Automation systems and integration — Digital twin framework for manufacturing — Part 3: Digital representation of manufacturing elements

This document provides a list of basic information attributes for the OMEs: — examples of information attributes are given; — standards that can define these information attributes are discussed in Annex A.

Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Cadre technique de jumeau numérique dans un contexte de fabrication — Partie 3: Représentation numérique des éléments intervenant en fabrication

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Published
Publication Date
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6060 - International Standard published
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Completion Date
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23247-3
First edition
2021-10
Automation systems and
integration — Digital twin framework
for manufacturing —
Part 3:
Digital representation of
manufacturing elements
Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Cadre
technique de jumeau numérique dans un contexte de fabrication —
Partie 3: Représentation numérique des éléments intervenant en
fabrication
Reference number
ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Digital representation of OMEs ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Information attributes of the OMEs .................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Personnel information ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Equipment information ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.4 Material information .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5 Process information ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.6 Facility information............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.7 Environment information .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.8 Product information ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.9 Supporting document information .....................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Existing technologies for representing OMEs .............................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Example of information attributes ........................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Automation systems and integration,

Subcommittee SC 4, Industrial data.
A list of all parts in the ISO 23247 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Introduction

The ISO 23247 series defines a framework to support the creation of digital twins of observable

manufacturing elements including personnel, equipment, materials, manufacturing processes, facilities,

environment, products, and supporting documents.

A digital twin assists with detecting anomalies in manufacturing processes to achieve functional

objectives such as real-time control, predictive maintenance, in-process adaptation, Big Data analytics,

and machine learning. A digital twin monitors its observable manufacturing element by constantly

updating relevant operational and environmental data. The visibility into process and execution

enabled by a digital twin enhances manufacturing operation and business cooperation

The type of manufacturing supported by an implementation of the ISO 23247 framework depends on

the standards and technologies available to model the observable manufacturing elements. Different

manufacturing domains can use different data standards. As a framework, this document does not

prescribe specific data formats and communication protocols.
The scopes of the four parts of this series are defined below:

— ISO 23247-1: General principles and requirements for developing digital twins in manufacturing;

— ISO 23247-2: Reference architecture with functional views;

— ISO 23247-3: List of basic information attributes for the observable manufacturing elements;

— ISO 23247-4: Technical requirements for information exchange between entities within the

reference architecture.
Figure 1 shows how the four parts of the series are related.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Figure 1 — ISO 23247 series structure

ISO 23247-4:2021, Annexes A to E, provide use cases that demonstrate the digital twin framework for

manufacturing.

The use cases are in the discrete manufacturing domain and the digital twins are modelled using the

ISO 10303 series. In other domains, different standards and technologies can be used. For example,

in oil and gas, the digital twins may be modelled using the ISO 15926 series, and for building and

construction, the digital twins may be modelled using the ISO 16739 series.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Automation systems and integration — Digital twin
framework for manufacturing —
Part 3:
Digital representation of manufacturing elements
1 Scope
This document provides a list of basic information attributes for the OMEs:
— examples of information attributes are given;

— standards that can define these information attributes are discussed in Annex A.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 23247-1, Automation systems and integration — Digital twin framework for manufacturing — Part 1:

Overview and general principles
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 23247-1, and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
information attribute
information about observable manufacturing elements (OMEs)
3.2
dynamic

information attribute (3.1) that changes during manufacturing processes

3.3
static

information attribute (3.1) that does not change during manufacturing

processes
3.4
mandatory

information attribute (3.1) that must be included in any description of the OME

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
3.5
optional

information attribute (3.1) that may be included in a description of the OME

depending on the purpose
4 Digital representation of OMEs

Digital representation of OMEs can include both static and dynamic information. Information that does

not change during manufacturing is classified as static. For example, the serial number of a piece of

material is static. However, the shape of the material, if it changes during manufacturing processes, is

dynamic.

Pursuant to the principles defined in ISO 23247-1, this document provides a list of basic information

attributes for the OMEs within the reference architecture given in ISO 23247-2.

The dark grey box in Figure 2 shows the types of OMEs that need to be represented by the digital twin

entity defined in ISO 23247-2.
Figure 2 — Types of OMEs in reference architecture (blue-coloured box)
5 Information attributes of the OMEs
5.1 General

Standards such as IEC 62264-2, ISO 10303-238 and ISO 10303-242 contain detailed information models

for representing the OMEs. Each implementation of the digital twin framework for manufacturing shall

select the digital representation method most appropriate to model its OMEs.

Annex A lists some standards and technologies that can be selected for the digital representation.

