Solid recovered fuels -- Guidance for the specification of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for selected uses

This document addresses the provision of background references that are helpful in defining a more detailed specification for SRF according to its specific end use for energy conversion (EfW plants) and to support the SRF market. The aim is to enable all the interested stakeholders – producers, end users, legislators, local authority bodies and standardization bodies – to guarantee that the SRF complies fully with technical, environmental and economic requirements and to facilitate its social acceptability when utilized for energy conversion. This document is intended to provide references for the specification of SRF produced from non-hazardous waste streams and traded to EfW plants as waste. The quality of such SRF is specified through values for relevant fuel properties, appropriate to the subsequent end uses that have an expected growth or an established/well consolidated role in heat and power generation in waste-to-energy systems: —   coal co-combustion in cement kilns, —   gasification, —   coal co-combustion in power plants. The SRF can also be used in other end-use applications but these are not addressed in this document.

Combustibles solides de récupération -- Recommandations pour la spécification des combustibles solides de récupération (SFR) pour des utilisations choisies

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Jun-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
27-May-2021
Completion Date
27-May-2021
Ref Project

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 21916
First edition
2021-07
Solid recovered fuels — Guidance for
the specification of solid recovered
fuels (SRF) for selected uses
Reference number
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ............................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms............................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Compilation, structure and use of data ......................................................................................................................................... 6

5 SRF and other waste derived fuels ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Terms used for secondary fuels from waste ...............................................................................................................10

5.3 Rules for the classification and specification of SRF ...........................................................................................14

5.4 Market for SRF and other waste-derived fuels .........................................................................................................18

6 Coal co-combustion in the cement manufacturing industry ...............................................................................20

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 End use requirements of SRF and other waste derived fuels ......................................................................21

6.2.1 Technical limitation of the technologies ...................................................................................................21

6.2.2 Quality requirements in plant permits ......................................................................................................25

6.2.3 Quality requirements in general guidelines ..........................................................................................25

6.2.4 Quality requirements in voluntary end user specifications ....................................................26

6.3 Typical values for SRF ....................................................................................................................................................................27

7 Coal co-combustion in power plants .............................................................................................................................................29

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................29

7.2 End use requirements for SRF and other waste derived fuels ....................................................................30

7.2.1 Technical limitations of the technologies ................................................................................................30

7.2.2 Quality requirements in plant permits ......................................................................................................34

7.2.3 Quality requirements in general guidelines ..........................................................................................34

7.2.4 Quality requirements in voluntary end user specifications ....................................................35

7.3 Typical values for SRF ....................................................................................................................................................................36

8 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................37

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................37

8.2 End use requirements for SRF and other waste derived fuels ....................................................................37

8.2.1 Technical limitations of the technologies ................................................................................................37

8.2.2 Quality requirements in plant permits ......................................................................................................42

8.2.3 Quality requirements in general guidelines ..........................................................................................42

8.2.4 Quality requirements in voluntary end user specifications ....................................................43

8.3 Typical values for SRF ....................................................................................................................................................................44

9 Conclusions and guidance .......................................................................................................................................................................45

Annex A (informative) Background references on the production of SRF and other waste

derived fuels ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................48

Annex B (informative) Fuel specification: Provisions in national standards, legislation,

plant permits. General and national guidelines. Voluntary specification by the end user ..56

Annex C (informative) Background reference on technologies .............................................................................................77

Annex D (informative) Typical values for SRF: background data and outcomes of a

statistical assessment of measured values ............................................................................................................................98

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................121

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO-specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300, Solid recovered materials, including

solid recovered fuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
Introduction

Waste-to-energy is a broad term that covers much more than waste incineration. It includes various

treatment processes that have different environmental impacts but also offer potential for the progress

desired towards a low-carbon and circular economy. Processes that convert waste into solid fuels and

generate electricity and/or thermal energy from it can play an increasing role in achieving such goals.

Traditionally, solid fuels recovered from waste have been used as an integrative fuel in incineration or

co-incineration plants treating a mix of wastes, so as to improve the energy performance of the plant.

