Information technology -- Radio frequency identification for item management

This document defines the air interface for radio frequency identification (RFID) devices operating in the 2,45 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band used in item management applications. This document provides a common technical specification for RFID devices that can be used by ISO committees developing RFID application standards. This document is intended to allow for compatibility and to encourage inter-operability of products for the growing RFID market in the international marketplace. This document defines the forward and return link parameters for technical attributes including, but not limited to, operating frequency, operating channel accuracy, occupied channel bandwidth, maximum equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP), spurious emissions, modulation, duty cycle, data coding, bit rate, bit rate accuracy, bit transmission order, and where appropriate, operating channels, frequency hop rate, hop sequence, spreading sequence, and chip rate. This document further defines the communications protocol used in the air interface. This document contains four modes. Mode 1 is an interrogator talks first with passive tag. Mode 2 is a tag talks first with battery-assisted passive tag. Mode 3 is a globally available, ubiquitous network supporting (but not limited to) the logistics and transportation industry; agnostic to any device, commercial or otherwise, requiring global availability. Mode 4 is a configurable data rate active RFID system. It provides the functions of long range objects identification and environmental sense, and it is intended to realize the low cost device and low power consumption, long range identification, fast and reliable tags access. The detailed technical differences between the modes are shown in the parameter tables.

Technologies de l'information -- Identification par radiofréquence (RFID) pour la gestion d'objets

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Jul-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
13-Jun-2018
Completion Date
27-Jul-2018
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 18000-4
Fourth edition
2018-08
Information technology — Radio
frequency identification for item
management —
Part 4:
Parameters for air interface
communications at 2,45 GHz
Technologies de l'information — Identification par radiofréquence
(RFID) pour la gestion d'objets —
Partie 4: Paramètres de communications d'une interface d'air à
2,45 GHz
Reference number
ISO/IEC 18000-4:2018(E)
ISO/IEC 2018
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ISO/IEC 18000-4:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 18000-4:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 General items on 2,45 GHz RFID protocols that support this document ...................................................7

5.1 Protocols ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Frequency .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2.2 Interface definitions ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Tag identification number ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4 Potential interference ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 MODE 1: Passive backscatter RFID system ................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 MODE 1: General ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Physical layer and data coding .................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.1 Interrogator power-up waveform ..................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.2 Interrogator power-down .....................................................................................................................................10

6.2.3 Frequency hopping carrier rise and fall times ....................................................................................10

6.2.4 Forward link .....................................................................................................................................................................11

6.2.5 FM0 return link ..............................................................................................................................................................13

6.2.6 Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) ........................................................................................................................14

6.2.7 Protocol concept ...........................................................................................................................................................15

6.2.8 Command format ..........................................................................................................................................................16

6.2.9 Response format ...........................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.10 WAIT ........................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2.11 Communication sequences at packet level .............................................................................................18

6.3 Protocol and collision arbitration ........................................................................................................................................19

6.3.1 Definition of data elements, bit and byte ordering .........................................................................19

6.3.2 Tag memory organization .....................................................................................................................................20

6.3.3 Block security status..................................................................................................................................................20

6.3.4 Overall protocol description ...............................................................................................................................20

6.3.5 Collision arbitration ...................................................................................................................................................25

6.3.6 Commands ..........................................................................................................................................................................26

6.3.7 Transmission errors ........................................................................................................................................... ........46

7 MODE 2: Long range high data rate RFID system .............................................................................................................46

7.1 MODE 2: General ................................................................................................................................................................................46

7.2 Modulation and coding .................................................................................................................................................................46

7.2.1 Forward link (only for R/W-tag) .....................................................................................................................46

7.2.2 Return link for notification (for both types of the tag) ................................................................47

7.2.3 Return link for communication (only for R/W-tag) .......................................................................47

7.3 General system description.......................................................................................................................................................48

7.4 Frame structure ...................................................................................................................................................................................49

7.4.1 Hierarchical structure ..............................................................................................................................................49

7.4.2 Logical channels ............................................................................................................................................................50

7.4.3 Physical channels .........................................................................................................................................................56

7.5 Channel coding and sequences ..............................................................................................................................................71

7.5.1 Synchronization and CRC patterns ................................................................................................................71

7.6 Command set for the command slot channel: CS-CH (only for R/W-tag) .........................................73

7.6.1 Command types .............................................................................................................................................................73

7.6.2 Command set ...................................................................................................................................................................74

7.6.3 Command codes ............................................................................................................................................................75

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ISO/IEC 18000-4:2018(E)

8 MODE 3: Active RFID ITF network ...................................................................................................................................................76

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................76

8.2 Operational requirements ..........................................................................................................................................................77

8.3 Network Physical Layer description .................................................................................................................................77

8.4 Network description .......................................................................................................................................................................78

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................78

8.4.2 Network topology ........................................................................................................................................................78

8.5 Star topology ..........................................................................................................................................................................................80

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................80

8.5.2 Star topology data flow ...........................................................................................................................................81

8.6 Trunk topology.....................................................................................................................................................................................81

8.6.1 Trunk coordinator requirements ...................................................................................................................81