Annex B provides UML and XML descriptions for an example.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)

Table 1 shows the template used to describe the information attributes. The types of information

attributes are not limited to those given in Table 1, but can be customized for specific use cases. The

notation is taken from IEC 62264-2. Mandatory (M) or Optional (O) attributes can be selected depending

on the purpose of the use cases.
Table 1 — Information attributes for OMEs
I n f o r m a t i o n Description Mandatory (M)
attribute
Optional (O)

Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to uniquely identify an OME Mandatory

in a specific enterprise, e.g.:
— UUID
— URL
— URN
— OID (ITU-T X.680 and ISO/IEC 8824-1)
— domain-specific ID
— ISO 29002 series or URI unique ID (used in AAS)
Characteristics A typical or noticeable feature of an OME, e.g.: Optional
depending on the
— IEC 62264-2 (B2MML)
purpose of the use
— eCl@ss cases
— ISO 13584-42 (PLIB)
— IEC 61360 (CDD)
Schedule Time information bound to a manufacturing process, e.g.:
— ISO 8601 series
— start/stop
Status A condition of an OME involved in a manufacturing process, e.g.:
— VDMA 24582
Location Geographical or relative location information of an OME, e.g.:
— GPS coordinates
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location
Report Description of activities done by or onto an OME, e.g.:
— QIF
— MTConnect
Relationship Connection information between two or more OMEs, e.g. IEC 62264-2
5.2 Personnel information

Personnel includes employees who are engaged directly or indirectly in manufacturing processes.

Personnel information attributes and examples are shown in Table 2.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 2 — Information attributes for personnel
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used — employee ID: 11223
to uniquely identify the person in a specific
— UUID: b2287ac5-9572-4e58-88e5-
enterprise, e.g.:
2ba446c630d7
— employee ID
— UUID
— URL
— URN
— OID (ITU-T X.680 and ISO/IEC 8824-1)
— domain-specific ID
— ISO 29002 series or URI unique ID
(used in AAS)
Characteristics Personal properties including skill level, — IEC 62264-2
classification, e.g.:
— skill level: 2
— IEC 62264-2
— classification: 3
— skill level
— 1: master
— 2: journeyman
— 3: apprentice
— classification
— 1: researcher
— 2: administrator
— 3: technician
— 4: driver
Schedule A personal working schedule, e.g.: — 2019-05-14-working-0800-1700
— ISO 8601 series
— working
— day-off
Status A current working status — 2019-05-14-onbreak-1500-1530

Location location information of a person, e.g.: — Operator #1: WorkUnit #3 and 50 cm

away from Robot #2.
— GPS coordinates
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location
Report An activity report of a person — 2019-05-14-8 h of work

Relationship Information regarding collaborations among — Operator #1 is the supervisor of opera-

personnel and other OMEs tor #2.
— WorkUnit #3 must have at least 4 per-
sons for safety reasons.
— Operator #1 and Operator #2 are work-
ing in the WorkUnit #3.
— Operator #1 and Operator #2 are 70 cm
away from Machine #2.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
5.3 Equipment information

Equipment is a physical element that carries out an operation directly or indirectly for a manufacturing

process. Equipment information attributes and examples are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 — Information attributes for equipment
Attribute Description Examples

Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to — UUID: e88561dc-2401-4f9a-

uniquely identify the equipment in a specific enter- 961c-e90e6424b1dd
prise, e.g.:
— asset ID: dtm-200327-11
— UUID
— asset ID
Characteristics Functionalities, features of the equipment, e.g.: milling
— milling
— turning
— grinding
— pressing

Schedule A plan for carrying out manufacturing activities, Maintenance for Machine #1 is

e.g. Monday to Friday first shift scheduled on every Sunday.
Status A current state of the equipment, e.g.: — on
— on/off — energy usage: 10kWh
— working/breakdown — temperature: 25 °C
— energy usage (unit: kWh)
— temperature (unit: °C, °F)
— noise level (unit: dB)
Location Location information of the equipment, e.g.: — Relative location
— GPS coordinates — Machine #2: Work Unit #2 in
Room #3
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report An activity report of the equipment engaged in — May 14 , 2019 9 AM to 6 PM:

manufacturing, maintenance, etc. Regular Maintenance
— May 14 , 2019 11 AM: Ma-
chine #1 reports high temperature.

