Information technology -- Radio frequency identification for item management

This document defines a test method to evaluate the interference rejection performance of tags covered by ISO/IECÂ 18000-63 and a heterogeneous wireless system using different access technologies, e.g. radio frequency identification and cell phone network. It specifies the general requirements and test requirements. The test method in this document makes it possible to compare the relative interference rejection performance among tags under a single wireless interference environment. In addition, this document can be used in a benchmarking test according to requirements in a given application or service.

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Publication Date
06-Jun-2021
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5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
04-May-2021
Completion Date
03-May-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 23200-1
First edition
2021-06
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification for item
management —
Part 1:
Interference rejection performance
test method between a tag as
defined in ISO/IEC 18000-63 and a
heterogeneous wireless system
Reference number
ISO/IEC 23200-1:2021(E)
ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23200-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23200-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Conditions applicable to the test methods ................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Radio frequency (FR) environment ...................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.4 Default tolerance ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.5 Total measurement uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Test result reporting ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 Test mounting material ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.8 Test communication parameters ............................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Test set-up ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 DUT placement ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Test setup for tag’s R sensitivity power measurement under non-interference

environment .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.1 Test apparatus and test circuits .......................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.2 Setup of the devices ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.3 Antenna polarization and requirements ..................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Test setup for tag’s R sensitivity power measurement under interference environment ... 5

6.3.1 Sub-1GHz wireless communications technologies ............................................................................ 5

6.3.2 Setup of the devices ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.3 Antenna polarization and requirements ..................................................................................................... 6

7 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.1 General description ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.2 Tag’s R sensitivity power measurement under non-interference environment .......................... 7

7.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Tag’s R sensitivity power measurement under interference environment ..................................... 8

7.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23200-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives) or www .iec .ch/ members

_experts/ refdocs).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html. In the IEC, see www .iec .ch/ understanding -standards.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 23200 series can be found on the ISO and IEC websites.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html and www .iec .ch/ national

-committees.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23200-1:2021(E)
Introduction

This document provides test procedures and method to evaluate the impact on tag as defined in

ISO/IEC 18000-63 of interference generated by other wireless systems. The interference rejection test

method of this document is different to ISO/IEC 18046-3:2012, 8.8. This document covers interference

effect between the tags and heterogeneous wireless system, while ISO/IEC 18046-3 covers interference

effect between tags and homogeneous wireless systems.

Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) is a wireless technology that connects

billions of everyday items to the Internet of Things (IoT), enabling consumers and businesses to identify,

locate, authenticate, and engage each item. IoT applications require a data connection between the

physical and digital world, and UHF RFID is the ideal technology to bridge these realms with the ability

to bring low cost, unique identification to everyday items. Low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN)

operate at long read ranges of 2 km to 3 km. While LoRaWan devices have a very slow data-transfer

rate, they are useful for transmitting sensor data. For example, LoRaWAN, WiFi-Halow (802.11ah),

Sigfox, NB-IoT, WB-IoT, and LTE-M are representative technologies.

The frequencies used by LoRaWAN systems differ by region and country, as do the frequency bands

designated for UHF RFID systems. In particular, LoRaWAN and RFID systems use different power levels

and heterogeneous protocols in shared frequency bands. They are susceptible to interference generated

by other wireless systems. This harsh signal propagation environment combined with interference

from coexisting wireless technologies can lead to a degradation of the performance or even application

failures. To evaluate possible interference on UHF RFID systems, industrial stakeholders make a

constructive discussion on how to overcome interference problems.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 23200-1:2021(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
for item management —
Part 1:
Interference rejection performance test method between
a tag as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-63 and a heterogeneous
wireless system
1 Scope

This document defines a test method to evaluate the interference rejection performance of tags covered

by ISO/IEC 18000-63 and a heterogeneous wireless system using different access technologies, e.g.

radio frequency identification and cell phone network.
It specifies the general requirements and test requirements.