There are also some dedicated SRF-EfW plants (e.g. incineration plants and industrial combustion

plants recovering thermal and/or electrical energy from the solid recovered fuel alone).

An increasing role as substitutive fuel has occurred over time to allow a reduction of fossil fuel

consumption and the impact on climate change and greenhouse gas emission of industrial activities

with a high energy consumption. In recent years, the use of solid recovered fuels has expanded to other

interesting and promising fields, such as gasification or combined gasification and pyrolysis. Waste

gasification and co-incineration of the resulting syngas in a combustion plant, co-processing to power

and material recovery in cement kilns and waste incineration in dedicated facilities can be highlighted

as best proven techniques to increase the energy efficiency of waste-to-energy processes and optimize

their contribution to national and global climate and energy goals.

All the above-mentioned waste-to-energy processes rank differently in the waste hierarchy and

have different needs for fuel quality to ensure better plant management as well as compliance with

requirements set by national and supranational legislation.

Quite an extensive family of solid fuels can be recovered from waste, with different physico-chemical

properties and a quality that is not always well defined. Those produced from non-hazardous waste,

classified as SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel), are specifically of interest in this document. The term SRF

itself identifies a family of fuels that can differ in origin (input waste streams), composition and quality.

Many barriers still hamper the extensive development of SRFs. As discussed later, a continuing confusion

in terminology can be highlighted. Solid fuels recovered from non-hazardous waste are identified in

different countries by different terms (e.g. CSS, CDR, CDR-Q, RPF, SBS, CSR,), shipped with different

waste codes, and an ambiguous use of the terms RDF and SRF still occurs. SRF is largely produced

and traded as waste, different countries labelling it with different waste codes based on local waste

legislation. An end-of-waste of SRF is allowed in some countries (e.g. Austria, Italy) if the fuels produced

comply with specific and mandatory requirements legally set.

Solid recovered fuels are intended to be classified and specified according to ISO/TC 300 standards.

Fuel specification is also the subject of national guidelines, in places addressed to specific end uses

of the fuel (e.g. in cement kilns), and of local voluntary commitments on fuel properties between the

producer and the end user aimed at ensuring that the latter meets its own technological, economic and

environmental needs.

Generic (all solid waste) or specific (SRF) quality requirements are set by national or local regulators

(e.g. administrative bodies authorized to issue plant permits), mainly to ensure that waste-to-energy

plants at least meet the requirements for environmental and human protection and to regulate the role

of waste-to energy plants within the national/regional waste management systems as a whole.

There are still acceptance problems in several countries that need to overcome, for example by reliable

data, a high level of information and transparency.

To foster the application of SRFs in existing and new fields and to overcome existing barriers, it is

therefore strategically essential for all interested stakeholders to define what quality requirements the

SRF meets based on homogeneous, unambiguous and well-accepted criteria.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Guidance for the specification of
solid recovered fuels (SRF) for selected uses
1 Scope

This document addresses the provision of background references that are helpful in defining a more

detailed specification for SRF according to its specific end use for energy conversion (EfW plants) and

to support the SRF market. The aim is to enable all the interested stakeholders – producers, end users,

legislators, local authority bodies and standardization bodies – to guarantee that the SRF complies fully

with technical, environmental and economic requirements and to facilitate its social acceptability when

utilized for energy conversion.

This document is intended to provide references for the specification of SRF produced from non-

hazardous waste streams and traded to EfW plants as waste. The quality of such SRF is specified

through values for relevant fuel properties, appropriate to the subsequent end uses that have an

expected growth or an established/well consolidated role in heat and power generation in waste-to-

energy systems:
— coal co-combustion in cement kilns,
— gasification,
— coal co-combustion in power plants.

The SRF can also be used in other end-use applications but these are not addressed in this document.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
BAT
best available technique

term used within the European Union for the most effective and advanced stage in the development

of activities and their methods of operation which indicates the practical suitability of particular

techniques for providing the basis for emission limit values and other permit conditions designed to

prevent and, where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment as a

whole

Note 1 to entry: “Techniques” includes both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed,

built, maintained, operated and decommissioned.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: “Available techniques” means those developed on a scale which allows implementation in the

relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into consideration the

costs and advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Member State in question,

as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator.

Note 3 to entry: “Best” means most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as

a whole.
[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU, Art. 3 (10)]
3.1.2
BAT reference document

term used within the European Union for a document, resulting from the exchange of information

drawn up for defined activities, that describes, in particular, applied techniques, present emission and

consumption levels, techniques considered for the determination of best available techniques as well as

BAT conclusions and any emerging techniques

Note 1 to entry: “BAT conclusions” means a document containing the parts of a BAT reference document laying

down the conclusions on best available techniques, their description, information to assess their applicability, the

emission levels associated with the best available techniques, associated monitoring, associated consumption

levels and, where appropriate, relevant site remediation measures.

Note 2 to entry: “Emission levels associated with the best available techniques” means the range of emission

levels obtained under normal operating conditions using a best available technique or a combination of best

available techniques, as described in BAT conclusions, expressed as an average over a given period of time, under

specified reference conditions.

Note 3 to entry: “Emerging technique” means a novel technique for an industrial activity that, if commercially

developed, could provide either a higher general level of protection of the environment or at least the same level

of protection of the environment and higher cost savings than existing best available techniques.

[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU, Art. 3 (11)]
3.1.3
classification of solid recovered fuels

categorization of solid recovered fuels (3.1.18) into classes by focusing on the key properties net calorific

value, chlorine and mercury, that are defined by boundary values

Note 1 to entry: The classes are defined by boundary values for the chosen fuel characteristics to be used for

trading as well as for the information of permitting authorities and other interested parties.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.12, modified — Note 1 to entry is added.]
3.1.4
co-incineration plants

term used within the European Union for any stationary or mobile technical unit whose main purpose

is the generation of energy or production of material products and which uses waste (3.1.19) as a

regular or additional fuel or in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal through

the incineration by oxidation of waste as well as other thermal treatment processes, such as pyrolysis,

gasification or plasma process, if the substances resulting from the treatment are subsequently

incinerated
[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU, Art. 3 (41)]
3.1.5
combustion plant

term used within the European Union for any technical apparatus in which fuels are oxidized in order

to use the heat thus generated
[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU, Art. 3 (25)]
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
3.1.6
composition of solid recovered fuels
breakdown of solid recovered fuels (3.1.18) by types of components

Note 1 to entry: This is typically expressed as a percentage of the mass fraction component in the fuel on an as

received basis (m % ar).

Note 2 to entry: Examples of components - wood, paper, board, textiles, plastics, rubber.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.14]
3.1.7
dedicated SRF- EfW plants

any technical unit in which the energy conversion is from the solid recovered fuel (3.1.18) alone

3.1.8
EfW plants

energy from waste plants like municipal waste incineration (MWI), mono- and co-combustion plants

including cement kilns
3.1.9
energy conversion

use of the calorific value of the solid recovered fuel (3.1.18) for energy purposes alone or with other fuels

Note 1 to entry: Solid recovered fuels may be an intermediary energy carrier and used directly or indirectly for

the energy conversion such as in multi-stage production and use of synthetic gas. Examples of energy conversion

processes are incineration, co-incineration, combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis, in which

energy is used for supplying heat, cooling and/or electric power.
[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.27]
3.1.10
energy purposes

use of the calorific value within industrial processes or for the supply of heat and electrical power

Note 1 to entry: For industrial processes, the use of solid recovered fuel may contribute to the energy source

within the process of producing specific materials, such as cement clinker, bricks and lime.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.29]
3.1.11
EoW
end-of-waste

term used within the European Union for status of a specified substance or object that ceases to be

a waste (3.1.19) when it has undergone a recovery, including recycling, operation and complies with

specific criteria, to be developed in accordance with the following conditions: (a) the substance or

object is commonly used for specific purposes; (b) a market or demand exists for such a substance or

object; (c) the substance or object fulfils the technical requirements for the specific purposes and meets

the existing legislation and standards applicable to products; (d) the use of the substance or object will

not lead to overall adverse environmental or human health impacts

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008

on waste, art. 6]
3.1.12
gasification plant

any stationary or mobile technical unit whose purpose is converting feedstock fuels into a syngas

(synthesis gas) for different final uses
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
3.1.13
hazardous waste

waste (3.1.19) which has proprieties that may be harmful to human health or the environment

Note 1 to entry: These wastes are categorized by waste streams and hazardous characteristics. The hazardous

characteristics relevant to solid wastes are: explosives substances; flammable solids; wastes liable to

spontaneous combustion; wastes which, in contact with water emit flammable gases; wastes which oxidizing;

organic peroxides; acute poisoning and infectious substances.