Relationship Relationship information between the equipment — Machine #1 operates with

and other OMEs Material #2.
— Machine #1 is operated in
WorkCenter #5.
5.4 Material information

Material includes physical matter that is transformed to become part or the whole of a product e.g.

metal block, glass panel, chemical compound, or is used to aid manufacturing processes such as cleaning

fluid or coolant. Material information attributes and examples are shown in Table 4.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 4 — Information attributes for material
Attribute Description Examples

Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to unique- — UUID: 0030f7a2-5266-4937-

ly identify the material in a specific enterprise, e.g.: 9820-168409f5e9a2
— UUID — bar code: 8809123456785
— bar code
— RFID tag
Characteristics Features of the material, e.g.: Handle with care
— handle with care/fragile
— toxic/non-toxic
— liquid/solid/gas
— plastic/steel/rubber/powder
Schedule Time information of the material, e.g.: Purchase: May 14 , 2019
— purchase schedule
— receiving/internal routing schedule
— machine load schedule
Status A current condition of the material, e.g.: Tested
— tested
— availability
— liquid/solid/gas
Location Location information of the material, e.g.: Relative location
— GPS coordinates Material #1: Shelf #3 in Warehouse
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location
Report A usage report of the material May 14 , 2019:
8 kg of Material #2 was used in
WorkUnit #2.

Relationship Relationship information between the material and Material #1 is operated by an oper-

other OMEs ator with skill level2.
5.5 Process information

A process consists of the operations necessary to complete a manufacturing task, e.g. milling and drilling

in discrete manufacturing, distillation and reaction in oil and gas. Process information attributes and

examples are shown in Table 5.
Table 5 — Information attributes for a process
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used — UUID:
to uniquely identify a process in a specific
fb341a45-942e-4128-9878-89ab1020bca1
enterprise, e.g.:
— process identifier: proc-
— UUID
20201210221020
— process identifier
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 5 (continued)
Attribute Description Examples
Characteristics Classification of processes including Milling
production, maintenance, quality test, and
inventory, e.g.:
— production/maintenance/quality test/
inventory
— milling/drilling
— additive manufacturing
Schedule Time features of the process, e.g.: Periodic: once a month
— periodic
— single occurrence
— multiple occurrence
— specific time and duration

Status A current condition of the process, e.g.: In-process: May 14 , 2019 09:00 AM

— planned
— in-process
— finished
— incomplete
Location Location information of the process to be — Relative location:
performed, completed or on-going, e.g.:
Material #10 was moved from warehouse
— GPS coordinates #2 of the Daejeon branch to conveyor # 5 of
factory #2.
— postal address
— GPS coordinates:
— ISO 6709
Material #10 was Material #10 was moved
— relative location
from (36.0265009,129.3510944,14z) to
(35.5357326,129.3800283,17z)
— XYZ location in coordinate space:
Material #10 was moved from (lon-
gitude value=”- 83.6945691” latitude
value=”42.25475478” altitude value="0")
(longitude value=”- 70.6945691” latitude
value=” 30.25475478” altitude value="0")
Report An output report of a process May 14 , 2019: Machine #2 completed Mill-
ingOperation #5.

Relationship Relationship information between a pro- — ManufacturingProcessStep #1 is execut-

cess and other OMEs ed by an operator with skill level3.
— MillingOperation #1 is begun in Machine
#3 and finished in Machine #4.
5.6 Facility information

Facility includes infrastructure that is related to or affects manufacturing. Facility information

attributes and examples are shown in Table 6.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 6 — Information attributes for a facility
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to uniquely — UUID:
identify a location or fixed asset within a facility in a
7 5 7d b 0 f 3 - 4 b 6 f - 4 4 0 8 - 9 03f -
specific enterprise, e.g.:
c82366677ac5
— UUID
— asset ID: dtm-200327-010
— serial number
— asset ID

Characteristics Classification or features of the facility ISO class 5 clean room

Schedule Time features of the facility e.g.: Periodic: once a week
— periodic
— one-off
— given specific time
— duration
Status A current condition of the facility, e.g.: Normal
— normal
— abnormal
Location Location information of the facility, e.g.: Relative location:
— GPS coordinates Window #1 in clean room #2
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report A report of the facility on its status, usage, etc. The window in clean room #2 was

found to be broken at 10 AM.

Relationship Relationship information between a facility and — Clean room #1 is evacuated

other OMEs when the temperature exceeds the
limits.
— Vacuum for machine #12
dropped to -0.5 bar at 11 AM.
5.7 Environment information

Environment includes necessary conditions that shall be met by facilities for the correct execution of a

manufacturing process. Environment information attributes and examples are shown in Table 7.

Table 7 — Information attributes for environment
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to — UUID:
uniquely identify an environmental profile of a loca-
0dc7c7c8-cf7c-435b-9f81-
tion in a specific enterprise, e.g. UUID
c4d7397123db
— combination of time and sen-
sor ID: 20200327-sensor0010

Characteristics Constraints or requirements of the environment, — temperature: 25 °C

e.g.:
— humidity: 60 %
— temperature
— illuminance: 60 lux
— humidity
— illuminance
8 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 7 (continued)
Attribute Description Examples
Schedule N/A N/A
Status A current condition of the environment, e.g. Normal
— Normal
— abnormal
Location A location of the environmental information ob- Relative location:
served, e.g.:
Jig bore room #3 in Building #2
— GPS coordinates
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report A report of the environment during manufacturing The temperature in jig bore room

#3 changed from 20 °C to 22 °C
during manufacturing process.

Relationship Relationship information between the environment — Clean room should be kept at

and other OMEs 20 °C while manufacturing process
#1 is being performed.
— May 14th, 2019 10 AM:
Air conditioner in Facility #3
turned on and lowered the temper-
ature in the clean room to 20 °C
5.8 Product information

A product is the desired output of a manufacturing process. Product information attributes and

examples are shown in Table 8.
Table 8 — Information attributes for a product
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to UUID:
uniquely identify a product, e.g. part number, model
7062255e-93d9-4055-85e9-
number, batch number or serial number, in a specif-
c127b17c9883
ic enterprise, e.g. UUID

Characteristics Classification or features of the product, e.g.: Design colour: white

— design dimensions
— design colour

Schedule Desired time of output or by-product of a manufac- May 14th, 2020 10AM, interme-

turing process diate between Process #1 and
Process #2

Status A current condition of the product, e.g.: In-process: May 14th, 2019 10 AM

— in-process
— installed
— completed
— shipped
— in inventory
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 8 (continued)
Attribute Description Examples
Location A location of the product, e.g.: Relative location:
— GPS coordinates Product #2 is in Warehouse #3.
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report A report of activities related to the product — May 14th, 2019 9 AM: Product

#2 has passed QualityTest #5.
— May 14th, 2019 10 AM: Prod-
uct #2 has moved to Warehouse
#3.

Relationship Relationship information between a product and — Product #1 is produced by

other OMEs Machine #3.
— Product #3 is in process on
Machine #2 for Milling Operation
#3.
5.9 Supporting document information

A supporting document includes any form of artefact that helps the applications of digital twin for

manufacturing. Supporting document information attributes and examples are shown in Table 9.

Table 9 — Information attributes for a supporting document
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to — UUID :
uniquely identify a supporting document in a
c0ff08a6-7de4-4427-9440-bbf27aed92aa
specific enterprise, e.g.:
— Document number: dtm-11223-
— UUID
doc010-200327
— document number
Characteristics Classification of the supporting document, Document format: pdf
e.g.:
— document format
— requirements document
— manufacturing plan
— specification document
Schedule Revision time of the supporting document, Periodic: once a month
e.g.:
— periodic
— one time
Status A current condition of the supporting docu- Complete
ment, e.g.:
— planned
— complete
— incomplete
10 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 9 (continued)
Attribute Description Examples
Location Location information, e.g.: Document #2 is stored in http:// acme
. c om/ do c u ment
— URL
— GPS coordinates
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report A report of activities related to the supporting May 14th, 2019 9 AM: Document #2 is

document r e v i s e d i n ht t p:// ac me . c om/ do c u ment .

Relationship Relationship information between a support- — May 12th, 2019 10 AM: Engineer #3

ing document and other OMEs produced Document #2.
— Document #3 for Drilling Operation
#5 by May 31th, 2019.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 11
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ISO 23247-3:2021(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Existing technologies for representing OMEs
A.1 General

Multiple existing standards and specifications can be used to represent OMEs. Each standard has its

own characteristics and advantages. Digital twin developers should carefully consider which ones

should be used for a target application. In many cases, multiple standards need to be combined because

one can be most appropriate for the digital twin entity, and another can be most appropriate for the

device communication entity.

Clauses A.2 to A.4 provide brief summaries for a selection of existing standards. This is not a complete

list.
A.2 Standards tested in the use cases described in ISO 23247-4:2021, Annex A

The ISO 10303 series, known as Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), defines the

computer-interpretable representation of product information and the exchange of product and process

data (see ISO 10303-238). The objective of the ISO 10303 series is to provide a neutral mechanism

capable of describing products and their manufacturing processes throughout their life cycle. This

mechanism is appropriate not only for neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing and

sharing product databases, and as a basis for archiving. The STEP series is used for data exchange

among CAD/CAM systems and between CAD/CAM and manufacturing systems. The information models

for the ISO 10303 series are described using EXPRESS schemas.

