Information technology -- Smart City ICT reference framework

This document specifies a generic business process framework for a smart city focusing solely on smart city-specific processes. Generic business processes common between smart cities and commercial organizations are be identified but not detailed.

Technologies de l'information -- Cadre de référence des TIC dans les villes intelligentes

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Publication Date
03-May-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
26-Mar-2021
Completion Date
26-Mar-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 30145-1
First edition
2021-05
Information technology — Smart City
ICT reference framework —
Part 1:
Smart city business process
framework
Reference number
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Smart city business process overview ........................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Smart city governance processes ........................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Leadership .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus ................................................................................................................. 4

5.4 Integrated Management .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.5 Sustainability and Resilience Management.................................................................................................................... 6

5.6 External Interface Management ............................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Smart city core processes ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Health, Social, Care and Wellness............................................................................................................................................ 8

6.3 Education and Research .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.4 Smart Infrastructure and Building ......................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Integrated Transportation .........................................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Resources Management ...............................................................................................................................................................13

6.7 Environment Management ........................................................................................................................................................14

6.8 Safety and Security ...........................................................................................................................................................................15

6.9 Economic Development ................................................................................................................................................................16

6.10 Culture and Entertainment........................................................................................................................................................17

6.11 Tourism.......................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7 Smart city Supporting processes ......................................................................................................................................................19

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.2 Enterprise Processes ......................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Smart Legal and Regulatory Systems and Services ..............................................................................................21

7.4 Integrated Portfolio Management .......................................................................................................................................22

7.5 Open Innovation .................................................................................................................................................................................23

7.6 Knowledge Management .............................................................................................................................................................24

7.7 Integrated Engineering .................................................................................................................................................................25

8 Mapping the business processes of a smart city ...............................................................................................................26

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2 The methodology ...............................................................................................................................................................................27

8.2.1 Stage 1 ....................................................................................................................................................................................27

8.2.2 Stage 2 ....................................................................................................................................................................................27

8.2.3 Stage 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................................28

Annex A (informative) Mapping the business processes onto ISO 37106 processes ......................................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 30145 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Introduction
0.1 General

The purpose of the ISO/IEC 30145 series is to assist city chief information officers (CIO) and other

stakeholders in planning and implementing a smart city. It comprises the following three parts:

— Part 1: Smart city business process framework (this document)
— Part 2: Smart city knowledge management framework
— Part 3: Smart city engineering framework

Each of the three parts are aimed at a different role or viewpoint within the city and thus separate focus

needs to be maintained. The "separation of concerns" is a principle for the development of a city as it

uses ICT to deliver the vision and objectives for the city. The value of using the separation of concerns

is to simplify development and maintenance of the architecture as the city both develops and delivers

improved outcomes for the city stakeholders.

Figure 1 shows the components of the smart city ICT reference framework, which consist of 5

components: stakeholders, vision and outcomes, the business process framework, the knowledge

management framework, and the engineering framework. This document describes stakeholders,

vision and outcomes, and the business process framework. The knowledge management framework

and engineering framework are described in ISO/IEC 30145-2 and ISO/IEC 30145-3 respectively.

Figure 1 — Smart city ICT reference framework
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
0.2 Stakeholders

The stakeholders served by the smart city ICT reference framework are enterprises, citizens,

government entities and non-government entities. This stakeholder list is not exhaustive but defines

the key stakeholders in a smart city and the user for the smart city ICT reference framework.

0.3 Vision and outcomes

The motivation for making a city smart is a result of a shared vision and a set of agreed outcomes from

all the city stakeholders. The vision and outcomes of the smart city ICT reference framework are well-

being, transparency, sustainability, economic development, efficiency and resilience, collaboration and

innovation. This vision and outcomes list is not exhaustive, but defines the key vision and outcomes of

a smart city. The smart city ICT reference framework articulates a vision that the Smart City will be

transparent in the delivery of city services that meet city sustainability ambitions. This vision uses

collaboration and innovation approaches to deliver desired city outcomes. City outcomes are expected

to improve the efficiency and resilience of city services and promote economic development activities

that enhance the well-being of citizens.
vi © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Information technology — Smart City ICT reference
framework —
Part 1:
Smart city business process framework
1 Scope

This document specifies a generic business process framework for a smart city focusing solely on smart

city-specific processes. Generic business processes common between smart cities and commercial

organizations are be identified but not detailed.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Smart city business process overview
[8]

The objectives of a business process framework (adapted from the TM Forum 2015 ) are to:

— create a common language for use across departments, systems, external partners and suppliers,

reducing cost and risk of system implementation, integration and procurement; and

— adopt a standard structure, terminology and classification scheme for business processes to simplify

internal operations and maximize opportunities to partner within and across industries.

