Life cycle management of concrete structures

This document provides the principles for implementing life cycle management (LCM) of concrete structures throughout the stages of planning, design, execution, use and end-of-life, as well as the framework and procedures for LCM. This document is applicable not only to new structures but also existing structures. It is also applicable to the entire life cycle and each one or more stages composing the life cycle of a structure. NOTE Details in the procedures and specific methodologies for management in each stage of structure's life cycle based on this document is established separately.

Gestion du cycle de vie des structures en béton

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Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Jan-2021
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
29-Jan-2021
Completion Date
29-Jan-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22040
First edition
2021-01
Life cycle management of concrete
structures
Gestion du cycle de vie des structures en béton
Reference number
ISO 22040:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22040:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 22040:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General principles of life cycle management .......................................................................................................................... 2

5 General framework of life cycle management ....................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Scenario formulation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Indicators for life cycle management .................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3.2 Social aspect ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3.3 Environmental aspect ........................................................................................................................................... ....... 3

5.3.4 Economic aspect ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Procedures of life cycle management ............................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Management for each life cycle stage ............................................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Management in planning and design stages.................................................................................................................. 5

7.3 Management in execution stage ............................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Management in use stage ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.5 Management in end-of-life stage ............................................................................................................................................. 6

8 Information transfer among management stages ............................................................................................................. 6

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 22040:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-

stressed concrete.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 22040:2021(E)
Introduction

A concrete structure passes through different stages during its life: from the planning, design,

execution and use to the end-of-life stages. Due to its long life, it involves different parties at each

stage. This implies that it is essential to transfer important information from one stage to another in an

appropriate form. However, in reality, no appropriate system has been developed regarding the basic

concept and specific methods to achieve this and manage the life cycle of the structure in a consistent

manner (life cycle management).

Such lack of an appropriate system creates limitations in durability management of concrete structures,

which has been recognized as a serious problem in the field of concrete technologies. This means

that the prerequisites at the design stage are not managed appropriately and that execution-induced

problems are not ascertained and documented. Regarding the former, there has not been a system for

clarifying a long-term maintenance program based on conditions elaborated at the design stage and

ensuring its continuation in an appropriate form. Regarding the latter, since a number of uncertain

elements exist in the construction of a concrete structure, the quality of construction does not always

match the prerequisites of design. Therefore, construction involves factors impairing the durability

of the structure in quite a few cases. This suggests that confirmation of completion of the structure

and documentation of the procedure to completion are essential for ensuring its performance in its

life cycle. It can also become necessary to alter the design conditions of a concrete structure in the use

stage. In such a case, basic information regarding the original design becomes essential, but it is often

not retained in an appropriate form. As a result, it takes much work to retrieve basic information of the

existing structure. Moreover, the design and execution need to be based on uncertainty to a certain

extent. For appropriate management of a structure, it is therefore extremely important to keep all basic

information at each stage.

Some standards regarding the life cycle of infrastructure have already been developed. The pertinent

standards are the ISO 15686 series. The ISO 15686 series is relevant to the service life planning of new

and existing buildings and cover a part of the planning process. In the ISO 15686 series, service life

estimation applies principally to the estimation of residual service lives of components of a building

that are already in service, and to the selection of components for, and the detailing of, repairs and

new work. While a part of basic philosophy of these standards can be applied, it is difficult or rather

impossible to fully apply these documents to the life cycle management of concrete structures without

misunderstanding because these standards only deal with buildings with replaceable components

including ancillaries. This document covers any kind of concrete structures.

A standard is, therefore, necessary regarding the basic concept and specific procedures for methods of

managing concrete structures in view of the current problems, in order to rationally control concrete

structures throughout their life cycle and more reliably ensure functioning of future documents. With

this as a background, it was decided to establish in this document the key principles, framework and

procedures for appropriately implementing life cycle management (LCM) in which planning, design,

execution, use and end-of-life of a structure are appropriately connected one after the other. It is

worth noting that this document also serves as a guideline for other ISO standards. Table 1 lists the

relationship between this document and other ISO standards.

