Information technology — Office equipment — Determination of chemical emission rates from electronic equipment — Part 1: Using-consumables

This document (all parts) specifies methods to determine chemical emission rates of analyte from ICT & CE equipment during intended operation in an Emission Test Chamber (ETC). This document (all parts) includes specific methods for equipment using consumables, such as printers, and equipment not using consumables, such as monitors and PC's. Part 1 specifies the methods to determine chemical emission rates of analyte from electronic equipment using consumables. The methods comprise preparation, sampling (or monitoring) in a controlled ETC, storage and analysis, calculation and reporting of emission rates. Emission rates from EUT may also be determined according to additional requirements identified by "RAL‑UZ 205 Option". Annex A specifies monochrome and colour print patterns for use in the operating phase of EUT using consumables. The operational readiness of AMS is confirmed according to Annex B. Calculations use the generalised model and approximations thereof as developed in Annex C. The emission rates determined with this method may be used to compare equipment in the same class. Predictions of "real indoor" concentrations from the determined emission rates are outside the scope of this document.

Technologies de l'information — Équipement de bureau — Détermination des taux d'émission chimique d'un équipement électronique — Partie 1: Titre manque

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Publication Date
02-Sep-2018
Withdrawal Date
02-Sep-2018
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Start Date
28-Oct-2021
Completion Date
28-Oct-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 28360-1
First edition
2018-09
Information technology — Office
equipment — Determination of
chemical emission rates from
electronic equipment —
Part 1:
Using-consumables
Technologies de l'information — Équipement de bureau —
Détermination des taux d'émission chimique d'un équipement
électronique —
Reference number
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
ISO/IEC 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

6 Method overview .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7 ETC requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.1 Construction materials .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Air tightness .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.3 Air mixing efficiency .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8 Determination method .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1 Test conditions ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.2 Operating temperature and relative humidity (RH) ......................................................................... 9

8.1.3 Air exchange rate (n) .................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.4 Air velocity ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

8.1.5 Sampled air flow .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2 Handling of EUT and ETC ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.1 Selection and storage of EUT ................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2.2 Loading Factor ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.3 ETC purging .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.4 Background concentrations (C ) ..................................................................................................................10

8.2.5 EUT unpacking................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2.6 Preparation of the EUT before testing ........................................................................................................10

8.2.7 EUT installation .............................................................................................................................................................10

8.2.8 EUT operation during test ....................................................................................................................................11

8.3 VOC, carbonyl compounds .........................................................................................................................................................12

8.3.1 Sorbents .................. .................................................... ..........................................................................................................12

8.3.2 Sample collection .........................................................................................................................................................12

8.3.3 Emission rate calculation ......................................................................................................................................13

8.4 Ozone ............................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.4.1 Analyser and sampling line requirements ..............................................................................................15

8.4.2 Monitoring ..........................................................................................................................................................................15

8.4.3 Emission rate calculation ......................................................................................................................................15

8.5 Particulate matter..............................................................................................................................................................................16

8.5.1 Weighing and Filter conditioning ...................................................................................................................17

8.5.2 Sampling...............................................................................................................................................................................17

8.5.3 Emission rate calculation ......................................................................................................................................17

8.6 Fine and Ultrafine Particles (FP and UFP) ....................................................................................................................18

8.6.1 General Requirements for Aerosol Measuring Systems (AMS) ............................................19

8.6.2 Measurement ...................................................................................................................................................................20

8.6.3 Calculation ..........................................................................................................................................................................20

9 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex A (normative) Print Patterns ..................................................................................................................................................................26

Annex B (normative) Preparatory AMS Test Procedures .............................................................................................................28

© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)

Annex C (informative) Emission rate model ..............................................................................................................................................32

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

iv © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are

members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical

committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical

activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the

work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,

ISO/IEC JTC 1.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

ISO/IEC 28360-1 was prepared by Ecma International (as ECMA-328 Part 1) and was adopted, under a

special “fast-track procedure”, by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in

parallel with its approval by national bodies of ISO and IEC.

This first edition of ISO/IEC 28360-1, together with ISO/IEC 28360-2, cancels and replaces ISO/

IEC 28360: 2015, which has been technically revised. It also incorporates the Technical Corrigendum

ISO/IEC 28360: 2015/Cor.1:2016. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— This edition was divided into a part for electronic equipment using consumables and a part for

electronic equipment not using consumables as follows:

— Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic Equipment — Part 1 (using-

consumables)

— Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic Equipment — Part 2 (not using-

consumables)

The purpose of the split was to make the description of test procedures simpler (they included

considerable differences between the two equipment categories) and to facilitate users’

understanding.

— This edition is fully aligned with “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy

Devices” (RAL-UZ 205).
A list of all parts in the ISO 28360 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
Introduction

Globally, governmental agencies, academic institutions, environmental organizations and

manufacturers have started to develop methods to determine chemical emissions from electronic

equipment. These attempts however, initially resulted in a range of tests from which the results were

not necessarily comparable, either qualitatively or quantitatively.