The aim of the smart city business process framework is to identify and describe the key business

processes required in a smart city and to provide a framework for individual cities to describe how

those processes are being carried out within their city.
This will:

— allow cities to review how well their existing processes are designed to deliver the smart city

outcomes for which they are aiming;

— allow business processes in different cities to be compared to enable the determination of best

practices; and

— provide a foundation to enable more detailed work to be undertaken on these business processes in

the future.

The business processes in this document are only a fraction of all the business processes found in a

smart city. Only the most significant processes that make a city ‘smart’ have been included.

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)

Given the complexity and considerable number of smart city business processes, this framework:

— Focuses on what makes a city ‘smart’.
— Uses a simple single layer architecture.
— Uses an outcome-based approach to characterize business processes.

An attempt has been made to use terminology that is standard in the Enterprise Architecture, Business

Process analysis and Systems Engineering domains.

A smart city is an IT-intensive System of Systems (SoS). At a very high level, it can be viewed as a set

of business processes that are integrated through the judicious use of sophisticated IT capabilities to

realize outcomes.

This document describes 21 smart city business processes, divided into three types, as illustrated in

Figure 2.

Governance processes: This document describes five “horizontal” business processes that are the

driving force that govern and manage the capabilities of a smart city to produce the desired outcomes.

Core processes: This document describes ten business processes used to manage the city systems in

an integrated way to deliver a smart city.

Supporting processes: This document describes six business processes required to enable the city

systems to be properly integrated. One of these, the knowledge management process, describes

the business processes required to deliver the knowledge management framework detailed in

ISO/IEC 30145-2. Another, the integrated engineering process, describes the business processes

required to deliver the engineering framework detailed in ISO/IEC 30145-3. The business processes

mapping onto ISO 37106 is described in Annex A.
Figure 2 — Smart city business process framework
5 Smart city governance processes
5.1 General
As mentioned in Clause 4, there are five processes under this category:
G1. Leadership
G2. Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
G3. Integrated Management
G4. Sustainability and Resilience Management
G5. External Interface Management
2 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
5.2 Leadership
Process ID G1
Process name Leadership

The Smart City Leadership process provides a high-level overall view of a city. Taking

Brief advantage of the ability to collect and analyse big data, it provides the city leaders with

description a clearer overall, longer-term view of the city, which they can use to provide better

management and governance of the city as a whole.

This enables the smart city leadership to bring together the work of different govern-

ment departments by using ICT technologies such as system engineering, big data
analysis, IOT technologies and systems, etc.
By doing so, the smart city leadership will be able to achieve the following:
Extended
description
— Effective strategic planning for the city as a whole.
— Cooperation and collaboration across government departments.
— Improved and more efficient business processes.

The purpose of the Leadership process is to provide strategic direction and vision to

Process

the city, ensure the buy in by all stakeholders, allocate resources, monitor the imple-

purpose
mentation of the vision, set policies and manage risks.
As a result of successful implementation of this process:
1) The city has a clear smart city vision.
2) This vision has been communicated to all city stakeholders.
3) Implementation of the vision is tracked and regularly assessed.
Process
outcomes
4) ICT related risks are assessed and managed.

5) Policies pertinent to ICT, including IoT and ICT-enabled services, are elaborated

and deployed.
6) Improvement programmes are endorsed and funded.

There is an overall appointed transformation leader, working with a broad-based team

representing all stakeholders, driving the implementation of the smart city vision.

