Petroleum and natural gas industries -- Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production

ISO 15156-2:2015 gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification of carbon and low-alloy steels for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas production and natural gas treatment plants in H2S-containing environments, whose failure can pose a risk to the health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations. ISO 15156-2:2015 addresses the resistance of these steels to damage that can be caused by sulfide stress-cracking (SSC) and the related phenomena of stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC) and soft-zone cracking (SZC). ISO 15156-2:2015 also addresses the resistance of these steels to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) and its possible development into stepwise cracking (SWC). ISO 15156-2:2015 is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or localized corrosion is not addressed. Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this part of ISO 15156 is applicable, including permitted exclusions. ISO 15156-2:2015 applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods, see ISO 15156-1:2015, Clause 5. Annex A lists SSC-resistant carbon and low alloy steels, and A.2.4 includes requirements for the use of cast irons. ISO 15156-2:2015 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or downstream processes and equipment.

Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel -- Matériaux pour utilisation dans des environnements contenant de l'hydrogène sulfuré (H2S) dans la production de pétrole et de gaz

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Aug-2015
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
03-Jul-2015
Completion Date
20-Aug-2015
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15156-2
Third edition
2015-09-01
Petroleum and natural gas
industries — Materials for use in H2S-
containing environments in oil and
gas production —
Part 2:
Cracking-resistant carbon and low-
alloy steels, and the use of cast irons
Industries du pétrole et du gaz naturel — Matériaux pour utilisation
dans des environnements contenant de l’hydrogène sulfuré (H2S)
dans la production de pétrole et de gaz —
Partie 2: Aciers au carbone et aciers faiblement alliés résistants à la
fissuration, et utilisation de fontes
Reference number
ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Purchasing information ................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Factors affecting the behaviour of carbon and low alloy steels in H S-

containing environments ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

7 Qualification and selection of carbon and low-alloy steels with resistance to SSC,

SOHIC and SZC ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.1 Option 1 — Selection of SSC-resistant steels (and cast irons) using A.2 .............................................. 8

7.1.1 For p < 0,3 kPa (0,05 psi) ................................................................................................................................ 8

H2S

7.1.2 For p ≥ 0,3 kPa (0,05 psi) ................................................................................................................................ 8

H2S

7.2 Option 2 — Selection of steels for specific sour-service applications or for ranges

of sour service ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.1 Sulfide stress-cracking ................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2.2 SOHIC and SZC ................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3 Hardness requirements ................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.2 Parent metals ...................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.3 Welds .......................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Other fabrication methods .........................................................................................................................................................16

8 Evaluation of carbon and low alloy steels for their resistance to HIC/SWC .........................................16

9 Marking, labelling, and documentation ....................................................................................................................................17

Annex A (normative) SSC-resistant carbon and low alloy steels (and requirements and

recommendations for the use of cast irons) .........................................................................................................................18

Annex B (normative) Qualification of carbon and low-alloy steels for H S service by

laboratory testing .............................................................................................................................................................................................27

Annex C (informative) Determination of H S partial pressure ..............................................................................................35

Annex D (informative) Recommendations for determining pH ............................................................................................37

Annex E (informative) Information that should be supplied for material purchasing .................................42

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................44

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 67, Materials, equipment and offshore structures

for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 15156-2:2009), of which it constitutes a

minor revision, specifically by the following:

— replacement in the Scope of the term “conventional elastic design criteria” by the term “load

controlled design methods”;

— inclusion in both 7.2.1.1 and A.2.1.1 of information that emphasizes the possibilities for the

qualification for a specific sour service or range of sour service of carbon and low alloy steels not

listed in Annex A;

— replacement of paragraph 6 of A.2.1.4 to improve the guidance on the welding of carbon and low

alloy steels not covered elsewhere in this subclause.

ISO 15156 consists of the following parts, under the general title Petroleum and natural gas industries —

Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production
— Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant materials

— Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels, and the use of cast irons

— Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
Introduction

The consequences of sudden failures of metallic oil and gas field components, associated with their

exposure to H S-containing production fluids, led to the preparation of the first edition of NACE MR0175,

which was published in 1975 by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, now known as NACE

International.

The original and subsequent editions of NACE MR0175 established limits of H S partial pressure above

which precautions against sulfide stress-cracking (SSC) were always considered necessary. They

also provided guidance for the selection and specification of SSC-resistant materials when the H S

thresholds were exceeded. In more recent editions, NACE MR0175 has also provided application limits

for some corrosion-resistant alloys, in terms of environmental composition and pH, temperature and

H S partial pressures.

In separate developments, the European Federation of Corrosion issued EFC Publication 16 in 1995 and

EFC Publication 17 in 1996. These documents are generally complementary to those of NACE though

they differed in scope and detail.