Following the publications of the 1st edition of ECMA-328 in 2001 and the “Test method for the

determination of emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from the BAM and Ecma

have collaborated to harmonise methods to determine the chemical emission rates from ICT & CE

equipment in the 2nd edition.

In addition to stricter test procedures, the 2nd edition used generalised emission formulae, and their

derivations developed in Annex C, to calculate emission rates from concentrations of analytes that are

measured in Emission Test Chambers.

The 3rd edition was fully aligned with the 1st edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2007 adopted under ISO/

IEC JTC 1 fast track procedure and published in September 2007.

In addition, the 4th edition fixed a number of errata on ISO/IEC 28360:2007 that JTC 1/SC 28 identified.

Following the publications of the 4th edition of ECMA-328 and the “Test method for the determination

of emissions from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-UZ 122), experts from the BAM, WKI, JBMIA and Ecma

have collaborated to harmonise methods to determine the Fine Particle (FP) and Ultrafine Particle

(UFP) emissions from hard copy devices in the 5th edition.

The 6th edition was aligned with the 2nd edition of ISO/IEC 28360:2012, and it added a new ozone

calculation method. “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices” (RAL-

UZ 122) has been replaced by “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy Devices”

(RAL-UZ 171) published in January 2013. Therefore, “RAL-UZ 122 option” is replaced with “RAL-UZ 171

option” in the 6th edition.
The 7th edition of ECMA-328 is fully aligned with ISO/IEC 28360:2015.

The 8th edition was divided into a part for electronic equipment using consumables and a part for

electronic equipment not using consumables as follows:

— Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic Equipment — Part 1 (using-consumables)

— Determination of Chemical Emission Rates from Electronic Equipment — Part 2 (not using-

consumables)

The purpose of the split was to make the description of test procedures simpler (they included

considerable differences between the two equipment categories) and to facilitate users’ understanding.

This 8th edition is fully aligned with “Test method for the determination of emission from Hard Copy

Devices” (RAL-UZ 205).
This part of the Standard is Part 1.
vi © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
Information technology — Office equipment —
Determination of chemical emission rates from electronic
equipment —
Part 1:
Using-consumables
1 Scope

This document (all parts) specifies methods to determine chemical emission rates of analyte from

ICT & CE equipment during intended operation in an Emission Test Chamber (ETC).

This document (all parts) includes specific methods for equipment using consumables, such as printers,

and equipment not using consumables, such as monitors and PC’s.

Part 1 specifies the methods to determine chemical emission rates of analyte from electronic equipment

using consumables.

The methods comprise preparation, sampling (or monitoring) in a controlled ETC, storage and analysis,

calculation and reporting of emission rates.

Emission rates from EUT may also be determined according to additional requirements identified by

“RAL-UZ 205 Option”.

Annex A specifies monochrome and colour print patterns for use in the operating phase of EUT using

consumables.
The operational readiness of AMS is confirmed according to Annex B.

Calculations use the generalised model and approximations thereof as developed in Annex C.

The emission rates determined with this method may be used to compare equipment in the same class.

Predictions of “real indoor” concentrations from the determined emission rates are outside the scope of

this document.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 554:1976, Standard atmospheres for conditioning and/or testing — Specifications

ISO 16000-3:2011, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in

indoor air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test

chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using

MS or MS-FID

ISO 16000-9:2006, Indoor air — Part 9: Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds from

building products and furnishing — Emission test chamber method
© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)

ISO 16017-1:2000, Indoor, ambient and workplace air — Sampling and analysis of volatile organic

compounds by sorbent tube/thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography — Part 1: Pumped sampling

CIE 15:2004, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage — Colorimetry, 3rd edition
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
averaged concentration time series

simple moving average of total particle number concentration (C ) over 31 ± 3 seconds

3.2
averaged ozone concentration time series
simple moving average of ozone concentration (Co ) over 80 ± 5 seconds
3.3
aerosol
suspension of fine solid particles and/or liquid droplets in a gas
3.4
aerosol measuring system
AMS

device category for measuring the total particle number concentration of an aerosol within a size range

at a certain frequency
Note 1 to entry: CPC (4.8) and fast AMS (4.12) belong to AMS.
3.5
air exchange rate
3 3

ratio (n) of the volume of clean air brought into the ETC per hour [m /h] to the unloaded ETC volume [m ]

3.6
air velocity
air speed [m/s] measured in the unloaded ETC
3.7
analyte

volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbonyl compounds, ozone, particulate matter, fine particles (FP)

and ultrafine particles (UFP)
3.8
condensation particle counter
CPC
instrument that measures the particle number concentration of an aerosol

Note 1 to entry: For the purpose of this document a CPC is used as a standalone instrument which measures the

total particle number concentration within a device dependent size range.
3.9
consumables
toner, ink, paper and ribbon
2 © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
3.10
emission test chamber
ETC

enclosure with controlled operational parameters for testing analyte mass emitted from EUT

