Document management applications -- Optical disk storage technology, management and standards

ISO/TR 10255:2009 gives recommendations and provides guidance for maintaining archival optical disk collections. It describes the various services that would be necessary for the management of an optical media‑based system to ensure a successful implementation of this technology. ISO/TR 10255:2009 also provides guidance in the maintenance of data residing on on-line, off-line, and near-line digital optical storage devices; establishes a plan to ensure the migration path of digital information from early and current technology and optical media to future technologies and media; provides guidance for the short- and long-term effect of the finite life of digital optical storage devices. ISO/TR 10255:2009 also describes all forms of optical disk media including write-once-read-many (WORM), magneto-optical (MO), compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD) and newer technologies.

Applications de la gestion des documents -- Technologie de stockage sur disque optique, gestion et normes

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Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Nov-2009
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
22-Oct-2009
Completion Date
04-Nov-2009
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 10255
First edition
2009-11-15
Document management applications —
Optical disk storage technology,
management and standards
Applications de la gestion des documents — Technologie de stockage
sur disque optique, gestion et normes
Reference number
ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
ISO 2009
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
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ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Abbreviated terms.................................................................................................................................1

3 Optical storage concepts .....................................................................................................................5

3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................5

3.2 On-line versus off-line storage ............................................................................................................5

3.3 Data layout formats...............................................................................................................................6

3.4 Rotational models .................................................................................................................................6

3.5 Physically writing to the disk surface .................................................................................................6

4 Optical media .........................................................................................................................................8

4.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................8

4.2 DVD technologies..................................................................................................................................8

4.3 Blue-indigo laser technologies ............................................................................................................8

4.4 Blu-ray Disc............................................................................................................................................9

4.5 Ultra Density Optical (UDO)..................................................................................................................9

5 Optical device characteristics..............................................................................................................9

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................9

5.2 Readers / writers....................................................................................................................................9

5.3 Multi-function drives ...........................................................................................................................10

5.4 Jukeboxes/libraries.............................................................................................................................10

5.5 Software support for optical libraries ...............................................................................................11

6 Implementation strategies..................................................................................................................12

6.1 General .................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Relationships between applications and optical storage management........................................12

6.3 Optical media interchange across environments ............................................................................12

6.4 Rewritable and WORM support..........................................................................................................13

6.5 Operating system independence.......................................................................................................13

6.6 Vendor independence.........................................................................................................................14

6.7 Massive volume support ....................................................................................................................14

6.8 Document/records management concerns ......................................................................................14

7 Information management ...................................................................................................................15

7.1 Retention ..............................................................................................................................................15

7.2 Archival support ..................................................................................................................................15

7.3 Deterioration ........................................................................................................................................15

7.4 Migration ..............................................................................................................................................16

7.5 Disposal................................................................................................................................................16

7.6 Legal admissibility concerns .............................................................................................................16

7.7 Evolving technology and vendor support ........................................................................................17

8 Technical issues..................................................................................................................................17

8.1 Optical storage device file structures ...............................................................................................17

8.2 Periodic testing....................................................................................................................................18

9 Optical disk standards........................................................................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Related International Standards ...............................................................................19

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”, for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 10255 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 171, Document management applications,

Subcommittee SC 2, Application issues.
iv © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
Introduction

This Technical Report specifies the recommendations and provides guidance for maintaining archival optical

disk collections. The problem identified is one of systems becoming obsolete prior to the expiration of the

useful life of the information. Additionally, technology is evolving so rapidly that the systems might be obsolete

prior to the storage media reaching its life expectancy. These issues require a considerable amount of

planning to occur in the initial stages of the development and implementation of imaging systems to provide a

plan for migrating the information from a system utilizing obsolete technology to a system employing

advanced technology. This planning is invaluable to the overall success of the system as the information itself

might have a lifespan greater than the media and technology combined, resulting in inaccessibility.

The purpose of this Technical Report is to recommend methodologies by which optical disk users can

understand various optical disk issues, such as implementation, retention, obsolescence, and basic data

management. In addition, this report provides information describing the differences between various optical

components as well as some basic concepts that should be used when determining which optical solution

best fits the users' needs.
A list of related standards is given in Annex A.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
Document management applications — Optical disk storage
technology, management and standards
1 Scope

This Technical Report gives recommendations and provides guidance for maintaining archival optical disk

collections. It describes the various services that would be necessary for the management of an optical

media-based system to ensure a successful implementation of this technology.
This Technical Report also

⎯ provides guidance in the maintenance of data residing on on-line, off-line, and near-line digital optical

storage devices;

⎯ establishes a plan to ensure the migration path of digital information from early and current technology

and optical media to future technologies and media;

⎯ provides guidance for the short- and long-term effect of the finite life of digital optical storage devices.

