Software Engineering — Software Life Cycle Processes — Maintenance

ISO/IEC 14764:2006 describes in greater detail management of the Maintenance Process described in ISO/IEC 12207, including Amendments. It also establishes definitions for the various types of maintenance. ISO/IEC 14764:2006 provides guidance that applies to planning, execution and control, review and evaluation, and closure of the Maintenance Process. The scope of ISO/IEC 14764:2006 includes maintenance for multiple software products with the same maintenance resources. "Maintenance" in ISO/IEC 14764:2006 means software maintenance unless otherwise stated. ISO/IEC 14764:2006 provides the framework within which generic and specific software maintenance plans may be executed, evaluated, and tailored to the maintenance scope and magnitude of given software products. It provides the framework, precise terminology and processes to allow the consistent application of technology (tools, techniques and methods) to software maintenance. ISO/IEC 14764:2006 provides guidance for the maintenance of software. The basis for the Maintenance Process and its activities comes from the definitions of ISO/IEC 12207. It defines the activities and tasks of software maintenance, and provides maintenance planning requirements. It does not address the operation of software and the operational functions, e.g. backup, recovery and system administration, which are normally performed by those who operate the software. ISO/IEC 14764:2006 is written primarily for maintainers of software and additionally for those responsible for development and quality assurance. It may also be used by acquirers and users of systems containing software who may provide inputs to the maintenance plan.

Ingénierie du logiciel — Processus du cycle de vie du logiciel — Maintenance

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
22-Aug-2006
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
19-May-2006
Completion Date
23-Aug-2006
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 14764
IEEE
Std 14764-2006
Second edition
2006-09-01
Software Engineering — Software Life
Cycle Processes — Maintenance
Ingénierie du logiciel — Processus du cycle de vie du logiciel —
Maintenance
Reference number
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE
Std 14764-2006
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006
(Revision of IEEE Std 1219-1988)
Secretariat: Standards Council of Canada
Date 2005-06-29
Standard for Software Engineering —
Software Life Cycle Processes —
Maintenance

Norme pour ingénierie du logiciel — Processus de cycle de vie du logiciel — Maintenance

Sponsor
Software & Systems Engineering Standards Committee
of the
IEEE Computer Society
Approved 30 March 2006
IEEE SA Standards Board
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006

Abstract: The process for managing and executing software maintenance activities is described.

Keywords: life cycle, maintenance, software, software maintenance

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iv © IEEE 2006 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006

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© IEEE 2006 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006
International Standard ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of

ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established

by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical

committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations, governmental and non-

governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the field of information technology,

ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

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an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Subcommittee SC 7,

(Software and Systems Engineering).

The first edition of ISO/IEC 14764 was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7. The current edition is the result of

merging the original edition with IEEE Std 1219-1998. ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7 and the IEEE Computer Society

cooperated in this project to merge the two standards. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition

(1999).

International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission

Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Genève 20 • Switzerland
vi © IEEE 2006 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006
IEEE Introduction

This introduction is not part of ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764:2005(E), Standard for Software Engineering—Software

Life Cycle Processes—Maintenance.

This International Standard provides guidance on the Software Maintenance Process. Software Maintenance is

a primary process in the life cycle of a software product, as described in ISO/IEC 12207, “Information

technology – Software life cycle processes.” The Maintenance Process contains the activities and tasks of the

maintainer. This International Standard is part of the ISO/IEC 12207 family of documents. In this International

Standard, ISO/IEC 12207 refers to ISO/IEC 12207:1995 as amended in 2002 and 2004. The only mandatory

clauses in this International Standard come from ISO/IEC 12207. The mandatory clauses contain shalls and

each shall from ISO/IEC 12207 that is duplicated in this International Standard is boxed. The related ISO/IEC

12207 clause number is listed after the boxed ISO/IEC 12207 shalls. This International Standard is the result of

the harmonization of ISO/IEC 14764 and IEEE Std 1219-1998.

Because maintenance consumes a major share of a software life cycle financial resources, it should be an

important project consideration.

During operation of the software, problems may be detected that were not detected during validation and

acceptance. Therefore, a maintenance effort is needed to cope with these problems. This maintenance effort

also covers software improvements needed to meet new or modified user requirements. Software maintenance

is commonly needed when upgrading system components, such as operating systems and databases, as well as

when modifications are made to external software and systems interfaces. Software maintenance may be a

significant portion of life cycle costs.

