Graphical symbols -- Safety signs -- Safety way guidance systems (SWGS)

ISO 16069:2017 describes the principles governing the design and application of visual components used to create a safety way guidance system (SWGS). ISO 16069:2017 contains general principles valid both for electrically powered and for phosphorescent components. Special information which is related to the type of component is given to assist in defining the environment of use, choice of material, layout, installation and maintenance of SWGS. ISO 16069:2017 does not cover risk assessment. Applications with different risks to the occupants typically require different layouts and types of SWGS. The specific application and exact final design of SWGS is entrusted to those persons responsible for this task. ISO 16069:2017 also does not include the special considerations of possible tactile or audible components of SWGS, nor does it include requirements for high mounted components of the emergency escape route lighting, especially the design and application of emergency escape route lighting. ISO 16069:2017 is intended, by collaboration and coordination, to be used by all other Technical Committees within ISO and IEC charged with developing SWGS for their specific requirements. ISO 16069:2017 is not to be used for ships falling under regulations of the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

Symboles graphiques -- Signaux de sécurité -- Systèmes de guidage pour cheminement d'évacuation de sécurité

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Nov-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Oct-2017
Completion Date
10-Nov-2017
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16069
Second edition
2017-11
Graphical symbols — Safety signs —
Safety way guidance systems (SWGS)
Symboles graphiques — Signaux de sécurité — Systèmes de guidage
pour cheminement d'évacuation de sécurité
Reference number
ISO 16069:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16069:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16069:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Planning a SWGS ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Basic principles for the design of SWGS ....................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Design objectives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1.2 Continuity .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.1.3 Visual reinforcement .................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.4 Location ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.5 Destination ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.1.6 Avoidance of confusion at decision points ................................................................................................ 6

5.1.7 Dead ends ............................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1.8 Minimization of potentially competing or confusing information in the

visual field on escape routes .................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1.9 Multi-level facilities ....................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Guidance lines .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Escape route signs ................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.3.1 Design ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.3.2 Consistency of use .......................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.3.3 Installed position ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.4 Signs, markings and plans ..........................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.1 Marking of stairs, ramps and ladders .........................................................................................................10

5.4.2 Marking of emergency exits ................................................................................................................................10

5.4.3 Marking of fire-fighting, emergency and safety equipment and alarm-

initiating devices ...........................................................................................................................................................10

5.4.4 Marking of hazards along the escape route ...........................................................................................10

5.4.5 Marking of assembly areas and safe areas at the end of the escape route .................11

5.4.6 Marking of escape routes for the specific use of disabled persons ...................................11

5.4.7 Escape and evacuation plan signs ..................................................................................................................11

5.4.8 Access platforms ...........................................................................................................................................................11

6 Specific requirements for electrically powered components .............................................................................11

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2 Requirements for guidance lines and escape route signs ...............................................................................12

6.2.1 Escape route sign luminaire ................................................................................................................................12

6.2.2 Guidance lines made by point sources and accompanying escape route signs ......12

6.2.3 Guidance lines made by line sources and accompanying escape route signs ..........12

6.2.4 Guidance lines made of discrete luminaires .........................................................................................12

6.3 Marking ......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.3.1 Marking of stairs and ramps ...............................................................................................................................12

6.3.2 Marking of emergency exits ................................................................................................................................13

6.3.3 Marking of hazards along the escape route ...........................................................................................13

6.4 Emergency power supply and operating conditions for the electrical components ...............13

6.5 Documentation and logbook ....................................................................................................................................................13

6.6 Inspection and maintenance ....................................................................................................................................................14

7 Specific requirements for phosphorescent components ........................................................................................14

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Luminance requirements for phosphorescent components of a SWGS .............................................14

7.2.1 Minimum luminance properties .................. ....................................................................................................14

7.2.2 Minimum luminance required in installed position ......................................................................15

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16069:2017(E)

7.3 Guidance lines and escape route signs and their location within a SWGS .......................................15

7.3.1 Guidance lines .................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3.2 Escape route signs .......................................................................................................................................................15

7.4 Marking ......................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.4.1 Marking of stairs, ramps and ladders .........................................................................................................16

7.4.2 Marking of door frames of emergency exits .................. ........................................................................16

7.4.3 Marking of hazards along the route .............................................................................................................16

7.4.4 Marking of fire-fighting, emergency and safety equipment along the

escape route ......................................................................................................................................................................16

7.4.5 Floor numbering and stairwell identification for multi-storey building......................16

7.5 Illumination requirements ........................................................................................................................................................17

7.6 Verification of illumination and luminance .................................................................................................................17

7.7 Documentation and logbook ....................................................................................................................................................17

7.8 Inspection and maintenance ....................................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (normative) Measurement of photopic luminance of phosphorescent components

in the laboratory ................................................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex B (normative) On-site measurement of luminance performance of phosphorescent

components of a SWGS ................................................................................................................................................................................25

Annex C (informative) Visibility and identifiability of phosphorescent safety way guidance

components and their sizing and location .............................................................................................................................29