Note 2 to entry: Further identification of the waste’s status can be determined using the Annex I and Annex III

tables of the Basel Convention on the control of transboundarym of hazardous wastes and their disposal.

Note 3 to entry: Additional categories of hazardous waste to those in the Basel Convention Annex I and Annex III

may be established by stakeholders to the agreement or at a national level.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.35, modified — Example and Notes 4 and 5 to entry were removed.]

3.1.14
incineration plant

term used within the European Union for any stationary or mobile technical unit and equipment

dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste (3.1.19), with or without recovery of the combustion heat

generated, through the incineration by oxidation of waste as well as other thermal treatment processes,

such as pyrolysis, gasification or plasma process, if the substances resulting from the treatment are

subsequently incinerated

Note 1 to entry: According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, incinerators are any furnace used in the

process of combusting solid waste for the purpose of reducing the volume of the waste by removing combustible

matter. A solid waste incineration unit is defined as a distinct operating unit of any facility which combusts any

solid waste material from commercial or industrial establishments or the general public (including single and

multiple residence, hotels and motels). The term does not include: a) materials recovery facilities (including

primary or secondary smelters) which combust waste for the primary purpose of recovering metals; b) qualifying

small power production facilities or or qualifying cogeneration facilities which burn homogeneous waste (such

as units which burn tires or used oil, but not including refuse-derived fuel) for the production of electric energy

or in the case of qualifying cogeneration facilities which burn homogeneous waste for the production of electric

energy and steam or forms of useful energy (such as heat) which are used for industrial, commercial, heating

or cooling purposes; c) air curtain incinerators provided that such incinerators only burn wood wastes, yard

wastes, and clean lumber.

[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU (40); US Environmental Protection Agency. Standards of Performance

for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial

Solid Waste Incineration Units; [Technical Amendments] Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 116 / Friday,

June 15, 2018 / Proposed Rules 3.17]
3.1.15
MSW
Municipal Solid Waste
waste (3.1.19) collected and treated by or for municipalities

Note 1 to entry: It typically covers waste from households, including bulky waste, similar waste from commerce

and trade, office buildings, institutions and small businesses, as well as yard and garden waste, street sweepings,

the contents of litter containers, and market cleansing waste if managed as household waste.

3.1.16
non-hazardous waste
waste (3.1.19) that is other than hazardous waste (3.1.13)
3.1.17
specification of solid recovered fuels
list of properties that characterize solid recovered fuels (3.1.18)
[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.76]
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
3.1.18
SRF
Solid Recovered Fuel

solid fuel for energy purposes according to ISO 21640, derived from non-hazardous wastes (3.1.18)

Note 1 to entry: According to EN 15359, SRF are solid fuels prepared from non-hazardous waste s meeting the

classification and specification requirements laid down in this European Standard. “Prepared” means processed,

homogenized and upgraded to a quality that can be traded amongst producers and users.

Note 2 to entry: Whether the input material is hazardous or non-hazardous is determined through national laws

and Directives or by categorization of the fuel through the Annexes in the Basel Convention on the Control of

Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.75, modified – Original Notes 1-2 to entry were replaced by a new Note 1.]

3.1.19
waste
substances or objects which are discarded or are intended to be discarded
Note 1 to entry: The provisions of national laws can apply.

Note 2 to entry: The Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their

disposal provides the user with the ability to determine whether a material is deemed to be a hazardous waste

or non-hazardous waste. By following the Convention’s requirements and Annexes, along with national laws,

operators have a clear understanding of the distinction between the different categories of waste.