In 2003, the publication of the ISO 15156-series and NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 was completed for the

first time. These technically identical documents utilized the above sources to provide requirements

and recommendations for materials qualification and selection for application in environments

containing wet H S in oil and gas production systems. They are complemented by NACE TM0177 and

NACE TM0284 test methods.

The revision of this part of ISO 15156 involves a consolidation of all changes agreed and published

in the Technical Circular 1, ISO 15156-2:2009/Cir.1:2011(E) and the Technical Circular 2,

ISO 15156-2:2009/Cir.2:2014(E), published by the ISO 15156 Maintenance Agency secretariat at DIN.

The changes were developed by and approved by the ballot of, representative groups from within

the oil and gas production industry. The great majority of these changes stem from issues raised by

document users. A description of the process by which these changes were approved can be found at

the ISO 15156 maintenance website: www.iso.org/iso15156maintenance.

When found necessary by oil and gas production industry experts, future interim changes to this part of

ISO 15156 will be processed in the same way and will lead to interim updates to this part of ISO 15156

in the form of Technical Corrigenda or Technical Circulars. Document users should be aware that such

documents can exist and can impact the validity of the dated references in this part of ISO 15156.

The ISO 15156 Maintenance Agency at DIN was set up after approval by the ISO Technical Management

Board given in document 34/2007. This document describes the make up of the agency, which includes

experts from NACE, EFC and ISO/TC 67, and the process for approval of amendments. It is available from

the ISO 15156 maintenance website and from the ISO/TC 67 Secretariat. The website also provides

access to related documents that provide more detail of ISO 15156 maintenance activities.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in
H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production —
Part 2:
Cracking-resistant carbon and low-alloy steels, and the use
of cast irons

WARNING — Carbon and low-alloy steels and cast irons selected using this part of ISO 15156

are resistant to cracking in defined — H S-containing environments in oil and gas production

but not necessarily immune to cracking under all service conditions. It is the equipment

user’s responsibility to select the carbon and low alloy steels and cast irons suitable for the

intended service.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 15156 gives requirements and recommendations for the selection and qualification

of carbon and low-alloy steels for service in equipment used in oil and natural gas production and

natural gas treatment plants in H S-containing environments, whose failure can pose a risk to the

health and safety of the public and personnel or to the environment. It can be applied to help to avoid

costly corrosion damage to the equipment itself. It supplements, but does not replace, the materials

requirements of the appropriate design codes, standards or regulations.

This part of ISO 15156 addresses the resistance of these steels to damage that can be caused by sulfide

stress-cracking (SSC) and the related phenomena of stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking

(SOHIC) and soft-zone cracking (SZC).

This part of ISO 15156 also addresses the resistance of these steels to hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC)

and its possible development into stepwise cracking (SWC).

This part of ISO 15156 is concerned only with cracking. Loss of material by general (mass loss) or

localized corrosion is not addressed.

Table 1 provides a non-exhaustive list of equipment to which this part of ISO 15156 is applicable,

including permitted exclusions.

This part of ISO 15156 applies to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and

constructed using load controlled design methods. For design utilizing strain-based design methods,

see ISO 15156-1:2015, Clause 5.

Annex A lists SSC-resistant carbon and low alloy steels, and A.2.4 includes requirements for the use

of cast irons.

This part of ISO 15156 is not necessarily suitable for application to equipment used in refining or

downstream processes and equipment.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
Table 1 — List of equipment
ISO 15156 is applicable to materials used
Permitted exclusions
for the following equipment

Drilling, well construction and well-servicing Equipment exposed only to drilling fluids of controlled

equipment composition
Drill bits
Blowout preventer (BOP) shear blades
Drilling riser systems
Work strings
Wireline and wireline equipment
Surface and intermediate casing

Wells, including subsurface equipment, gas lift Sucker rod pumps and sucker rods

equipment, wellheads and christmas trees
Electric submersible pumps
Other artificial lift equipment
Slips

Flow-lines, gathering lines, field facilities and field Crude oil storage and handling facilities operating at a

processing plants total absolute pressure below 0,45 MPa (65 psi)
Water-handling equipment Water-handling facilities operating at a total absolute
pressure below 0,45 MPa (65 psi)
Water injection and water disposal equipment
Natural gas treatment plants —

Transportation pipelines for liquids, gases and Lines handling gas prepared for general commercial

multiphase fluids and domestic use
For all equipment above Components loaded only in compression
See A.2.3.2.3 for more information.
See A.2.3.2.1 for more information.

Wireline lubricators and lubricator connecting devices are not permitted exclusions.

