feed
fixed rate division
method of increment or sample division (3.194) in which the portions retained from individual
increments (3.106), partial samples (3.153) or gross samples (3.94) have a mass proportional to the massof the increment, partial sample or gross sample
Note 1 to entry: In fixed rate division, the mass of sample retained is a fixed proportion of the mass of the feed.3.74
sulfur which is present in the solid residue (non-volatile) after the pyrolysis of a solid mineral fuel at aparticular temperature
temperature at which a test piece, prepared from ash (3.11) by a specified procedure, loses its profile
and flows to the extent that its height is one third of its height at the hemisphere temperature (3.98)3.76
method of sample division (3.194) in which a sample is flattened and divided into identical rectangles
and from each rectangle, one increment (3.106) is taken using a scoop and bump plate and combinedinto a divided sample
measure of the viscosity of a coal (3.39) in its plastic state determined under specified conditions3.78
float sink analysis
laboratory procedure for analysing raw coal samples, using organic and/or other high specific gravity
solutions adjusted to various gravities to predict ash (3.11) levels and yield for coal product(s) andreject(s) in a coal preparation plant
coke (3.42) specially prepared from coal (3.39) by processes involving the compaction of particles intoa regularly shaped artefact
forms of sulfur
collective term for the pyritic sulphur (3.170), sulfate sulfur (3.222) and organic sulfur (3.149) in a solidmineral fuel
Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this definition, elemental sulfur and monosulfides, which may be present incertain solid mineral fuels, are disregarded.
measure of the tendency of ash (3.11) to form sintered deposits in the convective zone of a furnace3.82
empirical estimate of the fouling propensity of coal ash
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very strong, very large, dense coke (3.42) for use in foundry cupola furnaces
Note 1 to entry: It is prepared in coke ovens from selected coking coal blends, and may incorporate additives.
Many cokes including foundry and blast furnace cokes (3.21) have several functions, provide carbon for reduction,
heat to melt the metal, support the burden and finally aid permeability for passage of CO and CO.3.84
moisture which is lost by the solid mineral fuel sample in attaining approximate equilibrium with theatmosphere to which it is exposed
Note 1 to entry: This term sometimes called surface moisture.
froth flotation laboratory test
laboratory procedure for the froth flotation testing of fine coal (3.39) less than 0,5 mm under specifiedconditions
energy carriers intended for energy conversion such as coal (3.39) or coke (3.42)3.87
ratio of fixed carbon (3.71) to volatile matter (3.239) on the same basis of analysis3.88
coke (3.42)usually made from high volatile bituminous coal (3.20) at high temperature in gas makingcarbonization plants
determination of the chemical and physical characteristics of a solid mineral fuel, other than thedetermination of total moisture (3.232)
general analysis test sample
sample, crushed to pass a sieve, of nominal size of 212 μm, complying with ISO 3310-1, used for the
determination of most chemical and some physical characteristics of a solid mineral fuel3.91
coke (3.42) which has been screened between two specified sizes
Gray-King coke type
type, denoted by a letter, with a subscript in certain cases, which defines, by reference to a series of
standard profiles, the size, strength and texture of the coke (3.42) residue obtained when a specifiedmass of coal (3.39) is heated in a retort tube under specified conditions
DEPRECATED: mill (verb)
action of reducing the particle size of a sample to produce fine particles
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quantity of a solid mineral fuel consisting of all the increments (3.106) or partial samples (3.153) taken
from a sub-lot (3.221), either in the condition as taken or after the increments have been individuallyreduced and/or divided
operation by which an attempt is made to pass each particle of solid mineral fuel through a stationary
sieve by presenting it to the sieve in all possible orientations but without the use of force3.96
operation in which a sieve is held in the hands and is given a gentle horizontal oscillatory motion3.97
hardgrove grindability index
measure of the grindability of a coal (3.39) determined by testing a specially prepared sample instandard apparatus
temperature at which the height of a test piece, prepared from ash (3.11) by a specified procedure, is
equal to half the width of the base, and its shape becomes approximately hemispherical3.99
high temperature coke
solid, agglomerated carbonaceous residue of the pyrolysis of coal (3.39) at temperatures above 850 °C3.100
group of complex organic, amorphous compounds of high relative molecular mass occurring as free
acids and as metal salts (humates) in coal (3.39), which can be extracted by a sodium hydroxide solution3.101
group of medium grey macerals (3.121) having reflectances (3.177) generally between those of theassociated darker liptinites (3.117) and the lighter inertinites (3.109)
hydrogen in mineral matter
hydrogen in the water of constitution (3.243) in the mineral matter (3.136) of a solid mineral fuel3.103
rate of reaction of a solid mineral fuel with water vapour under specified conditions3.104
hygroscopic moisture of brown coals and lignites
part of total moisture (3.232) which is retained by a brown coal or lignite after exposing it to the
atmosphere and allowing it to attain a constant mass, at 20 °C ± 2 °C and (70 ± 5) % relative humidity3.105
minimum temperature at which a solid mineral fuel liberates enough volatile matter (3.239) to form,together with the surrounding atmosphere, a flammable mixture
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portion of fuel (3.86) extracted in a single operation of the sampling device
Note 1 to entry: