Intelligent transport systems -- Emergency evacuation and disaster response and recovery

ISO/TR 19083-1:2016 - defines the framework for the ISO/TR 19083 series of standards related to emergency evacuation and disaster response and recovery, - establishes the criteria under which public transport should support evacuations and disaster response and recovery based on the magnitude of the disaster and the location as these factors drive the policies, directives and plans for each countries disaster prevention/evacuation systems, - identifies the types of agencies and organizations involved in a regionally supported evacuation and disaster, - defines the roles and responsibilities public transport entities should provide in planning, preparing for, and conducting evacuations and disaster response and recovery efforts in support of regional authorities, - recommends the type of information required and necessary actions to be followed by public transport to ensure efficient and effective transportation in response to recovery from a disaster, - provides a concept of operation describing the characteristics of the EEDRR Decision Support System from the viewpoint of an individual who will use the system for public transport disaster support, it is the guiding document for public transport services operators who voluntarily wish to develop EEDRR Decision Support Systems, and - identifies guidelines to improve coordination among regional authorities when public transport disaster support is required.

Systèmes intelligents de transport -- Évacuation d’urgence et intervention en cas de catastrophe et rétablissement

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Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Oct-2016
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
23-Sep-2016
Completion Date
19-Oct-2016
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016 - Intelligent transport systems -- Emergency evacuation and disaster response and recovery
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 19083-1
First edition
2016-10-15
Intelligent transport systems —
Emergency evacuation and disaster
response and recovery —
Part 1:
Framework and concept of operation
Systèmes intelligents de transport — Évacuation d’urgence et
intervention en cas de catastrophe et rétablissement —
Partie 1: Cadre et concept opérationnel
Reference number
ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
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© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

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ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Overview and framework requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 6

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Criteria for using public transport for evacuation and disaster response .......................................... 7

5.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.2.2 Planning assumptions for evacuations ......................................................................................................... 8

5.2.3 Other key considerations for disaster response and recovery efforts ...........................11

5.3 Agencies and organizations involved in a regionally supported evacuations and

disaster response and recovery.............................................................................................................................................13

5.3.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.2 Local .........................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.3 Regional ................................................................................................................................................................................13

5.3.4 National agencies .........................................................................................................................................................14

5.3.5 Other agencies ................................................................................................................................................................14

5.4 Roles and responsibilities ..........................................................................................................................................................14

5.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

5.4.2 Disaster response roles and responsibilities for transportation services ..................15

5.4.3 Disaster recovery roles and responsibilities ........................................................................................20

6 Concept of Operations template for Decision Support System for Public Transport

Emergency Management ...........................................................................................................................................................................22

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

6.1.1 Background........................................................................................................................................................................22

6.1.2 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................23

6.2 Scope of the PT-EEDRR-DSS .....................................................................................................................................................23

6.2.1 Operational need ..........................................................................................................................................................23

6.2.2 User-oriented operational description ......................................................................................................24

6.2.3 Scenario timelines and selections ..................................................................................................................30

6.2.4 Operational considerations for recovery effort ..................................................................................36

6.3 System overview .................................................................................................................................................................................39

6.3.1 Operational environment ......................................................................................................................................39

6.3.2 Support environment................................................................................................................................................42

6.4 Operational impacts ........................................................................................................................................................................44

Annex A (informative) Authorities and policies ....................................................................................................................................46

Annex B (informative) Primary command-level public transport role profiles...................................................48

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................54

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

A list of all parts in the ISO series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
Introduction

This document defines the framework and concept of operation for developing a public transport

decision support system for evacuations and disaster response and recovery. This includes establishing

the criteria under which public transport prepares for, responds to, and recovers from a disaster. The

criteria, as established by national, regional and local governance based on the type and severity of the

emergency, are used to identify the roles and responsibilities of public transport within the boundaries

of the Intelligent Transport System architecture. For example, the criteria for a localized disaster

such as a chemical plant fire will be governed by local or regional response plans and requires fast

response times. Whereas, a hurricane having a wider impact may be governed by national response

plans, as well as local and regional, and allow pre-planning to take place because they are typically

slower moving. It is important to emphasize that this document focuses only on those activities related

to ground transportation and does not address societal issues (i.e. sheltering, aid, security, etc.) nor

does it address air or rail transportation associated with disaster management. The reader is directed

to ISO/TC 292 for societal issues and to ISO/TC 20 SC 17 and ISO/TC 269 for air and rail transportation

issues associated with disasters. This document adheres to ISO 22300, which contains terms and

definitions applicable to societal security to establish a common understanding so that consistent

terms are used.