[SOURCE: Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their

disposal, 2019]
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
BAT Best Available Technique
CDW Construction and Demolition Waste
ICW Industrial and Commercial Waste
H Hazardous Waste
NH Non-Hazardous Waste
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
EoW End-of-Waste
RDF Refuse Derived Fuel
SRF Solid Recovered Fuel
ar as received
d dry basis
BD bulk density, kg/m
DM dry matter, % in mass
NCV net calorific value, MJ/kg; kcal/kg
M moisture content, q , % in mass
p, net
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 --
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 21916
First edition
Solid recovered fuels — Guidance for
specification of solid recovered fuels
(SRF) for selected uses
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ............................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms............................................................................................................................................... 5

4 Compilation, structure and use of data ......................................................................................................................................... 6

5 SRF and other waste derived fuels ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Terms used for secondary fuels from waste ...............................................................................................................10

5.3 Rules for the classification and specification of SRF ...........................................................................................14

5.4 Market for SRF and other waste-derived fuels .........................................................................................................18

6 Coal co-combustion in the cement manufacturing industry ...............................................................................20

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.2 End use requirements of SRF and other waste derived fuels ......................................................................21

6.2.1 Technical limitation of the technologies ...................................................................................................21

6.2.2 Quality requirements in plant permits ......................................................................................................25

6.2.3 Quality requirements in general guidelines ..........................................................................................25

6.2.4 Quality requirements in voluntary end user specifications ....................................................26

6.3 Typical values for SRF ....................................................................................................................................................................27

7 Coal co-combustion in power plants .............................................................................................................................................29

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................29

7.2 End use requirements for SRF and other waste derived fuels ....................................................................30

7.2.1 Technical limitations of the technologies ................................................................................................30

7.2.2 Quality requirements in plant permits ......................................................................................................34

7.2.3 Quality requirements in general guidelines ..........................................................................................34

7.2.4 Quality requirements in voluntary end user specifications ....................................................35

7.3 Typical values for SRF ....................................................................................................................................................................36

8 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................37

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................37

8.2 End use requirements for SRF and other waste derived fuels ....................................................................37

8.2.1 Technical limitations of the technologies ................................................................................................37

8.2.2 Quality requirements in plant permits ......................................................................................................42

8.2.3 Quality requirements in general guidelines ..........................................................................................42

8.2.4 Quality requirements in voluntary end user specifications ....................................................43

8.3 Typical values for SRF ....................................................................................................................................................................44

9 Conclusions and guidance .......................................................................................................................................................................45

Annex A (informative) Background references on the production of SRF and other waste

derived fuels ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................48

Annex B (informative) Fuel specification: Provisions in national standards, legislation,

plant permits. General and national guidelines. Voluntary specification by the end user ..56

Annex C (informative) Background reference on technologies .............................................................................................77

Annex D (informative) Typical values for SRF: background data and outcomes of a

statistical assessment of measured values ............................................................................................................................98

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................121

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO-specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300 Solid Recovered Fuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
Introduction

Waste-to-energy is a broad term that covers much more than waste incineration. It includes various

treatment processes that have different environmental impacts but also offer potential for the progress

desired towards a low-carbon and circular economy. Processes that convert waste into solid fuels and

generate electricity and/or thermal energy from it can play an increasing role in achieving such goals.

Traditionally, solid fuels recovered from waste have been used as an integrative fuel in incineration or

co-incineration plants treating a mix of wastes, so as to improve the energy performance of the plant.

There are also some dedicated SRF-EfW plants (e.g. incineration plants and industrial combustion

plants recovering thermal and/or electrical energy from the solid recovered fuel alone).

An increasing role as substitutive fuel has occurred over time to allow a reduction of fossil fuel

consumption and the impact on climate change and greenhouse gas emission of industrial activities

with a high energy consumption. In recent years, the use of solid recovered fuels has expanded to other

interesting and promising fields, such as gasification or combined gasification and pyrolysis. Waste

gasification and co-incineration of the resulting syngas in a combustion plant, co-processing to power

and material recovery in cement kilns and waste incineration in dedicated facilities can be highlighted

as best proven techniques to increase the energy efficiency of waste-to-energy processes and optimize

their contribution to national and global climate and energy goals.