Base
practices

The city has set up a cross-silo funding and budget process to address collaborative

initiatives.
G2. Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
G3. Integrated Management
Relationship
notes
G4. Sustainability and Resilience Management
G5. External Interface Management
Selected work products
Inputs Outputs
Requirements analysis Smart city strategic plan
SWOT analysis Smart city implementation project portfolio
Technology trends analysis

Assessment of technology requirements Smart city technology architecture guidelines

Budget allocation Funding requirements secured
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
5.3 Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
Process ID G2
Process name Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
The Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus process provides a platform for the
Brief

exchange of ideas and for the sharing of information to make sure that the demands and

description

ideas of citizens and other stakeholders are fully socialized, considered and discussed.

The Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus process enables the management

and future plans for city development to be focused around the citizen, taking into

account their requirements for city design, city functions, city services, etc., to make

sure smart city projects fulfil the demands of citizens.
Extended
By using system engineering and system thinking, this process ensures smart city
description

stakeholders are fully involved to minimize conflicts and unfulfilled requirements.

Enabling platforms such as electronic bulletin boards, e-voting systems, or feedback/

monitoring systems using social media are used to enhance the stakeholder and citizen

engagement.
The purpose of the Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus process is to engage
Process

the citizens, community organizations and businesses in the process of making the

purpose
city smarter and in fulfilling its vision.
As a result of successful implementation of this process:
— Citizens and stakeholders are easily able to find out about city plans and
provide their input and see evidence that their input affects the way the plans
are carried out.
— Additional Funding for smart city project is available from partners.
Process
Outcomes
— Smart city projects are properly prioritized from the citizen perspective.
— Smart city projects are implemented with the right functionality to meet the
needs of citizens.
— Service processes are successfully re-engineered to ensure citizen-centric
outcomes.

1) Stakeholders, such as citizens, enterprises and non-governmental entities, are

consulted and involved in the development of the city strategy.
2) There are effective mechanisms in place to capture citizen and customer input
and to provide feedback as to the actions taken in response.
Base
3) Smart city services are designed around the identified needs of citizens and
practices
how they wish to interact with the city.
4) The city has collaboration and formalized partnerships with third parties,
such as universities, businesses and community organizations, to tackle city
problems.
G1. Leadership
G3. Integrated Management
Relationship
notes
G4. Sustainability and Resilience Management
G5. External Interface Management
4 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Selected work products
Inputs Outputs
Online consultation systems and voting systems City services feedback acted upon
Online discussion lists Citizen satisfaction feedback acted upon
Citizen satisfaction surveys
5.4 Integrated Management
Process ID G3
Process name Integrated Management

By applying technologies such as big data analysis and data mining, etc. this process

Brief

provides a smart city with harmonious and holistic city management, which improves

description
efficiency and provides significant added value.
By analysing a city’s existing management processes, and by taking advantage of
system engineering, the city management functions and processes can be analysed
Extended
and optimized to improve city functions or services.
description

This will break the silos and provide added value through the analysis of big data,

data mining and other ICT technologies.

Process The purpose of the Integrated Management process is to create value by enabling

purpose cross-functional activities and promoting a holistic approach to city management.

As a result of successful implementation of this process:

— The City managers and employees have access, in real time, to the data required

for their activities.
Process
— Value is created by implementing ICT enabled applications that use data from
outcomes
multiple domains.
— Cross-functional services are deployed.
— There is no ‘silo’ culture in the city.
1. Sharing of data across functional boundaries and domains.
Base
2. Democratization of data access within the city management and administration.
practices
3. Deployment of big data city analytics solutions.
G1. Leadership
G2. Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
Relationship
notes
G4. Sustainability and Resilience Management
G5. External Interface Management
Selected work products
Inputs Outputs
Data sharing policies Re-engineered and integrated business process
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
5.5 Sustainability and Resilience Management
Process ID G4
Process name Sustainability and Resilience Management

Brief Introducing and implementing effective plans to ensure the sustainability and

description resilience of the city.

This ensures that the city’s carbon footprint and vulnerabilities to major disasters

are thoroughly audited and that comprehensive, multi-stakeholder plans are put in

place to address these. This will include the identification and constant monitoring

Extended

of KPIs related to sustainability and resilience and the review of all plans in the light

description
of the results.

