Energy performance of buildings — Assessment of overall energy performance

ISO 16346:2013 defines the general procedures to assess the energy performance of buildings, including technical building systems, and defines the different types of ratings, and the building boundaries. The purpose of ISO 16346:2013 is to a) collate results from other International Standards that calculate energy use for specific services within a building, b) account for energy generated in the building, some of which may be exported for use elsewhere, c) present a summary of the overall energy use of the building in tabular form, d) provide energy ratings based on primary energy, carbon dioxide emission, or other parameters defined by a national energy policy, and e) establish general principles for the calculation of primary energy factors and carbon dioxide emission coefficients. ISO 16346:2013 defines the energy services to be taken into account for setting energy performance ratings for planned and existing buildings and provides for 1) a method to compute the standard calculated energy rating, a standard energy use that does not depend on occupant behaviour, actual weather, and other actual (environment or indoor) conditions, 2) a method to assess the measured energy rating, based on the delivered and exported energy, 3) a method to improve confidence in the building calculation model by comparison with actual energy use, and 4) a method to assess the energy effectiveness of possible improvements. ISO 16346:2013 is applicable to a part of a building (e.g. flat), a whole building, or several buildings.

Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Evaluation de la performance énergétique globale

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
22-Sep-2013
Withdrawal Date
22-Sep-2013
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
21-Jun-2017
Completion Date
21-Jun-2017
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16346
First edition
2013-10-01
Energy performance of buildings —
Assessment of overall energy
performance
Performance énergétique des bâtiments — Evaluation de la
performance énergétique globale
Reference number
ISO 16346:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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ISO 16346:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16346:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Assessment of energy performance of buildings................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 Energy uses ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Assessment boundaries .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.3 Types and uses of ratings ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Weighted energy ratings .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 Types of ratings and indicators used ................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Types of factors or coefficients ................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.3 Energy use indicator .......................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Primary energy rating ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.5 Carbon dioxide rating .....................................................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Policy energy rating .........................................................................................................................................................................13

7 Calculated energy rating ...........................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 Calculation procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Set of formulae .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.3 Building thermal needs ................................................................................................................................................................21

7.4 Technical building systems ........................................................................................................................................................22

8 Measured energy rating .............................................................................................................................................................................26

8.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................26

8.2 Assessment period ...........................................................................................................................................................................26

8.3 Assessing the used amounts of all energy carriers...............................................................................................29

8.4 Correction for weather ..................................................................................................................................................................30

9 Validated building calculation model ..........................................................................................................................................31

9.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................31

9.2 Procedure — Validation of the building calculation model ..........................................................................31

9.3 Climatic data ..........................................................................................................................................................................................31

9.4 Occupancy data ....................................................................................................................................................................................32

9.5 Ratings based on the validated calculation model ................................................................................................33

10 Planning retrofit measures for existing buildings .........................................................................................................33

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

12 Standard operating assumptions .....................................................................................................................................................36

12.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

12.2 Input data .................................................................................................................................................................................................36

Annex A (normative) Parallel routes in normative references ..............................................................................................38

Annex B (informative) Methods for collecting building data ...................................................................................................39

Annex C (informative) Energy monitoring ..................................................................................................................................................43

Annex D (informative) Other uses of energy .............................................................................................................................................46

Annex E (informative) Calorific values of fuels .......................................................................................................................................48

Annex F (informative) Confidence intervals ..............................................................................................................................................51

Annex G (informative) Example ..............................................................................................................................................................................55

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ISO 16346:2013(E)

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................62

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ISO 16346:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use in the

built environment, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 205, Building environment design.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16346:2013(E)
Introduction

This International Standard is prepared by ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use in the built

environment, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 205, Building environment design and is

one of three closely linked documents dealing with definitions and general procedures for the overall

building energy performance rating and certification (see also Figure 1):

— ISO/TR 16344, Energy performance of buildings — Common terms, definitions and symbols for the

overall energy performance rating and certification;

— ISO 16343: Energy performance of buildings — Methods for expressing energy performance and for

energy certification of buildings;

— ISO 16346: Energy performance of buildings — Assessment of the overall energy performance.