All the above-mentioned waste-to-energy processes rank differently in the waste hierarchy and

have different needs for fuel quality to ensure better plant management as well as compliance with

requirements set by national and supranational legislation.

Quite an extensive family of solid fuels can be recovered from waste, with different physico-chemical

properties and a quality that is not always well defined. Those produced from non-hazardous waste,

classified as SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel), are specifically of interest in this document. The term SRF

itself identifies a family of fuels that can differ in origin (input waste streams), composition and quality.

Many barriers still hamper the extensive development of SRFs. As discussed later, a continuing confusion

in terminology can be highlighted. Solid fuels recovered from non-hazardous waste are identified in

different countries by different terms (e.g. CSS, CDR, CDR-Q, RPF, SBS, CSR,), shipped with different

waste codes, and an ambiguous use of the terms RDF and SRF still occurs. SRF is largely produced

and traded as waste, different countries labelling it with different waste codes based on local waste

legislation. An end-of-waste of SRF is allowed in some countries (e.g. Austria, Italy) if the fuels produced

comply with specific and mandatory requirements legally set.

Solid recovered fuels are intended to be classified and specified according to ISO/TC 300 standards.

Fuel specification is also the subject of national guidelines, in places addressed to specific end uses

of the fuel (e.g. in cement kilns), and of local voluntary commitments on fuel properties between the

producer and the end user aimed at ensuring that the latter meets its own technological, economic and

environmental needs.

Generic (all solid waste) or specific (SRF) quality requirements are set by national or local regulators

(e.g. administrative bodies authorized to issue plant permits), mainly to ensure that waste-to-energy

plants at least meet the requirements for environmental and human protection and to regulate the role

of waste-to energy plants within the national/regional waste management systems as a whole.

There are still acceptance problems in several countries that need to overcome, for example by reliable

data, a high level of information and transparency.

To foster the application of SRFs in existing and new fields and to overcome existing barriers, it is

therefore strategically essential for all interested stakeholders to define what quality requirements the

SRF meets based on homogeneous, unambiguous and well-accepted criteria.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Guidance for specification of solid
recovered fuels (SRF) for selected uses
1 Scope

This document addresses the provision of background references that are helpful in defining a more

detailed specification for SRF according to its specific end use for energy conversion (EfW plants) and

to support the SRF market. The aim is to enable all the interested stakeholders – producers, end users,

legislators, local authority bodies and standardization bodies – to guarantee that the SRF complies fully

with technical, environmental and economic requirements and to facilitate its social acceptability when

utilized for energy conversion.

This document is intended to provide references for the specification of SRF produced from non-

hazardous waste streams and traded to EfW plants as waste. The quality of such SRF is specified

through values for relevant fuel properties, appropriate to the subsequent end uses that have an

expected growth or an established/well consolidated role in heat and power generation in waste-to-

energy systems:
— coal co-combustion in cement kilns
— gasification
— coal co-combustion in power plants.

The SRF can also be used in other end-use applications but these are not addressed in this document.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
BAT
best available technique

term used within the European Union for the most effective and advanced stage in the development

of activities and their methods of operation which indicates the practical suitability of particular

techniques for providing the basis for emission limit values and other permit conditions designed to

prevent and, where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment as a

whole

Note 1 to entry: “Techniques” includes both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed,

built, maintained, operated and decommissioned.
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ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)

Note 2 to entry: “Available techniques” means those developed on a scale which allows implementation in the

relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into consideration the

costs and advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Member State in question,

as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator.

Note 3 to entry: “Best” means most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as

a whole.
[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU, Art. 3 (10)]
3.1.2
BAT reference document

term used within the European Union for a document, resulting from the exchange of information

drawn up for defined activities, that describes, in particular, applied techniques, present emission and

consumption levels, techniques considered for the determination of best available techniques as well as

BAT conclusions and any emerging techniques

Note 1 to entry: “BAT conclusions” means a document containing the parts of a BAT reference document laying

down the conclusions on best available techniques, their description, information to assess their applicability, the

emission levels associated with the best available techniques, associated monitoring, associated consumption

levels and, where appropriate, relevant site remediation measures

Note 2 to entry: “Emission levels associated with the best available techniques” means the range of emission

levels obtained under normal operating conditions using a best available technique or a combination of best

available techniques, as described in BAT conclusions, expressed as an average over a given period of time, under

specified reference conditions

Note 3 to entry: “Emerging technique” means a novel technique for an industrial activity that, if commercially

developed, could provide either a higher general level of protection of the environment or at least the same level

of protection of the environment and higher cost savings than existing best available techniques.