This Technical Report also describes all forms of optical disk media including write-once-read-many (WORM),

magneto-optical (MO), compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD) and newer technologies.

2 Abbreviated terms
2.1
Blu-ray Disc
2.2
CAV
constant angular velocity
2.3
CCS
continuous composite servo
2.4
CCW
continuous composite write-once
2.5
CD-DA
compact disk-digital audio
2.6
CD-R
compact disk-recordable
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
2.7
CD-ROM
compact disk-read only memory
2.8
CD-RW
compact disk-rewriteable
2.9
CD-I
compact disk-interactive
2.10
CLV
constant linear velocity
2.11
DBF
discrete block format
2.12
DIF
document interchange format
2.13
DVD
digital versatile disk
2.14
DVD-Audio
digital versatile disk-audio read only
2.15
DVD-R
digital versatile disk-recordable

NOTE One of three competing recordable DVD standards; the others are DVD+R(W) and DVD-RAM.

2.16
DVD+R
digital versatile disk+recordable

NOTE One of three competing recordable DVD standards; the others are DVD-R(W) and DVD-RAM.

2.17
DVD-RAM
digital versatile disk-random access memory

NOTE One of three competing recordable DVD standards; the others are DVD-R(W) and DVD+R(W).

2.18
DVD-RW
digital versatile disk-rewriteable

NOTE One of three competing recordable DVD standards; the others are DVD+R(W) and DVD-RAM.

2.19
DVD+RW
digital versatile disk+rewriteable

NOTE One of three competing recordable DVD standards; the others are DVD-R(W) and DVD-RAM.

2 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
2.20
DVD-ROM
digital versatile disk-recorded optical media or read only memory
2.21
DVD-Video
digital versatile disk-video
2.22
ECC
error correcting coding
2.23
FAT
file allocation table
NOTE Originally developed for the MS-DOS operating system.
2.24
GIF
graphics interchange format
2.25
HD-DVD
high definition-digital versatile disk
2.26
HFS
hierarchical file system
NOTE Developed for the Apple Macintosh operating system.
2.27
HPFS
high-performance file system
NOTE Developed for the OS/2 operating system.
2.28
INCITS
InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards
2.29
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
2.30
IEC
International Electrotechnical Commission

NOTE Standards developed jointly between the IEC and the International Organization for Standardization are given

the designation ISO/IEC.
2.31
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group

NOTE Used to refer to both the International Standards Committee (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) and the

standard(s) they developed for coding and compression of still images.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
2.32
JTC 1
Joint Technical Committee 1 on Information Technology

NOTE This is an International Standards development committee jointly operated by ISO and IEC.

2.33
LIMDOW
light intensity modulated direct overwrite
2.34
MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group

NOTE Used to refer to both the International Standards Committee (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11) and the

standard(s) they developed for video and audio encoding.
2.35
magneto-optical
2.36
NFS
Network File System
2.37
NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology
2.38
NSR
non-sequential recording for information interchange
2.39
ODC
optical disk cartridges
2.40
OSTA
Optical Storage Technology Association
2.41
PCX
PiCture eXchange
NOTE A graphics file format.
2.42
PDD
Professional Disk for DATA
2.43
RTF
rich text format
2.44
Technical Committee

NOTE A committee designated by ISO to develop International Standards in a particular area.

4 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
2.45
TIFF
tagged image file format
2.46
UDO
ultra density optical
2.47
UDF
universal disc format
2.48
UNIX
trademark used for a computer operating system
2.49
VTP
variable track pitch
2.50
WAV
waveform audio format
2.51
WORM
write-once-read-many
2.52
WORM/MO
write-once-read-many/magneto-optical
3 Optical storage concepts
3.1 General

Optical storage has been used for data storage for over 20 years. Data is recorded on reflective media using a

laser-powered head. The preciseness of the laser and the properties of the media combine to allow data to be

stored at very high densities. For example, the current generation of optical storage technology can store up

to 8,5 GB of data on a 120 mm disk and up to 50 GB of data on a 130 mm disk. The steady increase of

storage capacity on removable optical media enables organizations to consider long-term storage of

information for archival use taking into account reliability and technology trustworthiness.