ISO/TR 16344 provides a coherent set of terms, definitions, and symbols for concepts and physical

quantities related to the overall energy performance of buildings and its components, including

definitions of system boundaries, to be used in all International Standards elaborated within ISO on

energy performance of buildings.

ISO 16343 sets out ways of expressing the energy performance in an energy performance certificate

of a building (including the technical building systems) and ways of expressing requirements as to the

energy performance. This includes an overall numerical energy performance indicator and classes

against benchmarks.

Their development greatly benefited from similar CEN documents (viz. CEN/TR 15615, EN 15217, and

EN 15603) developed to support the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD).

A revision of the set of CEN standards to support the EPBD is anticipated in the near future. Issuing the

ISO documents aims to bring the key subjects of building energy performance assessment to the global

international level.

Given the strong demand for these International Standards at ISO level, it was decided not to delay

the advancement of these International Standards and Technical Report by waiting on these CEN

developments. However, it is expected that a future revision of these International Standards and

Technical Report will be carried out in collaboration with CEN under the Vienna Agreement.

vi © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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Common terms, deinitions and symbols
ISO 16346:2013(E)
Energy Performance (EP)
ISO TR 16344
Overall Energy
Performance of the
ISO 16343
building including its
expressions
technical building
ISO 16346
systems
EP aggregation
Boundaries, classiication
Collect all energy elements
Building energy needs
and system energy losses
Component input data
Boundary conditions

Figure 1 — Flow diagram illustrating the successive elements of the general procedures

Introduction to the assessment of overall energy performance
Energy assessments of buildings are carried out for various purposes, such as:

a) judging compliance with building regulations expressed in terms of a limitation on energy use or a

related quantity;

b) checking for transparency in commercial operations through the energy certification and/or display

of a level of energy performance (energy performance certification);

c) monitoring of the energy efficiency of the building and its technical building systems;

d) helping in planning retrofit measures through prediction of energy savings which would result

from various actions.

This International Standard specifies a general framework for the assessment of overall energy use of a

building and the calculation of energy ratings in terms of primary energy, CO emissions, or parameters

defined by a national energy policy. Separate standards calculate the energy use of services within a

building (heating, cooling, hot water, ventilation, lighting, and transport for people) and produce results

that are used here in combination to show overall energy use. This assessment is not limited to the

building alone, but takes into account the wider environmental impact of the energy supply chain.

An allowance is made for energy that may be generated within or on the surface of the building and

which is used to offset fuel and power drawn from other sources. Energy generated at the building site

and exported is credited, provided it is exported for use elsewhere.

Energy certification of buildings requires a method that is applicable to both new and existing buildings

and which treats them in an equivalent way. Therefore, a method to obtain equivalent results from

different sets of data is presented in this International Standard. A method to assess missing data

and to calculate a standard energy use for space heating and cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water,

and lighting is provided. This International Standard also provides a method to assess the energy

effectiveness of possible improvements.
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ISO 16346:2013(E)

Two principal types of energy ratings for buildings are proposed in this International Standard:

a) calculated energy rating;
b) measured energy rating.

Because of the differences in the way these two ratings are obtained, they cannot be directly compared.

However, the difference between the two ratings for the same building can be used to assess the

cumulative effects of actual construction, systems, and operating conditions versus standard ones and

the contribution of energy uses not included in the calculated energy rating.

Values for factors and coefficients needed to calculate primary energy and CO emissions related to

energy policy should be defined in a national annex.