Software maintainers use a number of specific tools, methods, and techniques. This International Standard does

not specify how to implement or perform the activities and tasks in the Software Maintenance Process since

these are dependent upon the formal agreement and organizational requirements. Maintenance is required on all

types of software, whatever the technology, technique, or tool used to create it.

Clause 1 provides the scope of this International Standard. Clause 2 provides conformance information. Clause

3 provides normative references. Clause 4 provides terms and definitions. Clause 5 provides the application of

this International Standard. Clause 6 provides the details of the Maintenance Process. Clause 7 provides

execution considerations for the Maintenance Process. Clause 8 provides the software maintenance strategy.

Annex A provides a cross reference between clauses in this International Standard and ISO/IEC 12207. Annex

B provides a list of abbreviations used in this International Standard. Annex C provides a bibliography.

Notice to users
Errata

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Current interpretations can be accessed at the following URL: http://standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/interp/

index.html.
Patents

Attention is called to the possibility that implementation of this standard may require use of subject matter

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USA (http://standards.ieee.org/).
© IEEE 2006 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006
Participants

At the time this standard was completed, the Software Maintenance Working Group had the following

membership:
Paul Croll, Chair
Thomas Pigoski, Editor
James W. Moore, Liaison to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7

The following members of the individual balloting committee voted on this standard. Balloters may have voted

for approval, disapproval, or abstention.
Edward Bartlett Christof Ebert Carol Long Mike Smith
Bakul Banerjee John Fendrich James Moore Mitchell Smith
Juris Borzovs Gregg Giesler Jeremy Moore Luca Spotorno
Curtis Browne John Garth Glynn Richard Moore Thomas Starai
Bruce Bullock Lewis Gray Rajesh Moorkath Richard Thayer
Joseph Butchko Michael Grimley Gerald Radack Scott Valcourt
Keith Chow Victoria Hailey Annette Reilly John Walz
Antonio M. Cicu John Horch Garry Roedler Oren Yuen
Todd Cooper Peeya Iwagoshi Terence Rout Janusz Zalewski
Paul Croll William Junk James Ruggieri Li Zhang
Geoffrey Darnton Joerg Kampmann James Sanders Geraldine Zimmerman
Guru Dutt Dhingra Piotr Karocki Robert J. Schaaf
Einar Dragstedt Ron Kenett David Schultz
Clint Early J. Dennis Lawrence Carl Singer

When the IEEE-SA Standards Board approved this standard on 30 March 2006, it had the following

membership:
Steve M. Mills, Chair
Richard H. Hulett, Vice Chair
Don Wright, Past Chair
Judith Gorman, Secretary
Mark D. Bowman William B. Hopf Ronald C. Petersen
Dennis B. Brophy Lowell G. Johnson Gary S. Robinson
Joseph Bruder Herman Koch Frank Stone
Richard Cox Joseph L. Koepfinger* Malcolm V. Thaden
Bob Davis David J. Law Richard L. Townsend
Julian Forster* Daleep C. Mohla Joe D. Watson
Joanna N. Guenin Paul Nikolich Howard L. Wolfman
Mark S. Halpin T. W. Olsen
Raymond Hapeman Glenn Parsons
*Member Emeritus
Also included are the following non-voting IEEE-SA Standards Board liaisons:
Satish K. Aggarwal, NRC Representative
Richard DeBlasio, DOE Representative
Alan H. Cookson, NIST Representative
Mike Fisher
IEEE Standards Project Editor
viii © IEEE 2006 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006
CONTENTS

1 Overview...........................................................................................................................................1

1.1 Scope .................................................................................................................................1

1.2 Purpose ..............................................................................................................................1

1.3 Field of application ............................................................................................................1

1.4 Limitations.........................................................................................................................2

1.5 Conformance......................................................................................................................2

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................2

3 Definitions and terms ........................................................................................................................3

4 Application of this International Standard.........................................................................................4

4.1 Maintenance Process..........................................................................................................4

4.2 Organization of this International Standard .......................................................................5

5 Maintenance Processes......................................................................................................................5

5.1 Process Implementation.....................................................................................................6

5.1.1 Inputs ...................................................................................................................6

5.1.2 Tasks....................................................................................................................7

5.1.3 Controls................................................................................................................8

5.1.4 Support.................................................................................................................8

