Welding for aerospace applications — Fusion welding of metallic components — Part 1: Process specification

This document specifies the requirements for fusion welding of aerospace hardware. It is to be used in conjunction with the design/engineering authority's design documents or their accepted data. This document covers the processes given in Table 1 and material groups given in Table 2.

Soudage pour applications aérospatiales — Soudage par fusion des composants métalliques — Partie 1: Spécification de processus

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Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Mar-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
17-Mar-2020
Completion Date
17-Mar-2020
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ISO 17927-1:2020 - Welding for aerospace applications -- Fusion welding of metallic components
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17927-1
First edition
2020-03
Welding for aerospace applications —
Fusion welding of metallic
components —
Part 1:
Process specification
Soudage pour applications aérospatiales — Soudage par fusion des
composants métalliques —
Partie 1: Spécification de processus
Reference number
ISO 17927-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17927-1:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 17927-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Classification and inspection requirements of joints .................................................................................................... 3

6 Quality levels ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

7 Weldment design .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

8 Welding procedure specification (WPS) ...................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2 WPS qualification/welding procedure qualification record (WPQR) ..................................................... 6

9 Fabrication .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

9.2 Identification and traceability of welding consumables ..................................................................................... 8

9.3 Storage and use ......... .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

9.3.1 Filler material ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.3.2 Welding fluxes .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.3.3 Gases ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.4 Welding equipment ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

9.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

9.4.2 Calibration ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

9.5 Weld joint preparation ..................................................................................................................................................................... 9

9.5.1 Pre-weld joint configuration.................................................................................................................................. 9

9.5.2 Butt joint members of unequal thickness .................................................................................................. 9

9.6 Pre-weld cleaning and other preparation ....................................................................................................................10

9.6.1 Surface cleaning .............................................................................................................................................................10

9.6.2 Protection and recleaning of cleaned surfaces before fit-up ..................................................10

9.7 Preheating and interpass temperature control .......................................................................................................10

9.8 Tack welds ................................................................................................................................................................................................10

9.9 Run-on, run-off tabs and beam stopper .........................................................................................................................11

9.10 Weld shielding ......................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.11 Spatter protection .............................................................................................................................................................................11

9.12 Filler materials .....................................................................................................................................................................................11

9.13 Interpass cleaning .............................................................................................................................................................................12

9.14 Welding and weldments ..............................................................................................................................................................12

9.14.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.14.2 Weld settings ....................................................................................................................................................................12

9.14.3 Arc strike..............................................................................................................................................................................12

9.14.4 In-process correction ................................................................................................................................................12

9.14.5 Post-weld processing ................................................................................................................................................13

9.15 Weld identification requirements........................................................................................................................................13

9.15.1 Weld traceability ...........................................................................................................................................................13

9.15.2 Acceptance inspection .............................................................................................................................................13

9.15.3 Acceptance criteria .....................................................................................................................................................14

9.16 Rework ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.16.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.16.2 Allowed number of rework attempts ..........................................................................................................14

9.16.3 Root area rework ..........................................................................................................................................................14

9.16.4 Inspection of the rework ........................................................................................................................................14

9.16.5 Documentation of rework .....................................................................................................................................14

9.17 Repair ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 17927-1:2020(E)

9.17.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.17.2 Repair instructions .....................................................................................................................................................14

9.18 Record requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................15

9.19 Welding parameters ........................................................................................................................................................................15

9.20 Reproducibility tests for qualified machine welding settings .....................................................................15

9.20.1 Applicability of requirements ............................................................................................................................15

9.20.2 Test requirements ........................................................................................................................................................15

10 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.1 Welding coordination personnel ..........................................................................................................................................15

10.2 Qualification of welders and welding operators .....................................................................................................15

10.3 Qualification of inspection personnel ..............................................................................................................................15

10.3.1 Qualification of non-destructive testing (NDT) personnel .......................................................15

10.3.2 Visual weld inspectors .............................................................................................................................................16

11 Inspection methods ........................................................................................................................................................................................16

11.1 Visual weld inspection...................................................................................................................................................................16

11.2 Non-destructive testing ................................................................................................................................................................16

11.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................16

11.2.2 Penetrant testing (PT) ..............................................................................................................................................16

11.2.3 Magnetic particle testing (MT) .........................................................................................................................16

11.2.4 Radiographic testing (RT) .....................................................................................................................................17

11.2.5 Ultrasonic testing (UT) ............................................................................................................................................17

11.2.6 Other non-destructive test methods ............................................................................................................17

11.3 Destructive testing ............................................................................................................................................................................17