— ISO 10303-238 specifies an application protocol (AP) for numerically controlled machining and

associated processes. ISO 10303-238 includes the information requirements defined by the

ISO 14649 ser
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 23247-3
ISO/TC 184/SC 4
Automation systems and
Secretariat: ANSI
integration — Digital twin framework
Voting begins on:
2021-06-18 for manufacturing —
Voting terminates on:
Part 3:
2021-08-13
Digital representation of
manufacturing elements
Systèmes d'automatisation industrielle et intégration — Cadre
technique de jumeau numérique dans un contexte de fabrication —
Partie 3: Représentation numérique des éléments intervenant en
fabrication
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Digital representation of OMEs ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Information attributes of the OMEs .................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Personnel information ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Equipment information ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.4 Material information .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5 Process information ........................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.6 Facility information............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.7 Environment information .............................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.8 Product information ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.9 Supporting document information .....................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Existing technologies for representing OMEs .............................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Example of information attributes ........................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Automation systems and integration,

Subcommittee SC 4, Industrial data.
A list of all parts in the ISO 23247 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Introduction

The ISO 23247 series defines a framework to support the creation of digital twins of observable

manufacturing elements including personnel, equipment, materials, manufacturing processes, facilities,

environment, products, and supporting documents.

A digital twin assists with detecting anomalies in manufacturing processes to achieve functional

objectives such as real-time control, predictive maintenance, in-process adaptation, Big Data analytics,

and machine learning. A digital twin monitors its observable manufacturing element by constantly

updating relevant operational and environmental data. The visibility into process and execution

enabled by a digital twin enhances manufacturing operation and business cooperation

The type of manufacturing supported by an implementation of the ISO 23247 framework depends on

the standards and technologies available to model the observable manufacturing elements. Different

manufacturing domains can use different data standards. As a framework, this document does not

prescribe specific data formats and communication protocols.
The scopes of the four parts of this series are defined below:

— ISO 23247-1: General principles and requirements for developing digital twins in manufacturing;

— ISO 23247-2: Reference architecture with functional views;

— ISO 23247-3: List of basic information attributes for the observable manufacturing elements;

— ISO 23247-4: Technical requirements for information exchange between entities within the

reference architecture.
Figure 1 shows how the four parts of the series are related.
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Figure 1 — ISO 23247 series structure

ISO 23247-4,— , Annexes A to E, provide use cases that demonstrate the digital twin framework for

manufacturing.

The use cases are in the discrete manufacturing domain and the digital twins are modelled using the

ISO 10303 series. In other domains, different standards and technologies can be used. For example,

in oil and gas, the digital twins may be modelled using the ISO 15926 series, and for building and

construction, the digital twins may be modelled using the ISO 16739 series.

1) Under preparation. (Stage at the time of publication: ISO/FDIS 23247-4:2021.)

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Automation systems and integration — Digital twin
framework for manufacturing —
Part 3:
Digital representation of manufacturing elements
1 Scope
This document provides a list of basic information attributes for the OMEs:
— examples of information attributes are given;

— standards that can define these information attributes are discussed in Annex A.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 23247-1, Automation systems and integration — Digital twin framework for manufacturing — Part 1:

Overview and general principles
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 23247-1, and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
information attribute
information about observable manufacturing elements (OMEs)
3.2
dynamic

information attribute (3.2) that changes during manufacturing processes

3.3
static

information attribute (3.2) that does not change during manufacturing

processes
3.4
mandatory

information attribute (3.2) that must be included in any description of the OME

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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
3.5
optional

information attribute (3.2) that may be included in a description of the OME

depending on the purpose
4 Digital representation of OMEs

Digital representation of OMEs can include both static and dynamic information. Information that does

not change during manufacturing is classified as static. For example, the serial number of a piece of

material is static. However, the shape of the material, if it changes during manufacturing processes, is

dynamic.

Pursuant to the principles defined in ISO 23247-1, this document provides a list of basic information

attributes for the OMEs within the reference architecture given in ISO 23247-2.

The blue-coloured box in Figure 2 shows the types of OMEs that need to be represented by the digital

twin entity defined in ISO 23247-2.
Figure 2 — Types of OMEs in reference architecture (blue-coloured box)
5 Information attributes of the OMEs
5.1 General

Standards such as IEC 62264-2, ISO 10303-238 and ISO 10303-242 contain detailed information models

for representing the OMEs. Each implementation of the digital twin framework for manufacturing shall

select the digital representation method most appropriate to model its OMEs.

