Unmanned aircraft systems

This document defines terms and definitions relating to unmanned aircraft systems that are widely used in science and technology.

Aéronefs sans pilote

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Status
Published
Publication Date
25-May-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
26-May-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21384-4
First edition
2020-05
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Part 4:
Vocabulary
Aéronefs sans pilote —
Partie 4: Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 21384-4:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 21384-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 21384-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 21384-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 16, Unmanned aircraft systems.
A list of all parts in the ISO 21384 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21384-4:2020(E)
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Part 4:
Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms and definitions relating to unmanned aircraft systems that are widely

used in science and technology.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
aerial work

aircraft (3.6) operation in which an aircraft is used for specialized services such as agriculture,

construction, photography, surveying, observation and patrol, search and rescue, aerial

advertisement, etc.
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [7].
3.2
aerodrome pilot

remote pilot (3.63) familiar with a defined aerodrome or landing site, which transfers responsibility to

another pilot a few minutes after take-off or accepts responsibility for approach, landing and possibly

taxing and parking
3.3
aeroplane

power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft (3.6), deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic

reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.4
air traffic service
ATS

generic term that can refer to flight information service, alerting service, air traffic advisory service,

air traffic control service (area control service, approach control service or aerodrome control service)

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 21384-4:2020(E)
3.5
airborne collision avoidance system
ACAS

aircraft (3.6) system based on secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponder signals which operates

independently of ground-based equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting

aircrafts that are equipped with SSR transponders
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.6
aircraft

machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions

of the air against the Earth’s surface
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [10].
3.7
aircraft category
classification of aircraft (3.6) according to specified basic characteristics
EXAMPLE Aeroplane (3.3), helicopter, glider, free balloon.
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [12].
3.8
airship
power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft (3.6)
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [9].
3.9
airspace management
ASM

planning function with the primary objective of maximizing the utilization of available airspace by

dynamic time-sharing and, at times, the segregation of airspace among various categories of users

based on short-term needs, while securing aviation safety
3.10
air traffic management
ATM

dynamic, integrated management of air traffic and airspace including air traffic services (3.4), airspace

management (3.9) and air traffic flow management, safely, economically and efficiently, through the

provision of facilities and seamless services in collaboration with all parties and involving airborne and

ground-based functions
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [13].
3.11
altitude

vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level (MSL)

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.12
ATS communication link

digital or analogue communication link to transfer voice or data between remote crew members (3.61),

ATS (3.4), airspace users and other airspace users
Note 1 to entry: It includes air-ground, air-to-air and ground-ground links.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 21384-4:2020(E)
3.13
autonomous system

system that, perceiving its environment and determining if this affects its goals, takes action to ensure

as far as practicable that its goals will be safely achieved
3.14
beyond visual line-of-sight
BVLOS
operation of a UAS (3.80) other than VLOS (3.85) or EVLOS (3.26)
3.15
collision avoidance threshold

boundary around the UA (3.79) at which the collision avoidance function declares that action is

necessary to avoid a collision, by preventing the threat from penetrating the collision volume (3.17)

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [14].
3.16
collision boundary

closest point of approach or minimum distance to be achieved between two aircrafts (3.6) to ensure

that a collision is avoided taking account of any inaccuracies in the system
3.17
collision volume

cylindrical volume of airspace centred on the UA (3.79) with a horizontal radius and vertical height

(3.36) within which a collision is most likely and avoidance of a collision can only be considered a

matter of chance
3.18
command and control link
C2 link

data link between the remotely-piloted aircraft (3.67) and the remote pilot station (3.64) for the purposes

of managing the flight
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.19
commercial air transport operation
CAT

aircraft (3.6) operation involving the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [7].
3.20
control station
defined location containing one or more controls
[SOURCE: ISO 12643-1:2009, 3.12]
3.21
detect and avoid

capability to see, sense or detect conflicting traffic or other hazards and take the appropriate action

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.22
down-link

direct or indirect data link from the unmanned aircraft (3.79) to one or more peers

3.23
drone
unmanned system which is remotely or autonomously operated
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 21384-4:2020(E)
3.24
droneport

any aerodrome including vertiports (3.83) exclusively dedicated to landing, ground-handling and take-

off of unmanned aircrafts (3.79)
3.25
dual instruction time

time during which a person is receiving instruction from a properly authorized remote pilot (3.63) at

the controls of the remote pilot station (3.64)
3.26
extended visual line-of-sight
EVLOS

operation beyond the unaided visual range of the remote pilot (3.63), but where the remote pilot is

supported by vision systems or one or more visual observers
3.27
flight duty period

period which commences when the first remote crew member (3.61) reports for duty that includes a

flight or a series of flights and which finishes when the last remote crew member’s duty ends

3.28
flight level

surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific pressure datum, 1 013,2 hPa,

and is separated from other such surfaces by specific pressure intervals
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.29
flight manual

manual, acceptable by the local aviation authority, containing the order of actions in normal, abnormal

and emergency procedures, checklists, limitations, performance information, details of the aircraft

(3.6) systems
3.30
flight recorder

any type of recorder installed in the aircraft (3.6) for the purpose of complementing accident/incident

investigation

Note 1 to entry: In the case of unmanned aircraft (3.79), it also includes any type of recorder installed in a remote

pilot station (3.64) for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation.

