Road vehicles — Wheels/rims for commercial vehicles — Test methods

This document specifies two laboratory methods for testing certain essential strength characteristics of disc wheels intended for road use on commercial vehicles, buses, trailers, and multipurpose passenger vehicles, as defined in ISO 3833. The test methods are: — dynamic cornering fatigue test and — dynamic radial fatigue test.

Véhicules routiers — Roues/jantes pour véhicules utilitaires — Méthodes d'essai

ISO 3894:2015 spécifie deux méthodes d'essai de laboratoire destinées à évaluer certaines caractéristiques essentielles de résistance à la fatigue des roues à disque destinées à équiper des véhicules utilitaires, des autobus, des remorques et des voitures particulières à usage multiple utilisés sur route, définies dans l'ISO 3833. Ces méthodes d'essai dynamique sont les suivantes : ? essai de fatigue en virage, et ? essai de fatigue radiale.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Jan-2023
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
21-Jun-2024
Completion Date
10-Jan-2023
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 3894
Fifth edition
2023-01
Road vehicles — Wheels/rims for
commercial vehicles — Test methods
Véhicules routiers — Roues/jantes pour véhicules utilitaires —
Méthodes d'essai
Reference number
ISO 3894:2023(E)
© ISO 2023
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2023(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2023

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2023(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Wheels – Dynamic cornering fatigue test ................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2.1 Preparation ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2.2 Bending moment application ................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Bending moment determination ............................................................................................................................................. 2

5.4 Test termination .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Wheels — Dynamic radial fatigue test ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Radial load determination ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Test termination .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Recommended test factors and test cycles ..................................................................................... 8

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

iii
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2023(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics, chassis components and driving automation systems testing.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 3894:2015), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— correction of required cycles for radial testing of aluminium wheels;
— editorial changes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2023(E)
Introduction

This document was developed in response to requests to establish uniform test methods to evaluate

certain fatigue strength characteristics of wheels used on commercial vehicles. Although this document

is the International Standard for wheel fatigue testing due to the ubiquity of testing resources, there

are also other regionally acceptable testing standards for fatigue strength characteristics, such as

biaxial testing. Some examples of other regional entry level testing requirements include Japan’s JIS

D4103, China’s GBT 5909, India’s IS 9438, US' SAE J267, Brazil INMETRO's NBR 6751, and the European

standard EUWA ES3.11.

The standardization of test methods allows manufacturers of vehicles and/or wheels to evaluate their

products in a uniform manner. By using these methods, wheels from different parts of the world can be

compared and evaluated for use.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3894:2023(E)
Road vehicles — Wheels/rims for commercial vehicles —
Test methods
1 Scope

This document specifies two laboratory methods for testing certain essential strength characteristics of

disc wheels intended for road use on commercial vehicles, buses, trailers, and multipurpose passenger

vehicles, as defined in ISO 3833.
The test methods are:
— dynamic cornering fatigue test and
— dynamic radial fatigue test.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
test bolt
test fastener
bolt that is attached to the hub/test fixture before mounting the wheel
3.2
wheel nut
wheel fastener
nut for fastening the wheel as a set with the test bolts (fasteners) (3.1)
3.3
load rating

value obtained by converting the force to mass which can be loaded under defined conditions to the

tyres which can be applied to the test wheel
3.4
maximum vertical static load
maximum value of the vertical load acting on the tyres

Note 1 to entry: It is specified by the wheel manufacturer or the vehicle manufacturer and it derives from the

specifications of a vehicle which is intended to use the test wheel.
© ISO 2023 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2023(E)
3.5
crack
...

ISO 3894:2022(E)
2022-11-10-31
ISO TC 22/SC 33/WG 5
Secretariat: ANSI
Road vehicles — Wheels/rims for commercial vehicles — Test methods
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 3894: 2022(E)
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no

part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, elec-

tronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without

prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or

ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 3894 – All rights reserved
ii © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 3894: 2022(E)
Contents

Foreword ................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... v

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................................... 1

4 General requirements .......................................................................................................................... 2

5 Wheels – Dynamic cornering fatigue test ..................................................................................... 2

5.1 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Procedure ................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2.1 Preparation ...................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2.2 Bending moment application .................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Bending moment determination ...................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Test termination .................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Wheels — Dynamic radial fatigue test ........................................................................................... 5

6.1 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 Procedure ................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3 Radial load determination ................................................................................................................. 6

6.4 Test termination .................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Recommended test factors and test cycles ................................................... 8

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

© ISO 3894 – All rights reserved © ISO 2022 – All rights iii
reserved
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 3894: 2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical com-

mittee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organiza-

tions, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collabo-

rates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical

standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are de-

scribed in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the dif-

ferent types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the edito-

rial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and expres-

sions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the World Trade

Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www.iso.org/iso/fore-

word.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics and, chassis components and driving automation systems testing.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 3894:2015), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— correction of required cycles for radial testing of aluminium wheels;
— editorial changes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 3894 – All rights reserved
iv © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 3894: 2022(E)
Introduction

This document was developed in response to requests to establish uniform test methods to evaluate cer-

tain fatigue strength characteristics of wheels used on commercial vehicles. Although this document is

the global standardInternational Standard for wheel fatigue testing due to the ubiquity of testing re-

sources, there are also other regionally acceptable testing standards for fatigue strength characteristics,

such as biaxial testing. Some examples of other regional entry level testing requirements include Japan’s

JIS D4103, China’s GBT 5909, India’s IS 9438, US' SAE J267 from the U.S. ,, Brazil INMETRO's NBR 6751

Brazil INMETRO, , and the European standard EUWA ES3.11.