New technologies and big data analysis are used to better assess and predict risk and

to suggest effective ways of responding and recovering when disaster occurs.

Process To ensure that the city plays its role in preserving a planet that provides for the needs

purpose of future generations and that safeguards the city in the event of disaster.

— Rapid progress towards the city becoming carbon neutral.
— Clear behaviour changes by citizens and businesses to make their city more
sustainable.
Process
— Rapid and effective response to emergencies by all agencies and residents.
outcomes

— Availability targets are defined for all critical and non-critical services of the

city and these services are engineered accordingly.
— The city has an ICT enabled disaster recovery plan that is regularly tested.
1) The identification and monitoring of relevant KPIs.
Base
2) Regular, cross agency reviews of progress with full citizen participation.
practices
3) Inclusion of key sustainability and resilience goals within all city plans.
G1. Leadership
G2. Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
Relationship
notes
G3. Integrated Management
G5. External Interface Management
Principal work products
Inputs Outputs
Sustainability and city carbon footprint audit City sustainability strategy
Sustainability and city carbon footprint targets set City resilience strategy
Resilience audit Planning guidelines for sustainability and resilience
Resilience targets set Implementation of a system of relevant KPI
measurement and evaluation
Emergency response plan
Emergency response system implemented
6 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
5.6 External Interface Management
Process ID G5
Process name External Interface Management

Brief This process enables the city to interact with the wider city region and other cities, and

description to better manage the flow of people, goods and supplies coming in and out of the city.

The city should be able to share data with agencies in the wider region to enable

better management of people and goods in and out of the city. Arrangements should

Extended

be in place to ensure that the city needs for energy, food, clean water, etc. can be met

description

from the wider region. The city plans for transport and infrastructures are made in

conjunction with plans for the wider regions.

This process aims to ensure that the city can be managed within the context of the

Process wider region, so that the city can be supplied externally with all its requirements, so

purpose that flows in and out of the city can be properly managed and so the city can play a

positive role in the wider region.
As a result of successful implementation of this process:
— The city has secure supplies of food and other requirements.
Process
— The transport and other needs of people coming into the city for employment,
Outcomes
shopping and leisure can be properly met.

— City plans are more effective as they take into account the influence and impact

of the surrounding region.
1) Information is effectively shared between internal and external suppliers and
Base
distributers of
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 30145-1
First edition
Information technology — Smart City
ICT reference framework —
Part 1:
Smart city business process
framework
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Smart city business process overview ........................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Smart city governance processes ........................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Leadership .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus ................................................................................................................. 4

5.4 Integrated Management .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.5 Sustainability and Resilience Management.................................................................................................................... 5

5.6 External Interface Management ............................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Smart city core processes ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Health, Social, Care and Wellness............................................................................................................................................ 8

6.3 Education and Research .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.4 Smart Infrastructure and Building ......................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Integrated Transportation .........................................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Resources Management ...............................................................................................................................................................13

6.7 Environment Management ........................................................................................................................................................14

6.8 Safety and Security ...........................................................................................................................................................................15

6.9 Economic Development ................................................................................................................................................................16

6.10 Culture and Entertainment........................................................................................................................................................17

6.11 Tourism.......................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7 Smart city Supporting processes ......................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Enterprise Processes ......................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Smart Legal and Regulatory Systems and Services ..............................................................................................20

7.4 Integrated Portfolio Management .......................................................................................................................................21

7.5 Open Innovation .................................................................................................................................................................................22

7.6 Knowledge Management .............................................................................................................................................................23

7.7 Integrated Engineering .................................................................................................................................................................24

8 Mapping the business processes of a smart city ...............................................................................................................26

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2 The methodology ...............................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2.1 Stage 1 ....................................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2.2 Stage 2 ....................................................................................................................................................................................27

8.2.3 Stage 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................................27

Annex A (informative) Mapping the business processes onto ISO 37106 processes ......................................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 30145 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Introduction
0.1 General

The purpose of the ISO/IEC 30145 series is to assist city chief information officers (CIO) and other

stakeholders in planning and implementing a smart city. It comprises the following three parts:

— Part 1: Smart city business process framework (this document)
— Part 2: Smart city knowledge management framework
— Part 3: Smart city engineering framework

Each of the three parts are aimed at a different role or viewpoint within the city and thus separate focus

needs to be maintained. The "separation of concerns" is a principle for the development of a city as it

uses ICT to deliver the vision and objectives for the city. The value of using the separation of concerns

is to simplify development and maintenance of the architecture as the city both develops and delivers

improved outcomes for the city stakeholders.