It is also important to note that this document relies on national, regional, and local policies and

authorities to create a concept of operation. The concept of operations defines the set of requirements

needed for designing, developing, and deploying a Decision Support System for evacuation and disaster

response and recovery. The Decision Support System is an interactive software-based system intended

to help public transport emergency services personnel compile useful information from a combination

of raw data, documents, and personal knowledge, or traffic models. This knowledge is then used to

identify and solve evacuation and disaster response and recovery problems and disseminate those

decisions to emergency managers, traffic managers, public transport, and the public itself. The Decision

Support System is a natural progression from Computer Aided Dispatch and Automatic Vehicle Location

systems which has been the core Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) used by public transport. The

Decision Support System combines the use of traffic models and analytic techniques with traditional

ITS data access and retrieval functions to solve less well structured, underspecified evacuation and

disaster response and recovery problems that upper level managers may face in a disaster.

The goal of this document is to save lives and aid recovery by using ITS technologies to coordinate a

comprehensive transportation response to disaster. This includes using the Decision Support System

to identify routes and manage equipment and personnel to ensure public transport is used to evacuate

people out of harm’s way and provide transportation support for all response and recovery efforts from

major disasters such as hurricanes, tsunamis, or catastrophic accidents. This document recommends

public transport to serve as the primary mobility agent for all transportation-related actions before,

during and after a disaster. This represents a paradigm shift from past response and recovery

efforts such as the Great Japan Earthquake 2011 or Hurricane Katrina in the US, which typically see

transportation-related activities coordinated by emergency managers who rely on traffic managers

and public transport service operators to provide the services. While the emergency manager is the

responsible individual for any disaster and will continue to do so, the role of coordinating transportation

between traffic management, emergency services and public transport should be assigned to a public

transport professional. The reasoning for this shift of responsibility is that public transport has the

most experience and the resources to move large numbers of people efficiently and in a timely manner,

which is paramount before, during and after a disaster. This may present problems in rural areas as

ITS technologies, equipment and personnel may not be available to carry out these assignments.

Additionally, problems may exist due to differences in country-based operational methodology between

Asia, North America, and Europe. In Asia, public transport is predominantly run by privately owned

and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates. In North America, public transport

is predominantly run by municipal transit authorities. In Europe, public transport is predominantly

run by both public-owned and private companies. The ideal solution is to ensure that a public entity is

responsible for the public transport emergency management and that personnel operating the Decision

Support System are professionals from the public transport sector.
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)

The ISO/TR 19803- series recommends the creation of a cloud-based Emergency Evacuation and

Disaster Response and Recovery (EEDRR) Decision Support System to assist, coordinate, and direct

all transportation services, including those used by emergency management, traffic management

and public transport. The cloud-based solution allows different services (i.e. servers, storage and

applications) to be delivered to emergency management/public transport computers and devices

through the Internet; thus, providing access to the EEDRR even when access to the physical area is

not possible because of the disaster. The major actors involved in coordinating transportation services

related to a disaster and the systems required for communicating the associated information are shown

in Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Coordinated transportation services for disasters

As shown, there are eight major actors associated with transportation service during a disaster. Details

of the roles and responsibilities are included in 5.4. The actors are at a group level and may vary from

country to country. For instance, first responders include various people such as firefighter, emergency

medical personnel, and police. In addition to these, those people who are managing infrastructures like

electricity, water, sewage and gas play may also be part of the first responders. Moreover, individuals

such as teachers may also act as first responders and be responsible for taking care of their students. The

primary role and responsibility addressed by this family of standards is the coordination of emergency

transportation services through existing communication channels by professional transportation

planners and operators in public transport. The existing communication channels include emergency

communications systems (ECS) used by first responders, advanced traveller information systems

(ATIS) used by traffic managers, and passenger information systems (PIS) used by public transport.