NOTE Energy is not produced, but only transformed. However, in this International Standard, energy is used

in one form by systems that generate other forms of energy. At its final stage in the building, energy is used to

provide services such as heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water, lighting.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16346:2013(E)
Energy performance of buildings — Assessment of overall
energy performance
1 Scope

This International Standard defines the general procedures to assess the energy performance of

buildings, including technical building systems, and defines the different types of ratings, and the

building boundaries.
The purpose of this International Standard is to

a) collate results from other International Standards that calculate energy use for specific services

within a building,

b) account for energy generated in the building, some of which may be exported for use elsewhere,

c) present a summary of the overall energy use of the building in tabular form,

d) provide energy ratings based on primary energy, carbon dioxide emission, or other parameters

defined by a national energy policy, and

e) establish general principles for the calculation of primary energy factors and carbon dioxide

emission coefficients.

This International Standard defines the energy services to be taken into account for setting energy

performance ratings for planned and existing buildings and provides for

1) a method to compute the standard calculated energy rating, a standard energy use that does not

depend on occupant behaviour, actual weather, and other actual (environment or indoor) conditions,

2) a method to assess the measured energy rating, based on the delivered and exported energy,

3) a method to improve confidence in the building calculation model by comparison with actual

energy use, and
4) a method to assess the energy effectiveness of possible improvements.

This International Standard is applicable to a part of a building (e.g. flat), a whole building, or several buildings.

It is up to national bodies to define under which conditions, for which purposes, and for which types of

buildings the various ratings apply.

This International Standard handles the energy performance of a building as a whole. The assessment

of the energy performance of specific technical building systems is handled in the appropriate part of

the EN 15241, EN 15243, and EN 15316 series or the appropriate International Standards or national

standards as listed in Annex A.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7345:1995, Thermal insulation — Physical quantities and definitions

ISO 12569, Thermal performance of buildings and materials — Determination of specific airflow rate in

buildings — Tracer gas dilution method
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ISO 16346:2013(E)

ISO 13789, Thermal performance of buildings — Transmission and ventilation heat transfer coefficients —

Calculation method

ISO 13790, Energy performance of buildings — Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling

ISO 14025, Environmental labels and declarations — Type III environmental declarations — Principles

and procedures

ISO 16343, Energy performance of buildings — Methods for expressing energy performance and for energy

certification of buildings
ISO 16818, Building environment design — Energy efficiency — Terminology

ISO/TR 16344, Energy performance of buildings — Common terms, definitions and symbols for the overall

energy performance rating and certification

EN 15193:2007, Energy performance of buildings — Energy requirements for lighting

EN 15232:2007, Energy performance of buildings — Impact of Building Automation, Controls and

Building Management

EN 15241, Ventilation for buildings — Calculation methods for energy losses due to ventilation and

infiltration in commercial buildings

EN 15243, Ventilation for buildings — Calculation of room temperatures and of load and energy for buildings

with room conditioning systems

EN 15316 (all parts), Heating systems in buildings — Method for calculation of system energy requirements

and system efficiencies
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 7345 and ISO/TR 16344 apply.

NOTE These terms and definitions are applicable to energy calculations according to this International

Standard and to International Standards that are based on this one, to provide input to or use output from this

International Standard.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

The International Standards dealing with the energy performance of buildings introduce a large number

of quantities and their associated symbols.

To facilitate the use of the International Standards, a common set of symbols and subscripts has been

defined, as given in ISO/TR 16344 (Terms, definitions, and symbols). The symbols follow established

standards of nomenclature, such as ISO 7345, and introduce others that are common to the set of

International Standards needed to assess the energy performance of buildings, in particular a set of

subscripts to distinguish between different energy uses, different energy carriers, etc.

The symbols given in ISO/TR 16344 concern only data passed from one International Standard (or part

of an International Standard) to another.
5 Assessment of energy performance of buildings
5.1 Energy uses

The assessment of the annual energy used by a building shall comprise the following services:

— heating;
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ISO 16346:2013(E)
— cooling and dehumidification;
— ventilation and humidification;
— hot water;
— lighting (optional for residential buildings);
— transport for people (optional);
— other services (optional).
The annual energy use includes auxiliary energy and losses of all systems.

National bodies decide if energy for lighting in residential buildings, as well as energy for transport

for people and other services (e.g. electrical appliances, cooking, industrial processes) in all types of

buildings shall be included or not in the calculated rating.