Figure 1 shows the components of the smart city ICT reference framework, which consist of 5

components: stakeholders, vision and outcomes, the business process framework, the knowledge

management framework, and the engineering framework. This document describes stakeholders,

vision and outcomes, and the business process framework. The knowledge management framework

and engineering framework are described in ISO/IEC 30145-2 and ISO/IEC 30145-3 respectively.

Figure 1 — Smart city ICT reference framework
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
0.2 Stakeholders

The stakeholders served by the smart city ICT reference framework are enterprises, citizens,

government entities and non-government entities. This stakeholder list is not exhaustive but defines

the key stakeholders in a smart city and the user for the smart city ICT reference framework.

0.3 Vision and outcomes

The motivation for making a city smart is a result of a shared vision and a set of agreed outcomes from

all the city stakeholders. The vision and outcomes of the smart city ICT reference framework are well-

being, transparency, sustainability, economic development, efficiency and resilience, collaboration and

innovation. This vision and outcomes list is not exhaustive, but defines the key vision and outcomes of

a smart city. The smart city ICT reference framework articulates a vision that the Smart City will be

transparent in the delivery of city services that meet city sustainability ambitions. This vision uses

collaboration and innovation approaches to deliver desired city outcomes. City outcomes are expected

to improve the efficiency and resilience of city services and promote economic development activities

that enhance the well-being of citizens.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Information technology — Smart City ICT reference
framework —
Part 1:
Smart city business process framework
1 Scope

This document specifies a generic business process framework for a smart city focusing solely on smart

city-specific processes. Generic business processes common between smart cities and commercial

organizations are be identified but not detailed.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Smart city business process overview
[8]

The objectives of a business process framework (adapted from the TM Forum 2015 ) are to:

— create a common language for use across departments, systems, external partners and suppliers,

reducing cost and risk of system implementation, integration and procurement; and

— adopt a standard structure, terminology and classification scheme for business processes to simplify

internal operations and maximize opportunities to partner within and across industries.

The aim of the smart city business process framework is to identify and describe the key business

processes required in a smart city and to provide a framework for individual cities to describe how

those processes are being carried out within their city.
This will:

— allow cities to review how well their existing processes are designed to deliver the smart city

outcomes for which they are aiming;

— allow business processes in different cities to be compared to enable the determination of best

practices; and

— provide a foundation to enable more detailed work to be undertaken on these business processes in

the future.

The business processes in this document are only a fraction of all the business processes found in a

smart city. Only the most significant processes that make a city ‘smart’ have been included.

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ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)

Given the complexity and considerable number of smart city business processes, this framework:

— Focuses on what makes a city ‘smart’
— Uses a simple single layer architecture
— Uses an outcome-based approach to characterize business processes

An attempt has been made to use terminology that is standard in the Enterprise Architecture, Business

Process analysis and Systems Engineering domains.

A smart city is an IT-intensive System of Systems (SoS). At a very high level, it can be viewed as a set

of business processes that are integrated through the judicious use of sophisticated IT capabilities to

realize outcomes.

This document describes 21 smart city business processes, divided into three types, as illustrated in

Figure 2:

Governance processes: This document describes five “horizontal” business processes that are the

driving force that govern and manage the capabilities of a smart city to produce the desired outcomes.

Core processes: This document describes ten business processes used to manage the city systems in

an integrated way to deliver a smart city.