8.6.2 Data flow in a trunk topology ............................................................................................................................81

8.7 Peer-to-peer topology ....................................................................................................................................................................82

8.8 Mesh topology ......................................................................................................................................................................................82

8.8.1 Establishing a mesh network .............................................................................................................................83

8.9 Message types .......................................................................................................................................................................................86

8.9.1 Network discovery beacon (NDB) .................................................................................................................87

8.9.2 Network status message (NSM) ......................................................................................................................92

8.9.3 Acknowledgement message ................................................................................................................................96

8.9.4 Command message .....................................................................................................................................................98

8.9.5 Data message ...................................................................................................................................................................99

8.9.6 Mesh request .................................................................................................................................................................100

8.9.7 Mesh data .........................................................................................................................................................................101

8.10 Network discovery .........................................................................................................................................................................102

8.10.1 Methods of network discovery ......................................................................................................................102

8.10.2 Transmitting network discovery beacons ...........................................................................................103

8.10.3 Connectionless network ......................................................................................................................................103

8.10.4 Associated network connection (ANC) .................. .................................................................................105

8.11 Link encryption methods .........................................................................................................................................................107

9 MODE 4: Configurable data rate active RFID system ................................................................................................108

9.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................................108

9.2 Cryptographic suite indicators ............................................................................................................................................108

9.3 Physical layer ......................................................................................................................................................................................109

9.3.1 Operating frequency ...............................................................................................................................................109

9.3.2 Emission spectrum density mask ...............................................................................................................109

9.3.3 Modulation and spectrum spread ...............................................................................................................109

9.3.4 TX/RX switch time ...................................................................................................................................................113

9.3.5 EVM .......................................................................................................................................................................................113

9.4 Data link layer ....................................................................................................................................................................................113

9.4.1 General................................................................................................................................................................................113

9.4.2 Preamble ...........................................................................................................................................................................113

9.4.3 Synchronous code .....................................................................................................................................................113

9.4.4 Data length ......................................................................................................................................................................113

9.4.5 Frame option .................................................................................................................................................................114

9.4.6 Message data .................................................................................................................................................................114

9.4.7 CRC .........................................................................................................................................................................................118

9.5 Tag memory structure ................................................................................................................................................................118

9.5.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................................................118

9.5.2 Data organization of security section ......................................................................................................118

9.5.3 Data organization of user section .................. ..............................................................................................119

9.5.4 File definitions of user section .......................................................................................................................123

9.6 Tag state transition ........................................................................................................................................................................126

9.6.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................................................126

9.6.2 Figure of tag state transition ...........................................................................................................................126

9.6.3 Sense state .......................................................................................................................................................................127

9.6.4 Ready state ......................................................................................................................................................................128

9.6.5 Operation state ............................................................................................................................................................128

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ISO/IEC 18000-4:2018(E)

9.6.6 Sleep state ........................................................................................................................................................................129

9.6.7 Killing state .....................................................................................................................................................................129

9.7 Interrogator commands and tag responses .............................................................................................................129

9.7.1 Command types ..........................................................................................................................................................129

9.7.2 Command codes list ................................................................................................................................................129

9.7.3 Ready and sleep commands .............................................................................................................................132

9.7.4 Access commands .....................................................................................................................................................135

9.7.5 Collection commands ........................................................................................................................................... ..138

9.7.6 File access commands ...........................................................................................................................................141

9.7.7 Monitor commands .................................................................................................................................................149

9.7.8 Security protocol commands ..........................................................................................................................152

9.7.9 Other commands .......................................................................................................................................................155

9.8 Protocol operation mode .........................................................................................................................................................158

9.8.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................................................158

9.8.2 Operation process .....................................................................................................................................................158

9.8.3 Operation mode ..........................................................................................................................................................161

9.9 Anti-collision method ..................................................................................................................................................................162

9.9.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................................................162

9.9.2 Anti-collision process ............................................................................................................................................162

9.9.3 Binary tree algorithm ............................................................................................................................................162

9.10 Parameters for air interface ...................................................................................................................................................163

9.10.1 Parameters of physical and data link layer .........................................................................................163

9.10.2 Protocol parameters ...............................................................................................................................................165

10 Table of characteristic differences between the modes specified in this document ..............166

Annex A (informative) Mode 1: Memory map ......................................................................................................................................167

Annex B (informative) Mode 1: CRC ................................................................................................................................................................173

Annex C (normative) Mode 2: Memory map ..........................................................................................................................................176

Annex D (informative) Mode 2: CRC ...............................................................................................................................................................179

Annex E (normative) Mode 4: Tag state transition tables .......................................................................................................181

Annex F (informative) Mode 4: Inventory process example ..................................................................................................195

Annex G (informative) Mode 4: Wake-up mechanism .................................................................................................................196

Annex H (informative) Mode 4: Typical parameters of anti-collision algorithm ............................................199

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................200

© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 18000-4:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 31, Automatic identification and data capture techniques.

This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition (ISO/IEC 18000-4:2015), which has been

technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— Mode 4, described in Clause 9 as "MODE 4: Configurable data rate active RFID system", has

been added.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18000 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
vi © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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