Paper, board and corrugated fibreboard -- Description and calibration of compression-testing equipment

ISO 13820:2014 specifies the essential characteristics and the principles of calibration of compression testing equipment used in the testing of paper, board, and corrugated fibreboard.

Papier, carton et carton ondulé -- Description et étalonnage du matériel pour essai de compression

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Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Apr-2014
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-Mar-2014
Completion Date
14-Apr-2014
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13820
Second edition
2014-04-15
Paper, board and corrugated
fibreboard — Description and
calibration of compression-testing
equipment
Papier, carton et carton ondulé — Description et étalonnage du
matériel pour essai de compression
Reference number
ISO 13820:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13820:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13820:2014(E)
Contents  Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2  Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

4  Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

5  Verification and calibration ...................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Fixed-platen compression testing machine ................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Beam-deflection compression testing machine ......................................................................................................... 3

6  Calibration report ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex A (normative) Maintenance of beam-deflection compression testing machines ................................5

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13820:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 6, Paper, board and pulps, Subcommittee SC 2,

Test methods and quality specifications for paper and board.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 13820:1996), of which it constitutes a

minor revision with the following changes:
— 4.1.2 has been updated;
— 5.1 has been updated.
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13820:2014(E)
Introduction

This International Standard describes the types of testing equipment available for carrying out

compression tests on paper, board, and corrugated fibreboard. It describes two distinct types of

instrument. The preferred instrument type, known as the fixed-platen compression tester, develops

compressive forces at a constant rate of strain. The other, known as the beam-deflection compression

tester, develops compressive forces between one platen driven at constant speed and another platen

resting on a deformable beam. With this type neither rate of stress nor rate of strain is constant. The

two instrument types give similar but not necessarily the same test results when used for compression

tests; literature shows that the beam deflection machine produces results higher than those of the fixed-

[1][2][3]

platen machine. The extent of the difference depends on the test being conducted and on the

characteristics, particularly the elastic characteristics, of the material being tested.

The fixed-platen tester is preferred because of its better reliability, its ability to test over the range of

test levels likely to be found, and because the characteristics of existing instruments have been well

defined and universally accepted. The beam-deflection tester has been inadequately defined in past

International Standards for compression tests; among existing instruments there have been different

loading rates, different beam stiffnesses, and therefore different rates of strain. Furthermore, in some

countries, the stiffness of beams commonly available is such that no one beam is appropriate for all

the test levels likely to be found, so that it has been common practice to use two beams of different

stiffnesses interchangeably to cover the full range of loads.

It is expected that the beam-deflection-type tester might be less commonly used in the future, and it can

be withdrawn from this International Standard at a future revision.
[1]

The testing equipment referred to in this International Standard is used for tests described in ISO 3035 ,

[2] [3] [4]
ISO 3037 , ISO 7263 , and ISO 12192 .
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13820:2014(E)
Paper, board and corrugated fibreboard — Description and
calibration of compression-testing equipment
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the essential characteristics and the principles of calibration of

compression testing equipment used in the testing of paper, board, and corrugated fibreboard.

2  Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 187, Paper, board and pulps — Standard atmosphere for conditioning and testing and procedure for

monitoring the atmosphere and conditioning of samples
3  Principle

The compression testing machine is calibrated against reference masses or other traceable standards.

4  Apparatus

4.1 Fixed-platen compression testing machine, operating on the constant rate of deformation

(strain) principle and incorporating the following features.

4.1.1 An upper and a lower platen, each large enough to completely accommodate the test piece and

sufficiently rigid to resist significant deformation by the compressive forces.

The platens shall be mounted so as to have not more than 0,05 mm relative movement in the horizontal

plane and their surfaces shall be parallel to each other, within 0,05 mm per 100 mm of platen surface. The

surface of the platens shall be flat to the extent that the lowest and highest points are within 0,05 mm

of the average surface.

Some tests require the surface finish of the platen to be such as to prevent slippage of the test piece

during the test. Emery cloth, grade 00 or its equivalent (type 240 in Europe, crocus cloth in Canada),

secured to the surface of the platens with contact adhesive or with low-compressibility double-sided

pressure-sensitive tape (see NOTE), or matte finish of the platen surfaces, or any equivalent means, can

be used to achieve this, provided the requirements for parallelism are met.

The emery cloth shall be replaced as soon as any damage is observed. On no account should a knife or

other sharp instrument be used to remove the emery cloth or other material adhering to the platens.

NOTE While compliance with ISO 7263 permits emery cloth to be used on the platen surfaces, other test

methods do not. With ISO 3037, it is safer to avoid the use of emery cloth. However, it is common practice to use

the same tester for tests which do and do not require emery cloth. The possibility of erroneous test results is

sufficiently low to allow the use of emery cloth in all ISO test methods in which the use of this compression testing

machine is now required, provided that a grade not coarser than 00 is used.

4.1.2 Means of moving one platen towards the other at a constant, controlled speed.

Different speeds are standard in different parts of the world, the most typical being (12,5 ± 0,25) mm/min

and (10,0 ± 0,25) mm/min. As test values can be impacted by the strain rate of the applied load, it should

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 13820:2014(E)
[8][9][10][11]

not be assumed that operating at these two different speeds will produce the same results.

[12][13]

The speed used shall be within ±0,25 mm/min of the nominal speed which shall be reported with

the test values.

4.1.3 Means of measuring peak force to the nearest 1 N or 1 %, whichever is greater, applied to an

object placed between the platens.

NOTE Pen recorders might give low results because inertia in the pen movement can prevent detection of the

peak force. This fault will not be evident during static calibration.

4.2 Beam-deflection compression testing machine, incorporating the following features.

4.2.1 Beam that deflects (1,00 ± 0,01) mm for 175 N, 300 N, or 350 N of applied load.

4.2.2 An upper and a lower platen, each large enough to completely accommodate the test piece and

sufficiently rigid to resist significant deformation by the compressive forces.

One platen rests on the beam and the other is movable. The platens shall be mounted to have not more

than 0,05 mm relative movement in the horizontal plane and their surfaces shall be flat and parallel to

each other to within 0,05 mm per 100 mm of platen surface. The surfaces of the platens are flat if the

lowest and highest points are within 0,05 mm of the average surface.

Some tests require the surface finish of the platens to be such as to prevent slippage of th

...

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