The standardization of test methods allows manufacturers of vehicles and/or wheels to evaluate their

products in a uniform manner. By using these methods, wheels from different parts of the world can be

compared and evaluated for use.
© ISO 3894 – All rights reserved © ISO 2022 – All rights v
reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3894: 2022(E)
Road vehicles — Wheels/rims for commercial vehicles — Test
methods
1 Scope

This document specifies two laboratory methods for testing certain essential strength characteristics of

disc wheels intended for road use on commercial vehicles, buses, trailers, and multipurpose passenger

vehicles, as defined in ISO 3833.
The test methods are:
— dynamic cornering fatigue test and
— dynamic radial fatigue test.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
test bolt
test fastener
bolt that is attached to the hub/test fixture before mounting the wheel
3.2
wheel nut
wheel fastenersfastener
nut for fastening the wheel as a set with the test bolts (fasteners) (3.1)
3.3
load rating

value obtained by converting the force to mass which can be loaded under defined conditions to the tyres

which can be applied to the test wheel
3.4
maximum vertical static load
maximum value of the vertical load acting on the tyres
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 3894: 2022(E)

Note 1 to entry: It is specified by the wheel manufacturer or the vehicle manufacturer and it derives from the

specifications of a vehicle which is intended to use the test wheel.
3.5
crack

material separation with a propagation of more than 10 mm occurring during a test

Note 1 to entry: The inspection method for liquid penetrant is defined in ISO 3452-1.

4 General requirements

Only fully processed new wheels which are equivalent of wheels intended for the vehicle shall be used

for the tests.
5 Wheels – Dynamic cornering fatigue test
5.1 Equipment

The test machine shall have a driven rotatable device whereby either the wheel rotates under the influ-

ence of a stationary bending moment (see Figure 1) or the wheel is stationary and is subjected to a rotat-

ing bending moment (see Figure 2).
5.2 Procedure
5.2.1 Preparation

Clamp the rim of the wheel securely to the test fixture. The adaptor face of the test machine shall have

equivalent mounting systems to
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 3894
Fifth edition
Road vehicles — Wheels/rims for
commercial vehicles — Test methods
Véhicules routiers — Roues/jantes pour véhicules utilitaires —
Méthodes d'essai
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 3894:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General requirements .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Wheels – Dynamic cornering fatigue test ................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2.1 Preparation ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2.2 Bending moment application ................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Bending moment determination ............................................................................................................................................. 2

5.4 Test termination .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Wheels — Dynamic radial fatigue test ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1 Equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3 Radial load determination ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Test termination .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

Annex A (informative) Recommended test factors and test cycles ..................................................................................... 8

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics, chassis components and driving automation systems testing.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 3894:2015), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:
— correction of required cycles for radial testing of aluminium wheels;
— editorial changes.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2022(E)
Introduction

This document was developed in response to requests to establish uniform test methods to evaluate

certain fatigue strength characteristics of wheels used on commercial vehicles. Although this document

is the International Standard for wheel fatigue testing due to the ubiquity of testing resources, there

are also other regionally acceptable testing standards for fatigue strength characteristics, such as

biaxial testing. Some examples of other regional entry level testing requirements include Japan’s JIS

D4103, China’s GBT 5909, India’s IS 9438, US' SAE J267, Brazil INMETRO's NBR 6751, and the European

standard EUWA ES3.11.

The standardization of test methods allows manufacturers of vehicles and/or wheels to evaluate their

products in a uniform manner. By using these methods, wheels from different parts of the world can be

compared and evaluated for use.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3894:2022(E)
Road vehicles — Wheels/rims for commercial vehicles —
Test methods
1 Scope

This document specifies two laboratory methods for testing certain essential strength characteristics of

disc wheels intended for road use on commercial vehicles, buses, trailers, and multipurpose passenger

vehicles, as defined in ISO 3833.
The test methods are:
— dynamic cornering fatigue test and
— dynamic radial fatigue test.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
test bolt
test fastener
bolt that is attached to the hub/test fixture before mounting the wheel
3.2
wheel nut
wheel fastener
nut for fastening the wheel as a set with the test bolts (fasteners) (3.1)
3.3
load rating

value obtained by converting the force to mass which can be loaded under defined conditions to the

tyres which can be applied to the test wheel
3.4
maximum vertical static load
maximum value of the vertical load acting on the tyres

Note 1 to entry: It is specified by the wheel manufacturer or the vehicle manufacturer and it derives from the

specifications of a vehicle which is intended to use the test wheel.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 3894:2022(E)
3.5
crack
material separation with
...

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