Annex A lists some standards and technologies that can be selected for the digital representation.

Annex B provides UML and XML descriptions for an example.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)

Table 1 shows the template used to describe the information attributes. The types of information

attributes are not limited to those given in Table 1, but can be customized for specific use cases. The

notation is taken from IEC 62264-2. Mandatory (M) or Optional (O) attributes can be selected depending

on the purpose of the use cases.
Table 1 — Information attributes for OMEs
Information at- Description Mandatory (M)
tribute
Optional (O)

Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to uniquely identify an OME Mandatory

in a specific enterprise, e.g.:
— UUID (ITU-T Rec. X.667 | ISO/IEC 9834-8)
— URL
— URN (IETF RFC 4122)
— OID(ITU-T X.680 and ISO/IEC 8824-1)
— domain-specific ID
— ISO 29002 series or URI unique ID (used in AAS)
Characteristics A typical or noticeable feature of an OME, e.g.: Optional de-
pending on the
— IEC 62264-2 (B2MML)
purpose of the use
— eCl@ss cases
— ISO 13584-42 (PLIB)
— IEC 61360 (CDD)
Schedule Time information bound to a manufacturing process, e.g.:
— ISO 8601 series
— start/stop
Status A condition of an OME involved in a manufacturing process, e.g.:
— VDMA 24582
Location Geographical or relative location information of an OME, e.g.:
— GPS coordinates
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location
Report Description of activities done by or onto an OME, e.g.:
— QIF
— MTConnect
Relationship Connection information between two or more OMEs, e.g. IEC 62264-2
5.2 Personnel information

Personnel includes employees who are engaged directly or indirectly in manufacturing processes.

Personnel information attributes and examples are shown in Table 2.
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 2 — Information attributes for personnel
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used — employee ID: 11223
to uniquely identify the person in a specific
— UUID: b2287ac5-9572-4e58-88e5-
enterprise, e.g.:
2ba446c630d7
— employee ID
— UUID
— URL
— URN (IETF RFC 4122)
— OID(ITU-T X.680 and ISO/IEC 8824-1)
— domain-specific ID
— ISO 29002 series or URI unique ID (used
in AAS)
Characteristics Personal properties including skill level, — IEC 62264-2
classification, e.g.:
— skill level: 2
— IEC 62264-2
— classification: 3
— skill level
— 1: master
— 2: journeyman
— 3: apprentice
— classification
— 1: researcher
— 2: administrator
— 3: technician
— 4: driver
Schedule A personal working schedule, e.g.: — 2019-05-14-working-0800-1700
— ISO 8601 series
— working
— day-off
Status A current working status — 2019-05-14-onbreak-1500-1530

Location location information of a person, e.g.: — Operator #1: WorkUnit #3 and 50 cm

away from Robot #2.
— GPS coordinates
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location
Report An activity report of a person — 2019-05-14-8 h of work

Relationship Information regarding collaborations among — Operator #1 is the supervisor of opera-

personnel and other OMEs tor #2.
— WorkUnit #3 must have at least 4 per-
sons for safety reasons.
— Operator #1 and Operator #2 are work-
ing in the WorkUnit #3.
— Operator #1 and Operator #2 are 70 cm
away from Machine #2.
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
5.3 Equipment information

Equipment is a physical element that carries out an operation directly or indirectly for a manufacturing

process. Equipment information attributes and examples are shown in Table 3.
Table 3 — Information attributes for equipment
Attribute Description Examples

Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to — UUID: e88561dc-2401-4f9a-

uniquely identify the equipment in a specific enter- 961c-e90e6424b1dd
prise, e.g.:
— asset ID: dtm-200327-11
— UUID
— asset ID
Characteristics Functionalities, features of the equipment, e.g.: milling
— milling
— turning
— grinding
— pressing

Schedule A plan for carrying out manufacturing activities, Maintenance for Machine #1 is

e.g. Monday to Friday first shift scheduled on every Sunday.
Status A current state of the equipment, e.g.: — on
— on/off — energy usage: 10kWh
— working/breakdown — temperature: 25 °C
— energy usage (unit: kWh)
— temperature (unit: °C, °F)
— noise level (unit: dB)
Location Location information of the equipment, e.g.: — Relative location
— GPS coordinates — Machine #2: Work Unit #2 in
Room #3
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report An activity report of the equipment engaged in — May 14 , 2019 9 AM to 6 PM:

manufacturing, maintenance, etc. Regular Maintenance
— May 14 , 2019 11 AM: Ma-
chine #1 reports high temperature.