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................39

iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16069:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 145, Graphical symbols, Subcommittee

SC 2, Safety identifications, signs, shapes, symbols, and colours.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16069:2004) which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared with the previous edition are as follows:

a) the component luminance requirements of the electrical systems have been updated;

b) the component luminance and dimensions of non-electrical phosphorescent systems have been

updated;

c) the document and its requirements have been simplified to improve ease of use and eliminate

ambiguity;

d) all example figures which by definition could not cover all arrangements have been removed;

e) an informative annex for designers of non-electrical phosphorescent systems regarding observation

distances has been added.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16069:2017(E)
Introduction

Safety way guidance systems need to be standardized so that they communicate the information

necessary to allow people to be able to evacuate a building efficiently and, if necessary, to assemble in

designated safe areas in cases of fire or other emergencies.

Through the consistent and uniform international application of common SWGS design principles,

persons in all countries will be better able to recognize and follow the directional information provided

by such systems to assist in providing a safe evacuation. As an additional benefit, a standardized SWGS

will assist fire fighters and other rescue teams to evacuate occupied areas during emergency situations.

In order to communicate safety way guidance information efficiently across language barriers, the

systems defined in this document incorporate the use of graphical symbols and markings such as

arrows, conforming to ISO 7010 and ISO 3864-3.

Illumination of escape routes is not part of the SWGS and is therefore not covered by this document;

a SWGS is not intended to replace emergency escape lighting. There will be certain situations where

emergency escape lighting is not needed, and other situations, for example where smoke is present,

where emergency escape lighting can lose its efficiency and a SWGS will be more effective in assisting

emergency evacuation, but it is generally recommended that SWGS be used in combination with the

illumination of escape routes to provide additional benefits for the whole system.

The principles given in this document are intended to provide consistent design elements irrespective

of whether they use electrically powered or phosphorescent components. Consistent use will improve

public awareness of the systems and assist rapid recognition and effectiveness in the case of an

emergency.
vi © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16069:2017(E)
Graphical symbols — Safety signs — Safety way guidance
systems (SWGS)

IMPORTANT — The colours represented in the electronic file of this document can be neither

viewed on screen nor printed as true representations. For the purposes of colour matching,

see ISO 3864-4 which provides colorimetric and photometric properties together with, as a

guideline, references from colour order systems.
1 Scope

This document describes the principles governing the design and application of visual components

used to create a safety way guidance system (SWGS).

This document contains general principles valid both for electrically powered and for phosphorescent

components. Special information which is related to the type of component is given to assist in defining

the environment of use, choice of material, layout, installation and maintenance of SWGS.

This document does not cover risk assessment. Applications with different risks to the occupants

typically require different layouts and types of SWGS. The specific application and exact final design of

SWGS is entrusted to those persons responsible for this task.

This document also does not include the special considerations of possible tactile or audible components

of SWGS, nor does it include requirements for high mounted components of the emergency escape route

lighting, especially the design and application of emergency escape route lighting.

This document is intended, by collaboration and coordination, to be used by all other Technical Committees

within ISO and IEC charged with developing SWGS for their specific requirements. This document is not to

be used for ships falling under regulations of the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3864-1, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 1: Design principles for safety

signs and safety markings

ISO 3864-3, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 3: Design principles for graphical

symbols for use in safety signs

ISO 3864-4:2011, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 4: Colorimetric and

photometric properties of safety sign materials

ISO 7010:2011, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Registered safety signs

ISO 23601, Safety identification — Escape and evacuation plan signs

IEC 60364-5-56, Low-Voltage electrical Installations — Part 5-56: Selection and erection of electrical

equipment — Safety services

IEC 60598-2-22, Luminaires — Part 2-22: Particular requirements — Luminaires for emergency lighting

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16069:2017(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
assembly area

designated safe area outside the occupied area where occupants are expected to assemble

3.2
dead end

corridor, or part of a corridor whose depth is greater than its width from which there is only one

escape route
[SOURCE: ISO 15370:2010, 3.5]
3.3
emergency escape lighting

that part of emergency lighting (3.4) that provides illumination for the safety of people leaving a location

or attempting to terminate a potentially dangerous process before doing so
3.4
emergency lighting
lighting provided for use when the supply to the normal lighting fails
3.5
factor of distance

relationship between the height (h) of a sign and observation distance (l), used to determine observation

distances of signs
z =
[SOURCE: ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.2]
3.6
guidance line

line of luminous material on or close to the floor provided to clearly delineate an escape route or define

an escape path through an open area
3.7
high location

installation position above doors or at or close to ceiling level for safety signs and other safety way

guidance components
3.8
intermediate location

installation position between a low location (3.9) and a high location (3.7) especially at eye level for

safety signs and other safety way guidance components
3.9
low location

installation position at or close to floor level for safety signs and other safety way guidance components