For sucker rod pumps and sucker rods, reference can be made to NACE MR0176.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6506-1, Metallic materials — Brinell hardness test — Part 1: Test method
ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials — Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method
ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test — Part 1: Test method

ISO 6892-1, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 10423, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Drilling and production equipment — Wellhead and

Christmas tree equipment

ISO 15156-1:2015, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments

in oil and gas production — Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant materials

ISO 15156-3:2015, Petroleum and natural gas industries — Materials for use in H S-containing environments

in oil and gas production — Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys

2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 15156-2:2015(E)

NACE TM0177 , Laboratory testing of metals for resistance to sulfide stress cracking and stress corrosion

cracking in H2S environments

NACE TM0284, Evaluation of pipeline and pressure vessel steels for resistance to hydrogen-induced cracking

EFC Publications Number 16, Guidelines on materials requirements for carbon and low alloy steels for

H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production
SAE AMS-2430 , Shot Peening, Automatic
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 15156-1 and the following apply.

3.1
Brinell hardness
HBW

hardness value, measured in accordance with ISO 6506-1, normally using a 10 mm diameter tungsten

ball and a force of 29,42 kN

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this provision, ASTM E10 is equivalent to ISO 6506-1.

3.2
bubble-point pressure

pressure under which gas bubbles form in a liquid at a particular operating temperature

Note 1 to entry: See C.2.
3.3
burnish

process of smoothing surfaces using frictional contact between the material and some other hard

pieces of material, such as hardened steel balls
3.4
casting

metal that is obtained at or near its finished shape by the solidification of molten metal in a mould

3.5
cast iron
iron-carbon alloy containing approximately 2 % to 4 % mass fraction carbon
3.5.1
grey cast iron

cast iron that displays a grey fracture surface due to the presence of flake graphite

3.5.2
white cast iron

cast iron that displays a white fracture surface due to the presence of cementite

3.5.3
malleable iron

white cast iron that is thermally treated to convert most or all of the cementite to graphite (temper carbon)

1) NACE International, P.O. Box 2183140, Houston, Texas 77218-8340, USA.

2) European Federation of Corrosion, available from The Institute of Materials, 1 Carlton House Terrace, London

SW1Y 5DB, UK [ISBN 0-901716-95-2].

3) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
3.5.4
ductile iron
nodular cast iron

cast iron that has been treated while molten with an element (usually magnesium or cerium) that

spheroidizes the graphite
3.6
cementite

microstructural constituent of steels composed principally of iron carbide (Fe C)

3.7
cold working
cold deforming
cold forging
cold forming

deforming metal plastically under conditions of temperature and strain rate that induce strain-

hardening, usually, but not necessarily, conducted at room temperature
3.8
fitness-for-purpose
suitability for use under the expected service conditions
3.9
free-machining steel

steel to which elements such as sulfur, selenium and lead have been added intentionally to improve

machineability
3.10
lower critical temperature

temperature of a ferrous metal at which austenite begins to form during heating or at which the

transformation of austenite is completed during cooling
3.11
nitriding

case-hardening process in which nitrogen is introduced into the surface of metallic materials (most

commonly ferrous alloys)
EXAMPLE Liquid nitriding, gas nitriding, ion nitriding and plasma nitriding.
3.12
normalizing

heating a ferrous metal to a suitable temperature above the transformation range (austenitizing),

holding at temperature for a suitable time and then cooling in still air (or protective atmosphere) to a

temperature substantially below the transformation range
3.13
plastically deformed

permanently deformed by stressing beyond the limit of elasticity, i.e. the limit of proportionality of

stress to strain
3.14
pressure-containing part

part whose failure to function as intended results in a release of retained fluid to the atmosphere

EXAMPLE Valve bodies, bonnets and stems.
3.15
quenched and tempered
quench hardened and then tempered
4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
3.16
Rockwell C hardness
HRC

hardness value, measured in accordance with ISO 6508, obtained using a diamond cone indenter and a

force of 1 471 N

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this provision, ASTM E18 is equivalent to ISO 6508-1.

3.17
shot-peening

inducing compressive stresses in the surface layer of a material by bombarding it with a selected

medium (usually round steel shot) under controlled conditions
3.18
stress relief

heating a metal to a suitable temperature, holding at that temperature long enough to reduce residual

stresses, and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses

3.19
tempering

heat treatment by heating to a temperature below the lower critical temperature, for the purpose

of decreasing the hardness and increasing the toughness of hardened steel, hardened cast iron and,

sometimes, normalized steel
3.20
tensile strength
ultimate strength
ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 6892-1.
3.21
test batch

group of items representing a production batch whose conformity with a specified requirement can be

determined by testing representative samples in accordance with a defined procedure

3.22
tubular component

cylindrical component (pipe) having a longitudinal hole, used in drilling/production operations for

conveying fluids
3.23
Vickers hardness

hardness value, measured in accordance with ISO 6507-1, obtained using a diamond pyramid indenter

and one of a variety of possible applied loads

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this provision, ASTM E384 is equivalent to ISO 6507-1.