Supporting processes: This document describes six business processes required to enable the city

systems to be properly integrated. One of these, the knowledge management process, describes

the business processes required to deliver the knowledge management framework detailed in

ISO/IEC 30145-2. Another, the integrated ngineering process, describes the business processes required

to deliver the engineering framework detailed in ISO/IEC 30145-3. The business processes mapping

onto ISO 37106 is described in Annex A.
Figure 2 — Smart city business process framework
5 Smart city governance processes
5.1 General
As mentioned in Clause 4, there are five processes under this category:
G1. Leadership
G2. Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
G3. Integrated Management
G4. Sustainability and Resilience Management
G5. External Interface Management
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ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
5.2 Leadership
Process ID G1
Process name Leadership

The Smart City Leadership process provides a high-level overall view of a city. Taking

Brief advantage of the ability to collect and analyse big data, it provides the city leaders with

description a clearer overall, longer-term view of the city, which they can use to provide better

management and governance of the city as a whole.

This enables the smart city leadership to bring together the work of different govern-

ment departments by using ICT technologies such as system engineering, big data
analysis, IOT technologies and systems, etc.
By doing so, the smart city leadership will be able to achieve the following:
Extended
description
— Effective strategic planning for the city as a whole.
— Cooperation and collaboration across government departments.
— Improved and more efficient business processes.

The purpose of the Leadership process is to provide strategic direction and vision to

Process

the city, ensure the buy in by all stakeholders, allocate resources, monitor the imple-

purpose
mentation of the vision, set policies and manage risks.
As a result of successful implementation of this process:
1) The city has a clear smart city vision.
2) This vision has been communicated to all city stakeholders.
3) Implementation of the vision is tracked and regularly assessed.
Process
outcomes
4) ICT related risks are assessed and managed.

5) Policies pertinent to ICT, including IoT and ICT-enabled services, are elaborated

and deployed.
6) Improvement programmes are endorsed and funded.

There is an overall appointed transformation leader, working with a broad-based team

representing all stakeholders, driving the implementation of the smart city vision.

Base
practices

The city has set up a cross-silo funding and budget process to address collaborative

initiatives.
G2. Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
G3. Integrated Management
Relationship
notes
G4. Sustainability and Resilience Management
G5. External Interface Management
Selected work products
Inputs Outputs
Requirements analysis Smart city strategic plan
SWOT analysis Smart city implementation project portfolio
Technology trends analysis

Assessment of technology requirements Smart city technology architecture guidelines

Budget allocation Funding requirements secured
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ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
5.3 Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
Process ID G2
Process name Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
The Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus process provides a platform for the
Brief

exchange of ideas and for the sharing of information to make sure that the demands and

description

ideas of citizens and other stakeholders are fully socialized, considered and discussed.

The Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus process enables the management

and future plans for city development to be focused around the citizen, taking into

account their requirements for city design, city functions, city services, etc., to make

sure smart city projects fulfil the demands of citizens.
Extended
By using system engineering and system thinking, this process ensures smart city
description

stakeholders are fully involved to minimize conflicts and unfulfilled requirements.

Enabling platforms such as electronic bulletin boards, e-voting systems, or feedback/

monitoring systems using social media are used to enhance the stakeholder and cit-

izen engagement.
The purpose of the Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus process is to engage
Process

the citizens, community organizations and businesses in the process of making the

purpose
city smarter and in fulfilling its vision.
As a result of successful implementation of this process:
— Citizens and stakeholders are easily able to find out about city plans and
provide their input and see evidence that their input affects the way the plans
are carried out.
— Additional Funding for smart city project is available from partners.
Process
Outcomes
— Smart city projects are properly prioritized from the citizen perspective.
— Smart city projects are implemented with the right functionality to meet the
needs of citizens.
— Service processes are successfully re-engineered to ensure citizen-centric
outcomes.

1) Stakeholders, such as citizens, enterprises and non-governmental entities, are

consulted and involved in the development of the city strategy
2) There are effective mechanisms in place to capture citizen and customer input
and to provide feedback as to the actions taken in response.
Base
3) Smart city services are designed around the identified needs of citizens and
practices
how they wish to interact with the city.
4) The city has collaboration and formalized partnerships with third parties,
such as universities, businesses and community organizations, to tackle city
problems.
G1. Leadership
G3. Integrated Management
Relationship
notes
G4. Sustainability and Resilience Management
G5. External Interface Management
Selected work products
Inputs Outputs
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ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)
Online consultation systems and voting systems City services feedback acted upon
Online discussion lists Citizen satisfaction feedback acted upon
Citizen satisfaction surveys
5.4 Integrated Management
Process ID G3
Process name Integrated Management

By applying technologies such as big data analysis and data mining, etc. this process

Brief

provides a smart city with harmonious and holistic city management, which improves

description
efficiency and provides significant added value.
By analysing a city’s existing management processes, and by taking advantage of
system engineering, the city management functions and processes can be analysed
Extended
and optimized to improve city functions or services.
description

This will break the silos and provide added value through the analysis of big data,

data mining and other ICT technologies.