3.2 On-line versus off-line storage

The storage components within any computer system directly affect the overall system operation. There are

several different types of storage components that can be attached to any of these systems. Before

discussing each of these components, let us consider the various storage groupings, including on-line storage,

near-line storage, and off-line storage.

⎯ On-line storage is considered to be any storage device that is always available to a system user. An

example of this type of storage is a fixed hard disk either attached directly to a computer or available

across a local area network. Removable storage media, including removable hard disks and optical

media, are considered to be on-line storage devices when they are mounted, or in other words, can be

accessed by a user without any system intervention other than reading or writing the requested data.

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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)

⎯ Off-line storage defines any storage media that is removed from the system and typically stored in a

separate area for archival purposes. Removable optical devices and magnetic tapes that are not mounted

fall into this category.

⎯ Near-line storage devices are stored in a mechanical library, which can be defined as a hardware

component consisting of media drives, such as optical or tape, and numerous storage slots or bays to

store the media. These libraries are often referred to as jukeboxes for their mechanical similarities to

musical jukeboxes. These systems typically contain a robotics arm, which is used to store and retrieve

the optical media. In addition, most optical libraries also provide a mailbox slot which is used to insert

and/or remove optical media from the system for offsite storage or simple removal from the system.

The most important aspect of the optical library is its ability to store numerous platters or other types of

media as well as multiple drives in a single storage cabinet. Libraries typically only support one form of

media and often only one particular class, such as CD or DVD.
3.3 Data layout formats

There are three different data formats used in the manufacturing process of 130 mm optical disks. These

formats are not compatible, and media can only be read by optical disk drives supporting that particular format.

Two of these formats, Format A and Format B, are described in ISO/IEC 9171.

In the list of currently available industry International Standards (see Annex A), some of these International

Standards refer to continuous composite write-once capability (CCW) while others refer to WORM. The CCW

media uses MO disks to emulate a WORM-like function. The recording technology used for this emulation is

the same as that used for rewritable media. The references to WORM refer to ablative or permanent change

write-once media (see section 3.5.2).
See Annex A for a detailed list of relevant International Standards.
3.4 Rotational models

There are two basic rotational modes used by optical disk drives. The first mode is the Constant Angular

Velocity (CAV). Within this mode, the media is spun at a constant rate so the angular velocity of the optical

media does not change. This simple implementation means that the outer edge of the optical disk rotates

faster than the inner edge, storing data further apart toward the outer edge. Since the amount of data stored in

each track is constant, the data density is greater on the innermost tracks. With this approach, the amount of

data stored is limited by the data rate achieved on the inner tracks.

The second mode is the Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) mode. This mode requires that the disk speed

change as the laser head moves from the innermost portion of the optical media to the outermost. The most

significant aspect of this mode, in contrast to the CAV, is that the data density does not change throughout the

disk. The result of the greater data density towards the outermost edge of the optical device is greater storage

capabilities. In addition, since the rotation speeds are slower as the laser head is positioned over the

outermost tracks, the data transfer rates are higher than they would be with CAV. Seek times are slightly

longer than for CAV because the angular velocity is required to change at the same time as the head moves.

3.5 Physically writing to the disk surface
3.5.1 General

Optical media may be written using several different mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are write once;

that is, the changes made to the surface of the media are irreversible and controlled by the media recording

layer, which actually identifies the media type to the optical drive.
3.5.2 Ablative

Originally, data was written onto optical media by physically etching pits into the surface. These techniques

have largely been replaced by dye-layer and phase-change recording.
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)
3.5.3 Dye-laser recording

This technique is primarily used for CD-R recording. The media contains a thin layer of light-sensitive dye.

During the recording process, a laser hits the dye and causes it to change colour to denote bits. Once the

recording is complete, a lower-powered laser is used to read the resulting differences between lighter and

darker bits.
3.5.4 Phase change

Phase change technologies are used in many rewritable operations. The media contains a crystalline

recording layer that is highly reflective. A higher-intensity laser strikes the media, causing the recording layer

to change from the crystalline state to an amorphous state which does not reflect as well. A lower-intensity

laser is then used to read the bits. When the information is to be overwritten, a moderate-intensity pulse is

used to restore the crystalline state.
3.5.5 Magneto-optical

This technology uses a combination of magnetic and optical techniques to store large quantities of information.