NOTE Energy uses for lighting and other services are included in the measured energy rating.

5.2 Assessment boundaries

The boundary for the energy performance assessment shall be clearly defined before the assessment. It

is called system boundary. The system boundary is related to the rated object (e.g. flat, building).

Inside the system boundary, the system losses are taken into account explicitly; outside the system

boundary, they are taken into account in the conversion factor.

Energy can be imported or exported through the system boundary. Some of these energy flows can be

quantified by meters (e.g. gas, electricity, district heating, and water). The system boundary for energy

carriers is the meters for gas, electricity, district heating, and water, the loading port of the storage

facility for liquid, and solid energy carriers.

Consequently, if a part of a technical building system (e.g. boiler, chiller, cooling tower, etc.) is located

outside the building envelope but forms part of the building services assessed, it is considered to be

inside the system boundary and its system losses are therefore taken into account explicitly.

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ISO 16346:2013(E)
Key
1 user
2 emission
3 distribution
4 storage
5 boiler
6 fuel
7 electricity
8 auxiliary energy
9 thermal solar collector
10 photovoltaic panels
11 boundary
Figure 2 — Boundary — Examples of energy flows across the system boundary

The following two figures illustrate the energy flows inside and across the system boundary.

NOTE 1 These illustrations are more complete than Figure 2.
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ISO 16346:2013(E)

NOTE 2 Part of the recoverable heat or cold from the systems may be recovered in the building, thus reducing

or augmenting the building energy needs for heating and/or cooling.

Figure 3 — Boundary and energy flows — Main energy flows within and crossing the boundaries

Figure 4 — Boundary and energy flows — More detailed view on the energy flows for produced,

used, and exported electricity at and from the building site

For active solar, wind, or water energy systems, the incident solar radiation on solar panels or the kinetic

energy of wind or water is not part of the energy balance of the building. Only the energy delivered by

the generation devices and the auxiliary energy needed to supply the energy from the source (e.g. solar

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ISO 16346:2013(E)

collector) to the building are taken into account in the energy balance. It is decided on the national level

whether this energy is part or not of the delivered energy.

The assessment can be made for a group of buildings if they are on the same lot or are serviced by the

same technical systems.

Specific rules for the boundaries, depending on the purpose of the energy performance assessment and

the type of the buildings, may be provided at national level.
5.3 Types and uses of ratings

This Internatonal Standard gives two principal options for energy rating of buildings:

— calculated energy rating;
— measured energy rating.

The calculated energy rating includes energy use for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water, and when

appropriate, fixed built-in lighting. It does not include energy for other services unless so decided at national

level. Therefore, both ratings cannot be compared without special caution, as mentioned in Clause 8.

The calculated energy rating can be either:

— standard, based on conventional climate, use, surroundings, and occupant-related input data

defined at national level and given in a national annex. This rating is called “design rating” when

applied to a planned building;

— tailored, calculated with climate, occupancy, and surroundings data adapted to the actual building

and the purpose of the calculation.
The assessment method of the measured energy rating is given in Clause 8.
National bodies determine

— which type of rating applies for each building type and purpose of the energy performance assessment,

— under what conditions the design rating can be considered as or converted to a calculated energy

rating for the actually realized building, and
— if renewable energy produced on site is part or not of delivered energy.
The types of rating are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1 — Types of ratings
Name Input data Utility or purpose
Use Climate Building

Calculated Design Standard Standard Design Building permit, certificate under conditions

Standard Standard Standard Actual Energy performance certificate, regulation
Tailored Depending on purpose Actual Optimization, validation, retrofit planning

Measured Operational Actual Actual Actual Energy performance certificate, regulation

6 Weighted energy ratings
6.1 Types of ratings and indicators used
NOTE 1 Annex G contains a worked example of the procedures in this clause.
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ISO 16346:2013(E)

NOTE 2 ISO 16343 describes different levels of ratings, from integrated building energy performance to energy

performance at component level. So it is to be discussed if the performance ratings of the envelope

...

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