3.24
weldment

portion of a component on which welding has been performed, including the weld metal, the heat-

affected zone (HAZ), and the adjacent parent metal
3.25
weld metal
portion of a weldment that has been molten during welding
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
3.26
wrought

(metal in the solid condition) formed to a desired shape by working (rolling, extruding, forging, etc.),

usually at an elevated temperature
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

For the purposes of this document, the abbreviated terms given in ISO 15156-1 and the following apply.

AYS actual yield strength
CLR crack length ratio
CSR crack surface ratio
CTR crack thickness ratio
DCB double cantilever beam (test)
FPB four-point bend (test)
HBW Brinell hardness
HIC hydrogen-induced cracking
HRC Rockwell hardness (scale C)
HSC hydrogen stress cracking
HV Vickers hardness
OCTG oil country tubular goods, i.e. casing, tubing and drill pipe
partial pressure of H S
R 0,2 % proof stress in accordance with ISO 6892-1
p0,2
SMYS specified minimum yield strength
SOHIC stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking
SSC sulfide stress-cracking
SWC stepwise cracking
SZC soft-zone cracking
T temperature

UNS Unified Numbering System (from SAE-ASTM, Metals and alloys in the Unified Numbering

System)
UT uniaxial tensile (test)
5 Purchasing information

5.1 The preparation of material purchasing specifications can require co-operation and exchange of

data between the equipment user, the equipment supplier and the material manufacturer to ensure that

the material purchased complies with ISO 15156-1 and this part of ISO 15156.
6 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
5.2 The following information shall be provided:
— preferred material types and/or grades (if known);
— equipment type (if known);
— reference to this part of ISO 15156;
— acceptable bases for selection of materials for SSC resistance (see Clause 7);
— requirements for HIC resistance (see Clause 8).

5.3 The equipment user and the equipment supplier/material manufacturer may agree that carbon or

low-alloy steels other than those described and/or listed in Annex A may be selected subject to suitable

qualification testing in accordance with Annex B and ISO 15156-1. The qualification requirements may

be extended to include resistance to SOHIC and SZC.

If the purchaser intends to make use of such agreements, extensions and qualifications, the appropriate

additional information shall be clearly indicated in the materials purchasing specification. This

information may include
— requirements for SSC testing (see 7.1 and 7.2),
— service conditions for specific sour-service application, and
— other special requirements.

5.4 Annex C describes how to calculate the H S partial pressure and Annex D gives guidance on how to

determine the pH-value of a fluid.

5.5 The information required for material purchasing shall be entered on suitable data sheets.

Suggested formats are given in Annex E.
6 Factors affecting the behaviour of carbon and low alloy steels in H S-
containing environments

The behaviour of carbon and low-alloy steels in H S-containing environments is affected by complex

interactions of parameters, including the following:

a) chemical composition, method of manufacture, product form, strength, hardness of the material

and its local variations, amount of cold work, heat-treatment condition, microstructure,

microstructural uniformity, grain size and cleanliness of the material;
b) H S partial pressure or equivalent concentration in the water phase;
c) chloride ion concentration in the water phase;
d) acidity (pH) of the water phase;
e) presence of sulfur or other oxidants;
f) exposure to non-production fluids;
g) exposure temperature;
h) total tensile stress (applied plus residual);
i) exposure time.

These factors shall be considered when using this part of ISO 15156 for the selection of materials

suitable for environments containing H S in oil and gas production systems.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 15156-2:2015(E)
7 Qualification and selection of carbon and low-alloy steels with resistance to
SSC, SOHIC and SZC
7.1 Option 1 — Selection of SSC-resistant steels (and cast irons) using A.2
7.1.1 For p < 0,3 kPa (0,05 psi)
H2S

The selection of materials for SSC resistance for p below 0,3 kPa (0,05 psi) is not considered in

H2S

detail in this part of ISO 15156. Normally, no special precautions are required for the selection of

steels for use under these conditions, nevertheless, highly susceptible steels can crack. Additional

information on factors affecting susceptibility of steels and attack by cracking mechanisms other

than SSC is given in 7.2.1.
7.1.2 For p ≥ 0,3 kPa (0,05 psi)
H2S

If the partial pressure of H S in the gas is equal to or greater than 0,3 kPa (0,05 psi), SSC-resistant steels

shall be selected using A.2.

NOTE 1 The steels described or listed in A.2 are considered resistant to SSC in oil and natural-gas production

and natural-gas treatment plants.

NOTE 2 Users concerned with the occurrence of SOHIC and/or SZC can refer to Option 2 (see 7.2.2).

NOTE 3 For HIC and SWC, see Clause 8.

7.2 Option 2 — Selection of steels for specific sour-service applications or for ranges

of sour service
7.2.1 Sulfide stress-cracking
7.2.1.1 General
Option 2 allows the user to qualify and select materials for sulfide stres
...

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