A structure is constructed with its own purposes. It generally includes protecting people from

disasters and ensuring a comfortable and safe life. A structure is required to maintain its functions

and performance to achieve these purposes. The introduction of LCM for a structure contributes to all

aspects of sustainability while maintaining the functions and performances to fulfil its purposes.

Sustainability is the goal of sustainable development. It refers to any state of the global system in

which the needs of the present are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet

their own needs. The concept of sustainability is continually evolving. Understanding and achieving

a balance between environmental, social and economic aspects, ideally in mutually supporting ways,

is considered essential for making progress towards achieving sustainability. The achievement of

sustainability is now recognized as one of the most important considerations in all human activities

(ISO Guide 82).
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 22040:2021(E)

A concrete structure inherently has a planned life when it is well designed, executed and maintained

under proper life cycle management based on sustainability framework.
Table 1 — Relationship between this document and other ISO standards
Planning Design Execution Use End-of-life
ISO 22040, Life cycle management of concrete structures
[Test method]
ISO 1920 series
ISO 10406
— —
ISO 17785
ISO 19044
ISO 20290 series
ISO 14484
ISO 12439
ISO 15673 ISO 16311
ISO 14824
ISO 16204 ISO 16711
— ISO 19595 —
ISO 19338 ISO/TR 16475
ISO 22965
ISO 28841 ISO/TS 16774
ISO 22966
ISO 28842
ISO 14484 (FRP)
— —
ISO 18319 (FRP)
ISO 13315 series (Environmental management)
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22040:2021(E)
Life cycle management of concrete structures
1 Scope

This document provides the principles for implementing life cycle management (LCM) of concrete

structures throughout the stages of planning, design, execution, use and end-of-life, as well as the

framework and procedures for LCM.

This document is applicable not only to new structures but also existing structures. It is also applicable

to the entire life cycle and each one or more stages composing the life cycle of a structure.

NOTE Details in the procedures and specific methodologies for management in each stage of structure’s life

cycle based on this document is established separately.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2394, General principles on reliability for structures

ISO 19338, Performance and assessment requirements for design standards on structural concrete

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
life cycle

set of consecutive, interlinked stages of a structure, which comprise planning, design, execution, use

and end-of-life stages
3.2
life cycle management
LCM

set of systematic and coordinated activities and practices through which a structure is appropriately

managed over its life cycle (3.1)
3.3
life cycle management scenario
LCM scenario

plan for ensuring performance (3.5) of a structure throughout its life cycle (3.1)

3.4
maintenance

set of activities taken to check, evaluate the performance (3.5) of a structure and preserve/restore it so

as to satisfy perfor
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 22040
ISO/TC 71
Life cycle management of concrete
Secretariat: ANSI
structures
Voting begins on:
2020­10­20
Voting terminates on:
2020­12­15
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 22040:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22040:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22040:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General principles of life cycle management .......................................................................................................................... 2

5 General framework of life cycle management ....................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Scenario formulation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.3 Indicators for life cycle management .................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3.2 Social aspect ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3.3 Environmental aspect ........................................................................................................................................... ....... 3

5.3.4 Economic aspect ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Procedures of life cycle management ............................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Management for each life cycle stage ............................................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.2 Management in planning and design stages.................................................................................................................. 5

7.3 Management in execution stage ............................................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Management in use stage ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.5 Management in end­of­life stage ............................................................................................................................................. 6

8 Information transfer among management stages ............................................................................................................. 6

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22040:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-

stressed concrete..

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22040:2020(E)
Introduction

A concrete structure passes through different stages during its life: from the planning, design,

execution and use to the end-of-life stages. Due to its long life, it involves different parties at each

stage. This implies that it is essential to transfer important information from one stage to another in an

appropriate form. However, in reality, no appropriate system has been developed regarding the basic

concept and specific methods to achieve this and manage the life cycle of the structure in a consistent

manner (life cycle management).