Relationship Relationship information between the equipment — Machine #1 operates with

and other OMEs Material #2.
— Machine #1 is operated in
WorkCenter #5.
5.4 Material information

Material includes physical matter that is transformed to become part or the whole of a product e.g.

metal block, glass panel, chemical compound, or is used to aid manufacturing processes such as cleaning

fluid or coolant. Material information attributes and examples are shown in Table 4.

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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 4 — Information attributes for material
Attribute Description Examples

Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to unique- — UUID: 0030f7a2-5266-4937-

ly identify the material in a specific enterprise, e.g.: 9820-168409f5e9a2
— UUID — bar code: 8809123456785
— bar code
— RFID tag
Characteristics Features of the material, e.g.: Handle with care
— handle with care/fragile
— toxic/non-toxic
— liquid/solid/gas
— plastic/steel/rubber/powder
Schedule Time information of the material, e.g.: Purchase: May 14 , 2019
— purchase schedule
— receiving/internal routing schedule
— machine load schedule
Status A current condition of the material, e.g.: Tested
— tested
— availability
— liquid/solid/gas
Location Location information of the material, e.g.: Relative location
— GPS coordinates Material #1: Shelf #3 in Warehouse
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location
Report A usage report of the material May 14 , 2019:
8 kg of Material #2 was used in
WorkUnit #2.

Relationship Relationship information between the material and Material #1 is operated by an oper-

other OMEs ator with skill level2.
5.5 Process information

A process consists of the operations necessary to complete a manufacturing task, e.g. milling and drilling

in discrete manufacturing, distillation and reaction in oil and gas. Process information attributes and

examples are shown in Table 5.
Table 5 — Information attributes for a process
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used — UUID:
to uniquely identify a process in a specific
fb341a45-942e-4128-9878-89ab1020bca1
enterprise, e.g.:
— process identifier : proc-
— UUID
20201210221020
— process identifier
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 5 (continued)
Attribute Description Examples
Characteristics Classification of processes including Milling
production, maintenance, quality test, and
inventory, e.g.:
— production/maintenance/quality test/
inventory
— milling/drilling
— additive manufacturing
Schedule Time features of the process, e.g.: Periodic: once a month
— periodic
— single occurrence
— multiple occurrence
— specific time and duration

Status A current condition of the process, e.g.: In-process: May 14 , 2019 09:00 AM

— planned
— in-process
— finished
— incomplete
Location Location information of the process to be — Relative location:
performed, completed or on-going, e.g.:
Material #10 was moved from warehouse
— GPS coordinates #2 of the Daejeon branch to conveyor # 5 of
factory #2.
— postal address
— GPS coordinates:
— ISO 6709
Material #10 was Material #10 was moved
— relative location
from (36.0265009,129.3510944,14z) to
(35.5357326,129.3800283,17z)
— XYZ location in coordinate space:
Material #10 was moved from (lon-
gitude value=”- 83.6945691” latitude
value=”42.25475478” altitude value="0")
(longitude value=”- 70.6945691” latitude
value=” 30.25475478” altitude value="0")
Report An output report of a process May 14 , 2019: Machine #2 completed Mill-
ingOperation #5.

Relationship Relationship information between a pro- — ManufacturingProcessStep #1 is execut-

cess and other OMEs ed by an operator with skill level3.
— MillingOperation #1 is begun in Machine
#3 and finished in Machine #4.
5.6 Facility information

Facility includes infrastructure that is related to or affects manufacturing. Facility information

attributes and examples are shown in Table 6.
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 6 — Information attributes for a facility
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to uniquely — UUID:
identify a location or fixed asset within a facility in a
7 5 7d b 0 f 3 - 4 b 6 f - 4 4 0 8 - 9 03f -
specific enterprise, e.g.:
c82366677ac5
— UUID
— asset ID: dtm-200327-010
— serial number
— asset ID

Characteristics Classification or features of the facility ISO class 5 clean room

Schedule Time features of the facility e.g.: Periodic: once a week
— periodic
— one-off
— given specific time
— duration
Status A current condition of the facility, e.g.: Normal
— normal
— abnormal
Location Location information of the facility, e.g.: Relative location:
— GPS coordinates Window #1 in clean room #2
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report A report of the facility on its status, usage, etc. The window in clean room #2 was

found to be broken at 10 AM.

Relationship Relationship information between a facility and — Clean room #1 is evacuated

other OMEs when the temperature exceeds the
limits.
— Vacuum for machine #12
dropped to -0.5 bar at 11 AM.
5.7 Environment information

Environment includes necessary conditions that shall be met by facilities for the correct execution of a

manufacturing process. Environment information attributes and examples are shown in Table 7.