A laser is used to heat the surface of the media to a specific temperature which changes the magnetic

properties of the media to allow polarity changes. The magnetic head is activated and changes the polarity of

the bit. When the spot cools, the information is stored and accessed using a lower-powered laser. There is

both a WORM and Rewritable format as discussed below.
3.5.6 WORM

WORM (Write-Once Read Many) allows a user to write data one time but read the data as many times as

necessary. This technology does not allow users to easily delete or modify previously stored data. Data is

always read and written to optical devices in blocks of information, or sectors. Sectors are marked when they

are written on. When a request to write data is made, the drive first checks to ensure a sector is not already

used. If it has been, the optical drive will not allow that sector to be rewritten, regardless of how full or empty it

is; and the new data, regardless of whether it is 10 or 511 bytes in size, will be written to the next unmarked

sector. The important point to remember is that data cannot be written to the previously written sector even

though the sector is not full.

WORM systems are typically not inter-compatible because they use different methods to write data to the

media. Originally, WORM employed ablative methods to permanently write grooves into the recording

substrate. Today, most WORM drives rely on continuous composite write, or CCW – a firmware-based

technique to prevent recorded areas from being rewritten or erased – or as phase change technology to

permanently change the reflectance of the recording layer.
3.5.7 Rewritable

Rewritable optical data storage allows users to write over previously used sectors multiple times. This

technology has been gathering popularity throughout the industry and consists of three basic approaches. The

more common of these is the Magneto-optical (MO) technology, which combines features from the magnetic

and optical technologies. The MO technology uses a laser to heat the surface of the media to the point at

which its magnetic properties change allowing polarity changes. The magnetic head then writes the data onto

the heated surface. The magnetic head reads the data without heating.

Erasure is performed by heating and re-magnetising the surface. This process requires two or three steps,

depending on the recording head, to process a block of data on a sector previously written. The first pass is

needed to erase existing data, the second pass to write the new data, and the third pass to verify the accuracy

of the data. The second approach to rewritable media is the phase change process, which requires only one

overwrite pass as compared to the MO process. The existing data is erased and the new data is written in the

same pass. A third technology incorporates the new light intensity modulation-direct overwrite (LIMDOW)

technology. LIMDOW technology allows magneto/optic (MO) disks to be rerecorded without using a two- or

three-pass technique to change the content of the disk. At a minimum, this technology doubles the data

recording performance of optical drives.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TR 10255:2009(E)

Rewritable storage technologies enable organizations to erase data from the optical device whenever required

and allowed by the overall storage solution security features and/or configuration(s). For applications that

require the ability to delete or modify data, rewritable optical systems offer the best solution, even though they

reduce data security. Some multifunction optical drives can be modified to not allow updates to data

previously written. This feature is similar to a write-protect function. It is a fairly simple matter for a user to

insert the optical media in a non-modified drive (the majority of the market) thereby bypassing the so-called

non-updateable feature. Caution should be exercised when using this type of WORM. Before selecting this

type of optical storage, users should determine whether they truly need the level of data security provided with

the WORM technology.
4 Optical media
4.1 General

Optical media are available in several form factors ranging from a diameter of 63,5 mm to 355,6 mm, and

capacities of 140 MB to 60 GB. A library is required to include drives and robotics to handle the appropriate

form factor. The earliest optical libraries in the late 1980's tended to incorporate large form factor cartridges.

As densities have increased, the smaller form factors have become more prevalent— currently the most

common disk formats are 120 mm, used by CD, DVD, and BD; and 130 mm, used by WORM/MO and UDO.

4.2 DVD technologies

DVDs originated in the consumer market but have become the preferred optical media for many applications

due to the increased storage capacity per disk and the compatibility between systems.

DVDs are based on a 120 mm form factor which can support writing to one or two layers, and theoretically on

both sides, with a top storage capacity of 17 GB. DVDs can be written in session-at-once, track-at-once, and

packet writing modes. Both DVD+R and DVD-R support multi-session disks and can write them in track-at-

once mode.

DVDs come in write-once and rewritable versions. However, there are competing standards for DVD and not

all older readers/writers support all formats. The DVD Forum has released the DVD Multi-specification, which

provides that compliant devices are required to be able to read and write DVD-R, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM

disks, as well as the read-only DVD-Audio, DVD-Video, and DVD-ROM formats. The DVD+RW Alliance

maintains the DVD+RW and D
...

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