[SOURCE: Diretive 2010/75/EU, Art. 3 (11)]
3.1.3
classification of solid recovered fuels

categorization of solid recovered fuels (3.1.18) into classes by focusing on the key properties net calorific

value, chlorine and mercury, that are defined by boundary values

Note 1 to entry: The classes are defined by boundary values for the chosen fuel characteristics to be used for

trading as well as for the information of permitting authorities and other interested parties.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.12, modified – Note 1 to entry is added.]
3.1.4
co-incineration plants

term used within the European Union for any stationary or mobile technical unit whose main purpose

is the generation of energy or production of material products and which uses waste (3.1.19) as a

regular or additional fuel or in which waste is thermally treated for the purpose of disposal through

the incineration by oxidation of waste as well as other thermal treatment processes, such as pyrolysis,

gasification or plasma process, if the substances resulting from the treatment are subsequently

incinerated
[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU, Art. 3 (41)]
3.1.5
combustion plant

term used within the European Union for any technical apparatus in which fuels are oxidized in order

to use the heat thus generated
[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU, Art. 3 (25)]
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ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
3.1.6
composition of solid recovered fuels
breakdown of solid recovered fuels (3.1.18) by types of components

Note 1 to entry: This is typically expressed as a percentage of the mass fraction component in the fuel on an as

received basis (m % ar).

Note 2 to entry: Examples of components - wood, paper, board, textiles, plastics, rubber.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.14]
3.1.7
dedicated SRF- EfW plants

any technical unit in which the energy conversion is from the solid recovered fuel (3.1.18) alone

3.1.8
EfW plants

energy from waste plants like municipal waste incineration (MWI), mono- and co-combustion plants

including cement kilns
3.1.9
energy conversion

use of the calorific value of the solid recovered fuel (3.1.18) for energy purposes alone or with other fuels

Note 1 to entry: Solid recovered fuels may be an intermediary energy carrier and used directly or indirectly for

the energy conversion such as in multi-stage production and use of synthetic gas. Examples of energy conversion

processes are incineration, co-incineration, combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis, in which

energy is used for supplying heat, cooling and/or electric power
[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.27]
3.1.10
energy purposes

use of the calorific value within industrial processes or for the supply of heat and electrical power

Note 1 to entry: For industrial processes, the use of solid recovered fuel may contribute to the energy source

within the process of producing specific materials, such as cement clinker, bricks and lime.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.29]
3.1.11
EoW
end-of-waste

term used within the European Union for status of a specified substance or object that ceases to be

a waste (3.1.19) when it has undergone a recovery, including recycling, operation and complies with

specific criteria, to be developed in accordance with the following conditions: (a) the substance or

object is commonly used for specific purposes; (b) a market or demand exists for such a substance or

object; (c) the substance or object fulfils the technical requirements for the specific purposes and meets

the existing legislation and standards applicable to products; (d) the use of the substance or object will

not lead to overall adverse environmental or human health impacts

[SOURCE: Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008

on waste, art. 6]
3.1.12
gasification plant

any stationary or mobile technical unit whose purpose is converting feedstock fuels into a syngas

(synthesis gas) for different final uses
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3.1.13
hazardous waste

waste (3.1.19) which has proprieties that may be harmful to human health or the environment

Note 1 to entry: These wastes are categorized by waste streams and hazardous characteristics. The hazardous

characteristics relevant to solid wastes are: explosives substances; flammable solids; wastes liable to

spontaneous combustion; wastes which, in contact with water emit flammable gases; wastes which oxidizing;

organic peroxides; acute poisoning and infectious substances.

Note 2 to entry: Further identification of the waste’s status can be determined using the Annex I and Annex III

tables of the Basel Convention on the control of transboundarym of hazardous wastes and their disposal.