The test method in this document makes it possible to compare the relative interference rejection

performance among tags under a single wireless interference environment. In addition, this document

can be used in a benchmarking test according to requirements in a given application or service.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions provided in ISO/IEC 19762 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ANT T interrogator antenna in the bistatic test set-up
TX X
ANT R interrogator antenna in the bistatic test set-up
RX X
ANT interrogator antenna in the monostatic test set-up
TRX
ANT antenna connected to the radio frequency interference source
INT
CW continuous wave
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23200-1:2021(E)

D distance between the tag and the antenna connected to the RF interference source

Interference
D distance between the tag and the interrogator antenna
Interrogator
DUT device under test
G antenna gain
dBi
GFSK Gaussian frequency shift keying
LHCP left hand circular polarization
OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

P minimum power required to activate a UHF RFID tag. P is the power at the position

min min
of a tag
P P under a single wireless interference environment
min_under_int min

PF interference rejection performance between a UHF RFID tag and other wireless systems

iRej
QAM quadrature amplitude modulation
RHCP right hand circular polarization
R receiver
SG signal generator
TE test equipment (RFID interrogator emulator)
T transmitter
5 Conditions applicable to the test methods
5.1 Test environment

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall take place in an air environment with a temperature of

23 °C ± 3 °C (73 °F ± 5 °F) and relative humidity within the range of 40 % to 60 %.

5.2 Radio frequency (FR) environment
The tests shall be performed in a known RF environment.

For measurements of propagative tags (ISO/IEC 18000-63), an anechoic chamber is the recommended

test environment.
5.3 Pre-conditioning

Where pre-conditioning is required by the test method, the identification interrogators to be tested

shall be conditioned to the test environment for a period of 24 h before testing.

5.4 Default tolerance

Unless otherwise specified, a default tolerance of ±5 % shall be applied to the quantity values given

to specify the characteristics of the test equipment (e.g. linear dimensions) and the test method

procedures (e.g. test equipment adjustments).
2 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 23200-1:2021(E)
5.5 Total measurement uncertainty

The total measurement uncertainty for each quantity determined by these test methods shall be stated

in the test report.
NOTE Basic information is given in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3.
5.6 Test result reporting

Each test result shall be reported with the DUTs tested. Optionally, for statistical evaluation, minimum

value, maximum value, mean value and standard deviation may be reported as well.
5.7 Test mounting material

For the tags, the tests may be performed with or without applying a mounting material. When the

mounting material is defined by the tag manufacturer, the tests shall be performed with the specified

mounting material in free air.

If the indicative dielectric parameter or other critical parameters of the material are known, they shall

be mentioned in the test report.
5.8 Test communication parameters

All of the tests may be performed for various communication parameters (forward and return link).

The test conditions shall be recorded in the test report.
6 Test set-up
6.1 DUT placement

The DUT shall be placed in the far field according to Figure 1 or Figure 2. The distance, D, shall be as in

Formula (1):
D= (1)
where
λ is the wavelength at the centre frequency of the interrogato
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
DRAFT
STANDARD FDIS
23200-1
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31
Information technology — Radio
Secretariat: ANSI
frequency identification for item
Voting begins on:
2021-03-08 management —
Voting terminates on:
Part 1:
2021-05-03
Interference rejection performance
test method between a tag as
defined in ISO/IEC 18000-63 and a
heterogeneous wireless system
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/IEC FDIS 23200-1:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO/IEC 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 23200-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 23200-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

5 Conditions applicable to the test methods ................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 Test environment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Radio frequency (FR) environment ...................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Pre-conditioning .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.4 Default tolerance ................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.5 Total measurement uncertainty ............................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6 Test result reporting ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.7 Test mounting material ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.8 Test communication parameters ............................................................................................................................................. 3

6 Test set-up ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 DUT placement ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Test setup for tag’s R sensitivity power measurement under non-interference

environment .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

6.2.1 Test apparatus and test circuits .......................................................................................................................... 3

6.2.2 Setup of the devices ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.3 Antenna polarization and requirements ..................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Test setup for tag’s R sensitivity power measurement under interference environment ... 5

6.3.1 Sub-1GHz wireless communications technologies ............................................................................ 5

6.3.2 Setup of the devices ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.3 Antenna polarization and requirements ..................................................................................................... 6

7 Test procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7.1 General description ............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.2 Tag’s R sensitivity power measurement under non-interference environment .......................... 7

7.2.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Tag’s R sensitivity power measurement under interference environment ..................................... 8

7.3.1 Purpose .................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.2 Test procedure ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 23200-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www. iso. org/d irectives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www. iso. org/p atents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see patents.iec.ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www. iso. org/

iso/f oreword. html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.
A list of all parts in the ISO/IEC 23200 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www. iso. org/m embers. html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 23200-1:2021(E)
Introduction

This document provides test procedures and method to evaluate the impact on tag as defined in

ISO/IEC 18000-63 of interference generated by other wireless systems. The interference rejection test

method of this document is different to ISO/IEC 18046-3:2012, 8.8. This document covers interference

effect between the tags and heterogeneous wireless system, while ISO/IEC 18046-3 covers interference

effect between tags and homogeneous wireless systems.

Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) is a wireless technology that connects

billions of everyday items to the Internet of Things (IoT), enabling consumers and businesses to identify,

locate, authenticate, and engage each item. IoT applications require a data connection between the

physical and digital world, and UHF RFID is the ideal technology to bridge these realms with the ability

to bring low cost, unique identification to everyday items. Low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN)

operate at long read ranges of 2 km to 3 km. While LoRaWan devices have a very slow data-transfer

rate, they are useful for transmitting sensor data. For example, LoRaWAN, WiFi-Halow (802.11ah),

Sigfox, NB-IoT, WB-IoT, and LTE-M are representative technologies.

The frequencies used by LoRaWAN systems differ by region and country, as do the frequency bands

designated for UHF RFID systems. In particular, LoRaWAN and RFID systems use different power levels

and heterogeneous protocols in shared frequency bands. They are susceptible to interference generated

by other wireless systems. This harsh signal propagation environment combined with interference

from coexisting wireless technologies can lead to a degradation of the performance or even application

failures. To evaluate possible interference on UHF RFID systems, industrial stakeholders make a

constructive discussion on how to overcome interference problems.
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC FDIS 23200-1:2021(E)
Information technology — Radio frequency identification
for item management —
Part 1:
Interference rejection performance test method between
a tag as defined in ISO/IEC 18000-63 and a heterogeneous
wireless system
1 Scope

This document defines a test method to evaluate the interference rejection performance of tags covered

by ISO/IEC 18000-63 and a heterogeneous wireless system using different access technologies, e.g.

radio frequency identification and cell phone network.
It specifies the general requirements and test requirements.

The test method in this document makes it possible to compare the relative interference rejection

performance among tags under a single wireless interference environment. In addition, this document

can be used in a benchmarking test according to requirements in a given application or service.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 19762, Information technology — Automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) techniques —

Harmonized vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions provided in ISO/IEC 19762 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
ANT T interrogator antenna in the bistatic test set-up
TX X
ANT R interrogator antenna in the bistatic test set-up
RX X
ANT interrogator antena in the monostatic test set-up
TRX
ANT antenna connected to the radio frequency interference source
INT
CW continuous wave
© ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 23200-1:2021(E)

D distance between the tag and the antenna connected to the RF interference source

Interference
D distance between the tag and the interrogator antenna
Interrogator
DUT device under test
G antenna gain
dBi
GFSK Gaussian frequency shift keying
LHCP left hand circular polarization
OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

P minimum power required to activate a UHF RFID tag. P is the power at the position

min min
of a tag
P P under a single wireless interference environment
min_under_int min

PF interference rejection performance between a UHF RFID tag and other wireless systems

iRej
QAM quadrature amplitude modulation
RHCP right hand circular polarization
R receiver
SG signal generator
TE test equipment (RFID interrogator emulator)
T transmitter
5 Conditions applicable to the test methods
5.1 Test environment

Unless otherwise specified, testing shall take place in an air environment with a temperature of

23 °C ± 3 °C (73 °F ± 5 °F) and relative humidity within the range of 40 % to 60 %.

5.2 Radio frequency (FR) environment
The tests shall be performed in a known RF environment.

For measurements of propagative tags (ISO/IEC 18000-63), an anechoic chamber is the recommended

test environment.
5.3 Pre-conditioning

Where pre-conditioning is required by the test method, the identification interrogators to be tested

shall be conditioned to the test environment for a period of 24 h before testing.

5.4 Default tolerance

Unless otherwise specified, a default tolerance of ±5 % shall be applied to the quantity values given

to specify the characteristics of the test equipment (e.g. linear dimensions) and the test method

procedures (e.g. test equipment adjustments).
2 © ISO/IEC 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC FDIS 23200-1:2021(E)
5.5 Total measurement uncertainty

The total measurement uncertainty for each quantity determined by these test methods shall be stated

in the test report.
NOTE Basic information is given in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3.
5.6 Test result reporting

Each test result shall be reported with the DUTs tested. Optionally, for statiscal evalutation, minimum

value, maximum value, mean value and standard deviation may be reported as well.
5.7 Test mounting material

For the tags, the tests may be performed with or without applying a mounting material. When the

mounting material is defined by the tag manufacturer, the tests shall be performed with the specified

mounting material in free air.

If the inidicative dielectric parameter or other critical parameters of the material are known, they shall

be mentioned in the test report.
5.8 Test communication parameters

All of the tests may be performed for various communication parameters (forward and return link).

The test conditions shall be recorded in the test report.
6 Test set-up
6.1
...

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