The cornerstone of this document is the EEDRR Decision Support System which will maintain the data

and information sets used by public transport to make knowledgeable transportation-related decisions

during the chaotic times leading up to, during and after a disaster. Figure 1 depicts the EEDRR Decision

Support System being operated by public transport as part of emergency management. Transportation-

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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)

related information and data are collected from and transportation-related decisions and actions are

communicated to the other entities involved in the disaster.

The EEDRR Decision Support System is a computer-based transportation information system that

supports critical transportation-related decision making activities during a disaster. The EEDRR

Decision Support System is part of the Emergency Operations Centre and serves the emergency

management, operations, and planning levels of the emergency management organization where

planning levels mean those individuals who are responsible for planning the response as opposed

to those individuals that are performing the actions required in a response. This system is operated

by public transport emergency services personnel and helps to make transportation routing and

equipment and personnel resource decisions, which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified

in advance. It is an interactive software-based system that aids decision makers by compiling useful

information from a combination of raw traffic and public transport data, policy documents, personal

knowledge, and traffic models to identify and solve problems and assist transportation professionals

in decision making. To ensure the information is useful and the sources are reliable, requires that data

suppliers be vetted, data distribution networks are resilient, data management is expandable and

modular, and data processing is organized into thematic applications such as floods, hurricanes, fires,

earthquakes, etc.

Typical information that the EEDRR Decision Support System gathers and presents includes:

— local, regional, and national criteria for disaster evacuation, response, and recovery based on

policies, plans and directives;

— benchmark evacuation times established by evacuation plans through best practices, regulations,

or simulations;

— transportation resources available for evacuation, response, and recovery effort including traffic

management and public transport;

— digital maps, images, political boundaries, sensor data, integrated transportation network models

and other GIS related information;

— weather forecast, alerts, demand forecast, incident notification, and other real time information for

mitigating traffic delays;

— damage assessments, risk factors, situational analysis, desired outcomes, and other real time

information from field reporting;

— demographics for the regional population, passenger counts, special needs persons, and other

information needed to estimate/determine the number of car-less persons in an area of interest;

— social media reporting of situation awareness as reported from various social media outlets

(i.e. Facebook, Twitter, Line, Cyworld, Sina Weibo, etc.)

— and in the future, heuristic classifications that may be used to create an expert system as the use of

artificial intelligence matures.

The EEDRR Decision Support System is an information processing system that runs on the public

transport emergency services personnel PCs. The framework takes into account that each local

jurisdiction has its own requirements, and thus in order to be useful this set of international standard

should provide generic text that local jurisdictions can make distinctive to their own needs and

communities by adding to and/or replacing the generic text with specific details. ISO/TR 19083 includes

three parts:

— Part 1 — Framework and concept of operation for the use of public transport during an emergency

evacuation or large scale disaster

— Part 2 — Information flow between Public Transport Passenger Information Systems, Public

Transport Command and Control Systems, and Regional Emergency Operation Centres during a

disaster
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)

— Part 3 — Use cases needed to support public transport actions in disaster drills/exercises.

The framework for the ISO/TR 19083 series and an associated concept of operation is provided in

Clauses 5 and 6, respectively.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Emergency evacuation and
disaster response and recovery —
Part 1:
Framework and concept of operation
1 Scope
This document

— defines the framework for the ISO/TR 19083 series of standards related to emergency evacuation

and disaster response and recovery,

— establishes the criteria under which public transport should support evacuations and disaster

response and recovery based on the magnitude of the disaster and the location as these factors

drive the policies, directives and plans for each countries disaster prevention/evacuation systems,

— identifies the types of agencies and organizations involved in a regionally supported evacuation and

disaster,

— defines the roles and responsibilities public transport entities should provide in planning, preparing

for, and conducting evacuations and disaster response and recovery efforts in support of regional

authorities,

— recommends the type of information required and necessary actions to be followed by public

transport to ensure efficient and effective transportation in response to recovery from a disaster,

— provides a concept of operation describing the characteristics of the EEDRR Decision Support