Note 3 to entry: Additional categories of hazardous waste to those in the Basel Convention Annex I and Annex III

may be established by stakeholders to the agreement or at a national level

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.35, modified — Example and Notes 4 and 5 to entry were removed.]

3.1.14
incineration plant

term used within the European Union for any stationary or mobile technical unit and equipment

dedicated to the thermal treatment of waste (3.1.19), with or without recovery of the combustion heat

generated, through the incineration by oxidation of waste as well as other thermal treatment processes,

such as pyrolysis, gasification or plasma process, if the substances resulting from the treatment are

subsequently incinerated

Note 1 to entry: According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, incinerators are any furnace used in the

process of combusting solid waste for the purpose of reducing the volume of the waste by removing combustible

matter. A solid waste incineration unit is defined as a distinct operating unit of any facility which combusts any

solid waste material from commercial or industrial establishments or the general public (including single and

multiple residence, hotels and motels). The term does not include: a) materials recovery facilities (including

primary or secondary smelters) which combust waste for the primary purpose of recovering metals; b) qualifying

small power production facilities or or qualifying cogeneration facilities which burn homogeneous waste (such

as units which burn tires or used oil, but not including refuse-derived fuel) for the production of electric energy

or in the case of qualifying cogeneration facilities which burn homogeneous waste for the production of electric

energy and steam or forms of useful energy (such as heat) which are used for industrial, commercial, heating

or cooling purposes; c) air curtain incinerators provided that such incinerators only burn wood wastes, yard

wastes, and clean lumber

[SOURCE: Directive 2010/75/EU (40); US Environmental Protection Agency. Standards of Performance

for New Stationary Sources and Emission Guidelines for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial

Solid Waste Incineration Units; [Technical Amendments] Federal Register / Vol. 83, No. 116 / Friday,

June 15, 2018 / Proposed Rules 3.17]
3.1.15
MSW
Municipal Solid Waste
waste (3.1.19) collected and treated by or for municipalities

Note 1 to entry: It typically covers waste from households, including bulky waste, similar waste from commerce

and trade, office buildings, institutions and small businesses, as well as yard and garden waste, street sweepings,

the contents of litter containers, and market cleansing waste if managed as household waste.

3.1.16
non-hazardous waste
waste (3.1.19) that is other than hazardous waste (3.1.13)
3.1.17
specification of solid recovered fuels
list of properties that characterize solid recovered fuels (3.1.18)
[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.76]
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ISO/TR 21916:2021(E)
3.1.18
SRF
Solid Recovered Fuel

solid fuel for energy purposes according to ISO 21640, derived from non-hazardous wastes (3.1.18)

Note 1 to entry: According to EN 15359, SRF are solid fuels prepared from non-hazardous waste s meeting the

classification and specification requirements laid down in this European Standard. “Prepared” means processed,

homogenized and upgraded to a quality that can be traded amongst producers and users.

Note 2 to entry: Whether the input material is hazardous or non-hazardous is determined through national laws

and Directives or by categorization of the fuel through the Annexes in the Basel Convention on the Control of

Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637, 3.75, modified – Original Notes 1-2 to entry were replaced by a new Note 1.]

3.1.19
waste
substances or objects which are discarded or are intended to be discarded
Note 1 to entry: The provisions of national laws can apply.

Note 2 to entry: The Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their

disposal provides the user with the ability to determine whether a material is deemed to be a hazardous waste

or non-hazardous waste. By following the Convention’s requirements and Annexes, along with national laws,

operators have a clear understanding of the distinction between the different categories of waste.

[SOURCE: Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their

disposal, 2019]
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
BAT Best Available Tecnique
CDW Construction and Demolition Waste
ICW Industrial and Commercial Waste
H Hazardous Waste
NH Non-Hazardous Waste
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
EoW End-of-Waste
RDF Refuse Derived Fuel
SRF Solid Recovered Fuel
ar as received
d dry basis
BD bulk density, kg/m
DM dry matter, % in mass
NCV net calorific value, MJ/kg; kcal/kg
M moisture content, q , % in mass
p, net
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