2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16069:2017(E)
3.10
luminance contrast

luminance of the brightest element of the safety way guidance component divided by the

luminance of the surrounding environment
3.11
marking
method of highlighting and identifying specific building components or equipment
3.12
observation distance
distance from which a sign is identifiable and conspicuous
3.13
observation distance

distance from which guidance lines (3.6) and door frames are visible

3.14
period of use
time over which the safety way guidance system is expected to be operational
3.15
phosphorescent material

material incorporating phosphors that, if excited by UV or visible radiation, store energy, which is

emitted as light over a period of time

Note 1 to entry: A phosphorescent sign is the same as “photoluminescent” commonly used in the literature of the

photoluminescent safety sign industry.
[SOURCE: ISO 3864-4:2011, 3.12, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.16
safety sign

sign which gives a general safety message, obtained by a combination of colour and geometric shape

and which, by the addition of a graphical symbol, gives a particular safety message

[SOURCE: ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.12]
3.17
safety way guidance system
SWGS

system that provides luminous markings and direction information for the safety of people leaving a

location
3.18
sign height

diameter of a circular geometric shape or height of a rectangular or triangular geometric shape

Note 1 to entry: Registered safety sign originals in ISO 7010 are in a uniform 70 mm size with corner marks to

enable accurate enlargement and reduction scaling. A border is not shown.
[SOURCE: ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.13, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.19
supplementary sign

sign that is supportive of a safety sign and the main purpose of which is to provide additional

clarification
[SOURCE: ISO 3864-1:2011, 3.14]
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 16069:2017(E)
4 Planning a SWGS

This document provides guidelines for the installation of the guidance system in buildings where it has

been decided as the result of risk assessment to install a luminous safety way guidance system.

Since SWGS can consist of a variety of possible components, steps shall be taken at the planning stage to

determine appropriate designs.
The SWGS shall take into account the following factors:

a) the characteristics of the exit path of the horizontal and stairwell sections of the defined escape

route and exit paths to them, including through open areas;

b) the location of emergency exit doors and how the door frame can be marked and the placement of

escape route signs;
c) the location of assembly stations and refuge areas;

d) the location of all possible escape routes (emergency stairwell, escape windows, ladders);

e) the location of escape and evacuation plan signs at a prominent place;

f) the location of hazards such as machinery, dangerous goods, steps and obstacles;

g) the location of safety equipment and fire equipment;

h) the characteristics of the installed emergency lighting in terms of designed illuminance

performance and duration;

i) the location and type of high mounted emergency exit signs installed as part of the emergency

lighting system;

j) for phosphorescent systems, the type of light source of the normal and emergency lighting and

designed/in situ illuminance at potential placement of guidance lines and safety signs;

k) for phosphorescent systems, the time management of the normal light sources in the location

(occupancy floor and stairwells) for phosphorescent components to be sufficiently exposed to an

illumination source in order to function in dark surroundings;

l) for electrically powered systems, the potential locations for the independent power supply, the

potential locations for routing of the power cables and devices for detection of failure of power

supply and/or smoke;

m) the possible combinations of components in SWGS to assist evacuation under specific risk

conditions such as presence of diffused or stratified smoke, earthquakes, and presence of obstacles

or specific crowding conditions;
n) the fire compartmentalization provisions;

o) the location of opening devices for doors, e.g. sliding doors, door handle, push bars, emergency push

buttons;
p) the design of existing escape route signs.
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ISO 16069:2017(E)
5 Basic principles for the design of SWGS
5.1 Design objectives
5.1.1 General

Safety way guidance systems shall provide the users of the building with consistent, coherent

information so that they can be evacuated efficiently from any occupancy unit to a safe area.

Luminous safety way guidance systems can be installed in addition to high located emergency lighting

and its associated high located escape route signs. Safety way guidance systems shall be installed

and activated in all risk situations that have been defined by risk assessments. Examples of situations

include blackout of the exit path and escape route signs due to potential failure of the power supply to

the escape route lighting or the risk of smoke obscuring the exit path and emergency exit doors.

The approach of both phosphorescent or electrically powered safety way guidance systems is luminous

marking of the exit path and changes of level of the emergency exit path, not the illumination of the

floor or steps. Consequently, for the safety way guidance systems specified in this document there is

not a requirement to specify the horizontal illuminance on the centre line of the escape path or vertical

illuminance at safety equipment.

Activation/charging of phosphorescent components to produce light emission in dark surroundings

requires pre-exposure of the components to the installed light sources. The luminance performance

during the decay mode of the phosphorescent components depends upon the light spectral

characteristics of the light source, the excitation illuminance at the location of the phosphorescent

component and the duration of the excitation.

All the components of an activated safety way guidance system shall have a luminance contrast with

the surroundings of >3 when in use and for at least the time allocated for escape in clear air conditions.

For the same performance of luminous material, the observation distance for visibility of emergency

exit door marking is longer than the distance for identification of the escape route sign at the exit door.

In conditions of smoke on the emergency exit path, the light from luminous way guidance components

is attenuated exponentially with smoke density and light is scattered producing a luminous veil. As

the smoke density increases, an emergency exit door may no longer be visible but the guidance lines

and escape route signs in short distance from the evacuee can be visible to direct evacuees towards an

emer
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