5.1.5 Outputs.................................................................................................................8

5.2 Problem and Modification Analysis ..................................................................................9

5.2.1 Inputs ...................................................................................................................9

5.2.2 Tasks....................................................................................................................9

5.2.3 Controls..............................................................................................................12

5.2.4 Support...............................................................................................................12

5.2.5 Outputs...............................................................................................................12

5.3 Modification Implementation ..........................................................................................13

5.3.1 Inputs .................................................................................................................13

5.3.2 Tasks..................................................................................................................13

5.3.3 Controls..............................................................................................................14

5.3.4 Support...............................................................................................................14

5.3.5 Outputs...............................................................................................................15

5.4 Maintenance Review/Acceptance....................................................................................15

5.4.1 Inputs .................................................................................................................15

5.4.2 Tasks..................................................................................................................15

5.4.3 Controls..............................................................................................................16

5.4.4 Support...............................................................................................................16

5.4.5 Outputs...............................................................................................................17

5.5 Migration .........................................................................................................................17

5.5.1 Inputs .................................................................................................................17

5.5.2 Tasks..................................................................................................................17

5.5.3 Controls..............................................................................................................20

5.5.4 Support...............................................................................................................20

5.5.5 Outputs...............................................................................................................21

5.6 Software retirement..........................................................................................................21

5.6.1 Inputs .................................................................................................................21

5.6.2 Tasks..................................................................................................................22

5.6.3 Controls..............................................................................................................24

5.6.4 Support...............................................................................................................24

5.6.5 Outputs...............................................................................................................24

6 Execution considerations.................................................................................................................24

6.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................24

6.2 Types of maintenance ......................................................................................................25

6.3 Arrangements for maintenance ........................................................................................25

© IEEE 2006 – All rights reserved ix
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006

6.4 Tools for maintenance .....................................................................................................26

6.5 Software maintenance measurement .................................................................................27

6.6 Documentation of process ...............................................................................................27

6.7 Early involvement in development ..................................................................................27

6.8 Maintainability.................................................................................................................28

6.8.1 Maintainability and the development process....................................................28

6.8.2 Maintainability and specific activities in the development process...................29

6.9 Software transition...........................................................................................................30

6.10 Documentation.................................................................................................................31

7 Software maintenance strategy........................................................................................................31

7.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................31

7.2 The maintenance concept ................................................................................................32

7.2.1 Scope .................................................................................................................32

7.2.2 Defining the process ..........................................................................................32

7.2.3 Designation of who will provide maintenance...................................................32

7.2.4 Estimate of maintenance costs...........................................................................33

7.3 Maintenance planning......................................................................................................33

7.3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................33

7.3.2 The maintenance plan ........................................................................................33

7.3.3 Maintenance plan topics ....................................................................................34

7.4 Resource analysis ............................................................................................................37

7.4.1 Personnel resources............................................................................................38

7.4.2 Environment resources ......................................................................................38

7.4.3 Financial resources ............................................................................................38

Annex A (informative) Cross-reference between ISO/IEC/IEEE 14764 and ISO/IEC 12207 and

ISO/IEC 12207 Amd 1....................................................................................................................39

Annex B (informative) Abbreviations.........................................................................................................42

Annex C (informative) Bibliography...........................................................................................................43

x © IEEE 2006 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 14764:2006(E)
IEEE Std 14764-2006
Standard for Software Engineering — Software
Life Cycle Processes — Maintenance
1 Overview

This International Standard describes in greater detail management of the Maintenance Process

described in ISO/IEC 12207, including Amendments. This International Standard also establishes

definitions for the various types of maintenance. This International Standard provides guidance

that applies to planning, execution and control, review and evaluation, and closure of the

Maintenance Process. The scope of this International Standard includes maintenance for multiple

software products with the same maintenance resources. “Maintenance” in this International

Standard means software maintenance unless otherwise stated.
1.1 Scope

This standard describes an iterative process for managing and executing software maintenance

activities. Use of this standard is not restricted by size, complexity, criticality, or application of the

software product. This standard uses a process model to discuss and depict each phase of software

maintenance. The criteria established apply to both the planning of maintenance for software

while under development, as well as the planning and execution of software maintenance

activities for existing software products. Ideally, maintenance planning should begin during the

stage of planning for software development.

This International Standard provides the framework within which generic and specific software

maintenan
...

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