Process The purpose of the Integrated Management process is to create value by enabling

purpose cross-functional activities and promoting a holistic approach to city management.

As a result of successful implementation of this process:

— The City managers and employees have access, in real time, to the data required

for their activities.
Process
— Value is created by implementing ICT enabled applications that use data from
outcomes
multiple domains.
— Cross-functional services are deployed.
— There is no ‘silo’ culture in the city.
1. Sharing of data across functional boundaries and domains.
Base
2. Democratization of data access within the city management and administration.
practices
3. Deployment of big data city analytics solutions.
G1. Leadership
G2. Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
Relationship
notes
G4. Sustainability and Resilience Management
G5. External Interface Management
Selected work products
Inputs Outputs
Data sharing policies Re-engineered and integrated business process
5.5 Sustainability and Resilience Management
Process ID G4
Process name Sustainability and Resilience Management

Brief Introducing and implementing effective plans to ensure the sustainability and resil-

description ience of the city.
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ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)

This ensures that the city’s carbon footprint and vulnerabilities to major disasters

are thoroughly audited and that comprehensive, multi-stakeholder plans are put in

place to address these. This will include the identification and constant monitoring

Extended

of KPIs related to sustainability and resilience and the review of all plans in the light

description
of the results.

New technologies and big data analysis are used to better assess and predict risk and

to suggest effective ways of responding and recovering when disaster occurs.

Process To ensure that the city plays its role in preserving a planet that provides for the needs

purpose of future generations and that safeguards the city in the event of disaster.

— Rapid progress towards the city becoming carbon neutral.
— Clear behaviour changes by citizens and businesses to make their city more
sustainable.
Process
— Rapid and effective response to emergencies by all agencies and residents.
outcomes

— availability targets are defined for all critical and non-critical services of the city

and these services are engineered accordingly.
— the city has an ICT enabled disaster recovery plan that is regularly tested.
1) The identification and monitoring of relevant KPIs.
Base
2) Regular, cross agency reviews of progress with full citizen participation.
practices
3) Inclusion of key sustainability and resilience goals within all city plans.
G1. Leadership
G2. Stakeholder Engagement and Citizen Focus
Relationship
notes
G3. Integrated Management
G5. External Interface Management
Principal work products
Inputs Outputs
Sustainability and city carbon footprint audit City sustainability strategy
Sustainability and city carbon footprint targets set City resilience strategy
Resilience audit Planning guidelines for sustainability and resil-
ience
Resilience targets set
Implementation of a system of relevant KPI meas-
urement and evaluation
Emergency response plan
Emergency response system implemented
5.6 External Interface Management
Process ID G5
Process name External Interface Management

Brief This process enables the city to interact with the wider city region and other cities, and

description to better manage the flow of people, goods and supplies coming in and out of the city.

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ISO/IEC 30145-1:2021(E)

The city should be able to share data with agencies in the wider region to enable

better management of people and goods in and out of the city. Arrangements should

Extended

be in place to ensure that the city needs for energy, food, clean water, etc. can be met

description

from the wider region. The city plans for transport and infrastructures are made in

conjunction with plans for the wider regions.

This process aims to ensure that the city can be managed within the context of the

Process wider region, so that the city can be supplied externally with all its requirements, so

purpose that flows in and out of the city can be properly managed and so the city can play a

positive role in the wider region.
As a result of successful implementation of this process:
— The city has secure supplies of food and other requirements.
Process
— The transport and other needs of people coming into the city for employment,
Outcomes
shopping and leisure can be properly met.
— City plans are more effective as they take into account the influen
...

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