Such lack of an appropriate system creates limitations in durability management of concrete structures,

which has been recognized as a serious problem in the field of concrete technologies. This means

that the prerequisites at the design stage are not managed appropriately and that execution-induced

problems are not ascertained and documented. Regarding the former, there has not been a system for

clarifying a long-term maintenance program based on conditions elaborated at the design stage and

ensuring its continuation in an appropriate form. Regarding the latter, since a number of uncertain

elements exist in the construction of a concrete structure, the quality of construction does not always

match the prerequisites of design. Therefore, construction involves factors impairing the durability

of the structure in quite a few cases. This suggests that confirmation of completion of the structure

and documentation of the procedure to completion are essential for ensuring its performance in its

life cycle. It can also become necessary to alter the design conditions of a concrete structure in the use

stage. In such a case, basic information regarding the original design becomes essential, but it is often

not retained in an appropriate form. As a result, it takes much work to retrieve basic information of the

existing structure. Moreover, the design and execution need to be based on uncertainty to a certain

extent. For appropriate management of a structure, it is therefore extremely important to keep all basic

information at each stage.

Some standards regarding the life cycle of infrastructure have already been developed. The pertinent

standards are the ISO 15686 series. The ISO 15686 series is relevant to the service life planning of new

and existing buildings and cover a part of the planning process. In the ISO 15686 series, service life

estimation applies principally to the estimation of residual service lives of components of a building

that are already in service, and to the selection of components for, and the detailing of, repairs and

new work. While a part of basic philosophy of these standards can be applied, it is difficult or rather

impossible to fully apply these documents to the life cycle management of concrete structures without

misunderstanding because these standards only deal with buildings with replaceable components

including ancillaries. This document covers any kind of concrete structures.

A standard is, therefore, necessary regarding the basic concept and specific procedures for methods of

managing concrete structures in view of the current problems, in order to rationally control concrete

structures throughout their life cycle and more reliably ensure functioning of future documents. With

this as a background, it was decided to establish in this document the key principles, framework and

procedures for appropriately implementing life cycle management (LCM) in which planning, design,

execution, use and end-of-life of a structure are appropriately connected one after the other. It is

worth noting that this document also serves as a guideline for other ISO standards. Table 1 lists the

relationship between this document and other ISO standards.

A structure is constructed with its own purposes. It generally includes protecting people from

disasters and ensuring a comfortable and safe life. A structure is required to maintain its functions

and performance to achieve these purposes. The introduction of LCM for a structure contributes to all

aspects of sustainability while maintaining the functions and performances to fulfil its purposes.

Sustainability is the goal of sustainable development. It refers to any state of the global system in

which the needs of the present are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet

their own needs. The concept of sustainability is continually evolving. Understanding and achieving

a balance between environmental, social and economic aspects, ideally in mutually supporting ways,

is considered essential for making progress towards achieving sustainability. The achievement of

sustainability is now recognized as one of the most important considerations in all human activities

(ISO Guide 82).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 22040:2020(E)

A concrete structure inherently has a planned life when it is well designed, executed and maintained

under proper life cycle management based on sustainability framework.
Table 1 — Relationship between this document and other ISO standards
Planning Design Execution Use End-of-life
ISO 22040, Life cycle management of concrete structures
[Test method]
ISO 1920 series
ISO 10406
— —
ISO 17785
ISO 19044
ISO 20290 series
ISO 14484
ISO 12439
ISO 15673 ISO 16311
ISO 14824
ISO 16204 ISO 16711
— ISO 19595 —
ISO 19338 ISO/TR 16475
ISO 22965
ISO 28841 ISO/TS 16774
ISO 22966
ISO 28842
ISO 14484 (FRP)
— —
ISO 18319 (FRP)
ISO 13315 series (Environmental management)
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 22040:2020(E)
Life cycle management of concrete structures
1 Scope

This document provides the principles for implementing life cycle management (LCM) of concrete

structures throughout the stages of planning, design, execution, use and end-of-life, as well as the

framework and procedures for LCM.

This document is applicable not only to new structures but also existing structures. It is also applicable

to the entire life cycle and each one or more stages composing the life cycle of a structure.

NOTE Details in the procedures and specific methodologies for management in each stage of structure’s life

cycle based on this document is established separately.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2394, General principles on reliability for structures

ISO 19338, Performance and assessment requirements for design standards on structural concrete

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
life cycle

set of consecutive, interlinked stages of a structure, which comprise planning, design, execution, use

and end­of­life stages
3.2
life cycle management
LCM
set of syste
...

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