11.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.3.2 Tensile testing .................................................................................................................................................................17

11.3.3 Bend testing ......................................................................................................................................................................17

11.3.4 Hardness testing ...........................................................................................................................................................17

11.3.5 Metallographic examination ...............................................................................................................................18

12 Requirements specific to TIG and plasma welding processes ...........................................................................18

Annex A (informative) Welding procedure qualification record (WPQR) ..................................................................19

Annex B (informative) .....................................................................................................................21

Welding procedure specification (WPS)

Annex C (informative) Example for preheat and interpass temperature ...................................................................24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17927-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,

Subcommittee SC 14, Welding and brazing in aerospace.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html. Official interpretations of

ISO/TC 44 documents, where they exist, are available from this page: https:// committee .iso .org/ sites/

tc44/ home/ interpretation .html.
A list of all parts in the ISO 17297 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17927-1:2020(E)
Welding for aerospace applications — Fusion welding of
metallic components —
Part 1:
Process specification
1 Scope

This document specifies the requirements for fusion welding of aerospace hardware. It is to be used in

conjunction with the design/engineering authority’s design documents or their accepted data.

This document covers the processes given in Table 1 and material groups given in Table 2.

Table 1 — Fusion welding processes covered by this document
Process Process number (ISO 4063)
Oxyfuel welding 31
Gas-shielded arc welding with non-consumable tungsten electrode,
Gas tungsten arc welding
Plasma arc welding 15
Electron beam welding 51
Laser welding, Laser beam welding 52
Table 2 — Material groups covered by this document (see ISO 24394:2018, 4.5)
Material group Description
A Unalloyed steel, low-alloyed steels, high-alloyed ferritic steels
B Austenitic, martensitic and precipitation hardening steels
C Titanium and titanium alloys, niobium, zirconium and other reactive metals
D Aluminium and magnesium alloys
E Materials that do not conform to other material groups
(e.g. molybdenum, tungsten, copper alloys)
F Nickel alloys, cobalt alloys.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3452 (all parts), Non-destructive testing — Penetrant testing

ISO 4063, Welding and allied processes — Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers

ISO 4136, Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials — Transverse tensile test

ISO 5173, Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials — Bend tests
ISO 6506-1, Metallic materials — Brinell hardness test — Part 1: Test method
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 17927-1:2020(E)
ISO 6507-1, Metallic materials — Vickers hardness test — Part 1: Test method
ISO 6508 (all parts), Metallic materials — Rockwell hardness test
ISO 6892 (all parts), Metallic materials — Tensile testing

ISO 9015-1, Destructive tests on welds in metallic materials — Hardness testing — Part 1: Hardness test on

arc welded joints

ISO 10863, Non-destructive testing of welds — Ultrasonic testing — Use of time-of-flight diffraction

technique (TOFD)

ISO 13588, Non-destructive testing of welds — Ultrasonic testing — Use of automated phased array

technology
ISO 17636 (all parts), Non-destructive testing of welds — Radiographic testing
ISO 17638, Non-destructive testing of welds — Magnetic particle testing

ISO 17640, Non-destructive testing of welds — Ultrasonic testing — Techniques, testing levels, and

assessment

ISO 17927-2 , Welding for aerospace applications — Fusion welding of metallic components — Part 2:

Acceptance criteria
ISO 19828, Welding for aerospace applications — Visual inspection of welds

ISO 24394, Welding for aerospace applications — Qualification test for welders and welding operators —

Fusion welding of metallic components

ISO/TR 25901-1, Welding and allied processes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General terms

EN 4179, Aerospace series — Qualification and approval of personnel for non-destructive testing

ASTM E8/E8M, Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
ASTM E18, Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials

ASTM E21, Standard Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials

ASTM E384, Standard Test Method for Microindentation Hardness of Materials
ASTM E1417/E1417M, Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing
ASTM E1742/E1742M, Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination
ASTM E1444/E1444M, Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Testing
SAE AMS 2644, Inspection Material, Penetrant
SAE AMS-STD-2154, Inspection, Ultrasonic, Wrought Metals, Process for
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 25901-1 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/

1) Under preparation. (Stage at the time of publication: ISO/FDIS 17927-2:2019.)

2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17927-1:2020(E)
3.1
backgouging

removal of weld metal and base metal from the weld root side of a welded joint to facilitate complete

fusion and complete joint penetration upon subsequent welding from that side
3.2
design/engineering authority

organization having the responsibility for the structural integrity or maintenance of airworthiness of

the hardware and compliance with all relevant documents
[SOURCE: ISO 24394:2018, 3.8]
3.3
welding procedure specification
WPS

document providing in detail the required variables of the welding procedure to ensure repeatability

3.4
welding procedure qualification record
WPQR

record comprising all necessary data needed for qualification of a preliminary welding procedure

specification
3.5
autogenous weld
fusion weld without filler material
4 Conformance

When conformance to this document is claimed, all provisions of this document are to be complied

with, except those for provisions that the design/engineering authority specifically exempts.