Note 2 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [12].
3.31
flight termination system

means and/or procedure triggered manually or automatically to initiate a pre-programmed action or a

set of actions designed to terminate UA (3.79) flight, minimising risks to third parties

3.32
flight time
total time from the moment the on-board sys
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 21384-4
ISO/TC 20/SC 16
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Secretariat: ANSI
Voting begins on:
Part 4:
2020-02-27
Vocabulary
Voting terminates on:
2020-04-23
Aéronefs sans pilote —
Partie 4: Vocabulaire
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO-
ISO/FDIS 21384-4:2020(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN-
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-4:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-4:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-4:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 16, Unmanned aircraft systems.
A list of all parts in the ISO 21384 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 21384-4:2020(E)
Unmanned aircraft systems —
Part 4:
Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms and definitions relating to unmanned aircraft systems that are widely

used in science and technology.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
aerial work

aircraft (3.6) operation in which an aircraft is used for specialized services such as agriculture,

construction, photography, surveying, observation and patrol, search and rescue, aerial

advertisement, etc.
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [7].
3.2
aerodrome pilot

remote pilot (3.62) familiar with a defined aerodrome or landing site, which transfers responsibility to

another pilot a few minutes after take-off or accepts responsibility for approach, landing and possibly

taxing and parking
3.3
aeroplane

power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft (3.6), deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic

reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.4
air traffic service
ATS

generic term that can refer to flight information service, alerting service, air traffic advisory service,

air traffic control service (area control service, approach control service or aerodrome control service)

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-4:2020(E)
3.5
airborne collision avoidance system
ACAS

aircraft (3.6) system based on secondary surveillance radar (SSR) transponder signals which operates

independently of ground-based equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting

aircrafts that are equipped with SSR transponders
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.6
aircraft

machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions

of the air against the Earth’s surface
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [10].
3.7
aircraft category
classification of aircraft (3.6) according to specified basic characteristics
EXAMPLE Aeroplane (3.3), helicopter, glider, free balloon.
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [12].
3.8
airship
power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft (3.6)
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [9].
3.9
airspace management
ASM

planning function with the primary objective of maximizing the utilization of available airspace by

dynamic time-sharing and, at times, the segregation of airspace among various categories of users

based on short-term needs, while securing aviation safety
3.10
air traffic management
ATM

dynamic, integrated management of air traffic and airspace including air traffic services (3.4), airspace

management (3.9) and air traffic flow management, safely, economically and efficiently, through the

provision of facilities and seamless services in collaboration with all parties and involving airborne and

ground-based functions
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [13].
3.11
altitude

vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level (MSL)

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.12
ATS communication link

digital or analogue communication link to transfer voice or data between remote crew members (3.60),

ATS (3.4), airspace users and other airspace users
Note 1 to entry: It includes air-ground, air-to-air and ground-ground links.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-4:2020(E)
3.13
autonomous system

system that, perceiving its environment and determining if this affects its goals, takes action to ensure

as far as practicable that its goals will be safely achieved
3.14
beyond visual line-of-sight
BVLOS
operation of a UAS (3.79) other than VLOS (3.84) or EVLOS (3.25)
3.15
collision avoidance threshold

boundary around the UA (3.78) at which the collision avoidance function declares that action is

necessary to avoid a collision, by preventing the threat from penetrating the collision volume (3.17)

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [14].
3.16
collision boundary

closest point of approach or minimum distance to be achieved between two aircrafts (3.6) to ensure

that a collision is avoided taking account of any inaccuracies in the system
3.17
collision volume

cylindrical volume of airspace centred on the UA (3.78) with a horizontal radius and vertical height

(3.35) within which a collision is most likely and avoidance of a collision can only be considered a

matter of chance
3.18
command and control link
C2 link

data link between the remotely-piloted aircraft (3.66) and the remote pilot station (3.63) for the purposes

of managing the flight
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.19
commercial air transport operation
CAT

aircraft (3.6) operation involving the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [7].
3.20
control station
defined location containing one or more controls
[SOURCE: ISO 12643-1:2009, 3.12]
3.21
detect and avoid

capability to see, sense or detect conflicting traffic or other hazards and take the appropriate action

Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.22
down-link

direct or indirect data link from the unmanned aircraft (3.78) to one or more peers

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/FDIS 21384-4:2020(E)
3.23
droneport

any aerodrome including vertiports (3.82) exclusively dedicated to landing, ground-handling and take-

off of unmanned aircrafts (3.78)
3.24
dual instruction time

time during which a person is receiving instruction from a properly authorized remote pilot (3.62) at

the controls of the remote pilot station (3.63)
3.25
extended visual line-of-sight
EVLOS

operation beyond the unaided visual range of the remote pilot (3.62), but where the remote pilot is

supported by vision systems or one or more visual observers
3.26
flight duty period

period which commences when the first remote crew member (3.60) reports for duty that includes a

flight or a series of flights and which finishes when the last remote crew member’s duty ends

3.27
flight level

surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific pressure datum, 1 013,2 hPa,

and is separated from other such surfaces by specific pressure intervals
Note 1 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [6].
3.28
flight manual

manual, acceptable by the local aviation authority, containing the order of actions in normal, abnormal

and emergency procedures, checklists, limitations, performance information, details of the aircraft

(3.6) systems
3.29
flight recorder

any type of recorder installed in the aircraft (3.6) for the purpose of complementing accident/incident

investigation

Note 1 to entry: In the case of unmanned aircraft (3.78), it also includes any type of recorder installed in a remote

pilot station (3.63) for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation.

Note 2 to entry: The definition is adapted from Reference [12].
3.30
flight terminati
...

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