Table 7 — Information attributes for environment
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to — UUID:
uniquely identify an environmental profile of a loca-
0dc7c7c8-cf7c-435b-9f81-
tion in a specific enterprise, e.g. UUID
c4d7397123db
— combination of time and sen-
sor ID: 20200327-sensor0010

Characteristics Constraints or requirements of the environment, — temperature: 25 °C

e.g.:
— humidity: 60 %
— temperature
— illuminance: 60 lux
— humidity
— illuminance
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 7 (continued)
Attribute Description Examples
Schedule N/A N/A
Status A current condition of the environment, e.g. Normal
— Normal
— abnormal
Location A location of the environmental information ob- Relative location:
served, e.g.:
Jig bore room #3 in Building #2
— GPS coordinates
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report A report of the environment during manufacturing The temperature in jig bore room

#3 changed from 20 °C to 22 °C
during manufacturing process.

Relationship Relationship information between the environment — Clean room should be kept at

and other OMEs 20 °C while manufacturing process
#1 is being performed.
— May 14th, 2019 10 AM:
Air conditioner in Facility #3
turned on and lowered the temper-
ature in the clean room to 20 °C
5.8 Product information

A product is the desired output of a manufacturing process. Product information attributes and

examples are shown in Table 8.
Table 8 — Information attributes for a product
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to UUID:
uniquely identify a product, e.g. part number, model
7062255e-93d9-4055-85e9-
number, batch number or serial number, in a specif-
c127b17c9883
ic enterprise, e.g. UUID

Characteristics Classification or features of the product, e.g.: Design colour: white

— design dimensions
— design colour

Schedule Desired time of output or by-product of a manufac- May 14th, 2020 10AM, interme-

turing process diate between Process #1 and
Process #2

Status A current condition of the product, e.g.: In-process: May 14th, 2019 10 AM

— in-process
— installed
— completed
— shipped
— in inventory
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 8 (continued)
Attribute Description Examples
Location A location of the product, e.g.: Relative location:
— GPS coordinates Product #2 is in Warehouse #3.
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report A report of activities related to the product — May 14th, 2019 9 AM: Product

#2 has passed QualityTest #5.
— May 14th, 2019 10 AM: Prod-
uct #2 has moved to Warehouse
#3.

Relationship Relationship information between a product and — Product #1 is produced by

other OMEs Machine #3.
— Product #3 is in process on
Machine #2 for Milling Operation
#3.
5.9 Supporting document information

A supporting document includes any form of artefact that helps the applications of digital twin for

manufacturing. Supporting document information attributes and examples are shown in Table 9.

Table 9 — Information attributes for a supporting document
Attribute Description Examples
Identifier A value that conforms to ISO 8000-115 used to — UUID :
uniquely identify a supporting document in a
c0ff08a6-7de4-4427-9440-bbf27aed92aa
specific enterprise, e.g.:
— Document number: dtm-11223-
— UUID
doc010-200327
— document number
Characteristics Classification of the supporting document, Document format: pdf
e.g.:
— document format
— requirements document
— manufacturing plan
— specification document
Schedule Revision time of the supporting document, Periodic: once a month
e.g.:
— periodic
— one time
Status A current condition of the supporting docu- Complete
ment, e.g.:
— planned
— complete
— incomplete
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Table 9 (continued)
Attribute Description Examples
Location Location information, e.g.: Document #2 is stored in http:// acme
. c om/ do c u ment
— URL
— GPS coordinates
— postal address
— ISO 6709
— relative location

Report A report of activities related to the supporting May 14th, 2019 9 AM: Document #2 is

document r e v i s e d i n ht t p:// ac me . c om/ do c u ment .

Relationship Relationship information between a support- — May 12th, 2019 10 AM: Engineer #3

ing document and other OMEs produced Document #2.
— Document #3 for Drilling Operation
#5 by May 31th, 2019.
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ISO/FDIS 23247-3:2021(E)
Annex A
(informative)
Existing technologies for representing OMEs
A.1 General

Multiple existing standards and specifications can be used to represent OMEs. Each standard has its

own characteristics and advantages. Digital twin developers should carefully consider which ones

should be used for a target application. In many cases, multiple standards need to be combined because

one can be most appropriate for the digital twin entity, and another can be most appropriate for the

device communication entity.

Clauses A.2 to A.4 provide brief summaries for a selection of existing standards. This is not a complete

list.
A.2 Standards tested in the use cases described in ISO 23247-4:—, Annex A

The ISO 10303 series, known as Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP), defines the

computer-interpretable representation o
...

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