5 Classification and inspection requirements of joints

For the purposes of this document, three classes of welds are defined. This classification shall be stated

in the design documents. If there are no other testing requirements defined by the design/engineering

authority, the minimum amount of testing shall be as follows.

— Class I: A welded joint whose failure under operating conditions causes the loss of the aircraft/

spacecraft or one of its main components, or constitutes a direct hazard to people.

Visual and dimensional inspection: 100 % of all welds; penetrant or and magnetic particle testing

or any other surface test method: 100 % of all welds; testing of the sub-surface characteristics:

100 % of all welds.

— Class II: A welded joint whose failure causes malfunctions without compromising continued safe

flight until the end of the mission.

Visual and dimensional inspection, 100 % of all welds and penetrant or and magnetic particle

testing or any other adequate test method, 100 % of all welds.

— Class III: A welded joint whose failure does not affect the safety and the transport function of the

aircraft/spacecraft.
Visual and dimensional inspection, 100 % of all welds.

For the purpose of series preparation/pre-production or in the case of critical welding operations, it

can be necessary, also for classes II and III, to increase the scope of testing beyond that specified here.

Likewise, in the course of series production, the scope of testing may be reduced if sufficient evidence

of process reliability can be provided.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 17927-1:2020(E)

Refer to design/engineering authority for design documents not specifying a classification and/or

inspection requirements.
6 Quality levels
Quality level A weld: Weld with high quality acceptance requirements.
Quality level B weld: Weld with moderate quality acceptance requirements.
Quality level C weld: Weld with typical quality acceptance requirements.

The quality levels are as defined by the engineering/drawing and/or specified by the design/

engineering authority.
7 Weldment design

The design/engineering authority is responsible for the design of the weldment and defines the

requirements to ensure compliance with all mission and systems requirements. The engineering

documentation shall clearly define special requirements, such as fracture critical, durability critical,

mission critical, or safety critical, imposed over and above the general requirements. Also, the design/

engineering authority shall define process controls to ensure that all design requirements can be met

by welds produced in accordance with specified procedure, fabrication, and inspection requirements.

For fillet welds, the weld size specified on the drawing is the minimum.
8 Welding procedure specification (WPS)
8.1 General

A welding procedure specification is required for each weld. For an example of a WPS, see Annex B.

The welding procedure specification (WPS) shall include the information as given in Table 3.

Table 3 — Welding procedure specification (WPS) data
Electron TIG Laser Plasma
Essential Oxyfuel
beam welding beam arc
variable welding
welding (GTAW ) welding welding
Joint design
* Joint type and dimensions X X X X X
Treatment of backside, method
* O O O O O
of gouging/preparation
* Backing O O O O O
Base metal(s)
* Base metal(s) designation(s) X X X X X
* Heat treatment condition X X X X X
Base metal form
* X X X X X
(sheet, tube etc.)
* Thickness X X X X X
Diameter (tubular only) X X X X X
X Data that shall be included in a WPS.

O Data that only need to be included in a WPS if used for that particular welding procedure.

Gas tungsten arc welding.
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17927-1:2020(E)
Table 3 (continued)
Electron TIG Laser Plasma
Essential Oxyfuel
beam welding beam arc
variable welding
welding (GTAW ) welding welding
* Coating description or type O O O O O
Material group number accord-
X X X X X
ing to Table 2
Filler material
Specification, alloy designation,
* O O O O O
or the nominal composition
* Filler material size or diameter O O O O O
* Flux O O
* Filler material feed rate O O O O
* Consumable insert and type O O
* Hot wire O O O
Position
* Welding position(s) X X X X X
Preheat and interpass temperature
Preheat method O O O O O
Preheat minimum and/or
* O O O O O
maximum temperature
Interpass temperature minimum
* O O O O O
and/or maximum
Shielding gas
Torch shielding gas and flow
* X X X
rate range
Root shielding gas and flow
* X X X
rate range
Environmental shielding and
* X O O
vacuum pressure
Shielding gas devices and flow
* O O O
rate ranges
* Gas cup design/size or gas lens O O
Energy characteristics
* Current type and polarity X X
* Current range X X X
* Voltage range X O X
Beam power; foc
...

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