System from the viewpoint of an individual who will use the system for public transport disaster

support, it is the guiding document for public transport services operators who voluntarily wish to

develop EEDRR Decision Support Systems, and

— identifies guidelines to improve coordination among regional authorities when public transport

disaster support is required.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
actor
entity that fulfils a role
Note 1 to entry: The same definition can also be found in EN 302 665.
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
3.2
command-level decision making
decisions made by managers to manage and mitigate critical incidents
3.3
command-level decision makers

managers within public transport tasked with making decisions during critical incidents

3.4
command-level roles

management positions within public transport tasked with making decisions during critical incidents

3.5
commercial vehicle
any type of motor vehicle used for transporting goods or paid passengers
3.6
computer-aided dispatch/automatic vehicle location systems

central software used by dispatchers for operations management that periodically receives real-time

updates on fleet vehicle locations

Note 1 to entry: Computer-aided dispatch systems use one or more servers located in a central dispatch office,

which communicate with computer terminals in a communications centre or with mobile data terminals installed

in vehicles.

Note 2 to entry: Utilize the capabilities of geographic information systems (GIS) and GPS-based automatic vehicle

location (AVL) to show real time vehicle location on a map display.
3.7
data

reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication,

interpretation or processing
Note 1 to entry: Data can be processed by humans or by automatic means.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 15944-5:2008, 3.35 modified]
3.8
disaster

situation where widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses have occurred which

exceeded the ability of the affected organization, community or society to respond and recover using

its own resources
[SOURCE: ISO 22300:2012, 2.1.11]
3.9
disaster planning

first phase of disaster management cycle consisting of prevention and preparedness

3.10
disaster recovery

recovery phase that starts after the immediate threat to human life has subsided with the immediate

goal to bring the affected area back to normalcy as quickly as possible
3.11
disaster response

second phase of the disaster management cycle consisting of warning/evacuation, search and rescue,

providing immediate assistance, assessing damage caused by the disaster, continuing assistance and

the immediate restoration of infrastructure
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
3.12
emergency management organization

group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to the

overall approach preventing and managing emergencies that might occur

Note 1 to entry: In general, emergency management utilizes a risk management approach to prevention,

preparedness, response and recovery before, during and after potentially destabilizing or disruptive events.

[SOURCE: ISO 22320:2011, 3.35 modified]
3.13
emergency operations centre
EOC

central location from which local, regional or national governments can provide interagency

coordination and executive decision making in support of disaster response and recovery operations

Note 1 to entry: to entry. The purpose is to provide a centralized location where public safety, emergency

response, and support agencies coordinate planning, preparedness, and response activities.

Note 2 to entry: to entry. The EOC does not command or control on-scene response efforts, but does carry out the

coordination functions through
a) collecting, evaluating and disseminating disaster related information,
b) analysing jurisdictional impacts and setting priority actions, and
c) managing requests, procurement and utilization of resources.
3.14
exercise

process to train for, assess, practice, and improve performance in an organization

Note 1 to entry: Exercises can be used for validating policies, plans, procedures, training, equipment, and

inter-organizational agreements; clarifying and training personnel in roles and responsibilities; improving

inter-organizational coordination and communications; identifying gaps in resources; improving individual

performance; and identifying opportunities for improvement, and controlled opportunity to practice

improvisation.

Note 2 to entry: A test is a unique and particular type of exercise, which incorporates an expectation of a pass or

fail element within the goal or objectives of the exercise being planned.
[SOURCE: ISO 22300:2012, 2.4.9]
3.15
hazardous material

any item or agent (biological, chemical, radiological, and/or physical), which has the potential to cause

harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors

3.16
incident

situation that might be, or could lead to, a disruption, loss, emergency or crisis

[SOURCE: ISO 22300:2012, 2.1.15]
3.17
man-made disaster

disastrous event caused directly and principally by one or more identifiable deliberate or negligent

human actions
3.18
private vehicle
two- or four-wheel vehicle that are not used to carry passengers for a fee
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ISO/TR 19083-1:2016(E)
3.19
public safety agency

includes emergency management agencies, law enforcement agencies, fire departments, rescue squads,

emergency medical services and other such entitie
...

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