3.11
equipment under test
EUT
electronic equipment from which chemical emission rates are determined
3.12
fast AMS
instrument with rapid time resolution and particle size classification
3.13
fine particles
particles with particle size / diameter range between 0,1 μm and 2,5 μm
3.14
hard copy devices

class of EUT using Consumables that includes printers, (Photo)copiers and Multi Functional Devices (MFD)

3.15
loading factor
ratio of the EUT volume to the volume of the unloaded ETC
3.16
maximum usage time before testing
MUT

ratio between the total number of prints carried out by the EUT and the printing speed of the EUT

Note 1 to entry: Maximum usage time is the maximum permitted time of operation before testing in order to

consider the EUT as newly manufactured equipment for testing purposes.
3.17
operating phase
phase in which the EUT is performing its intended functions
3.18
particle
solid or liquid matter with defined physical boundaries suspended in a gas
3.19
particle emission rate
PER

averaged emission rate, i.e. total number of particles in a specified particle size range emitted during

the operating phase
3.20
particle emission rate
PER(t)

time dependent emission rate of particles in a specified particle size range after the start of the

operating phase
3.21
particle loss coefficient

coefficient describes the loss of particles in a specified particle size range in an ETC

© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
3.22
particle size/particle diameter
measurement category to describe the physical dimension of a particle

Note 1 to entry: The term particle size is often used as a synonym for particle diameter. The particle diameter is

used to assign a particle to a particle size class (e.g. UFP).
3.23
particulate matter
quantity of particles measured by gravimetric methods
3.24
post-operating phase
phase following the operating phase
Note 1 to entry: The post-operating can include energy saving modes.
3.25
pre-operating phase

phase in which the EUT is connected to an electrical supply before the EUT is able to enter the

operating phase

Note 1 to entry: The pre-operating phase can include warming-up and energy saving modes.

3.26
standard particle emission rate

PER calculated number of particles emitted during a 10-minute operating phase in a specified particle

size range
3.27
total number of emitted particles
calculated total number of particles emitted in a specified particle size range
3.28
total particle number concentration
particle number concentration in a specified particle size range
3.29
total volatile organic compounds
TVOC

the sum of the concentrations of identified VOC and the concentrations of the converted areas of

unidentified peaks using the toluene response factor

Note 1 to entry: This definition of “total volatile organic compounds” differs from the definition in

ISO 16000-6:2011.
3.30
ultrafine particles
UFP
particles with particle diameter less or equal 0,1 µm
3.31
unit specific emission rate
SER
mass, in micrograms, of a specific analyte emitted per hour
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
3.32
volatile organic compounds
VOC
compounds that elute between n-hexane and n-hexadecane on a nonpolar GC-column
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
4.1 Abbreviated terms
AMS Aerosol Measuring System
CPC Condensation Particle Counter
DNPH 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
ETC Emission Test Chamber
EUT Equipment Under Test
FID Flame Ionisation Detector
FP Fine Particles
GC/MS Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
MFD Multi Functional Device
PER Averaged Particle Emission Rate
PER(t) Time-dependent Particle Emission Rate
PER Standard Particle Emission Rate
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethene (Polytetrafluoroethylene)
PVC Polyvinylchloride
RH Relative Humidity
SER Unit Specific Emission Rate
TVOC Total Volatile Organic Compounds
UFP Ultrafine Particles
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
4.2 Symbols
α Factor in the exponential particle decay function [cm ]
β Particle loss coefficient [h ]
C Average mass concentration [µg m ]
C Background mass concentration [µg m ]
C Initial mass concentration [µg m ]
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
C Average mass concentration during pre-operating phase [µg m ]
pre
C Average mass concentration during operating phase and optionally during post-
ope
operating phase [µg m ]
C Total particle number concentration [cm ]
C Background particle number concentration [cm ]
pbg
Co Ozone concentration [mg/m ]
d Equivalent Particle Diameter [nm]
m Sample filter mass [µg] after sampling
after
m Sample filter mass [µg] before sampling
before
m Sampled mass for chamber background [µg]
m Mass of particulate matter [µg] deposited on the filter
m Reference filter mass [µg] after sampling
ref-after
m Reference filter mass [µg] before sampling
ref-before
m Sampled mass [µg]
m Sampled mass [µg] during pre-operating phase
pre
m Sampled mass [µg] during operating and optionally post-operating phase
ope
n Air exchange rate [h ]
p Atmospheric pressure [Pa]
R Gas constant [PaK-1], (for ozone: 339.8 [PaK-1])
SER Background SER [µg h ]
SER SER during operating and optionally post-operating phase [µg h ]
ope
SER SER for ozone [µg min ]
SER SER for particulate matter [µg h ]
SER SER during pre-operating [µg h ]
pre
T Ambient temperature [K]
TP Total Number of Emitted Particles
t Operating phase duration [h]
ope
t Sampling time during operating and optionally post-operating phase [h]
t Point in time marking the start of particle emission
start
t Point in time marking the end of particle emission
stop
t Pre-operating phase duration [h]
pre
Δt Time-resolution of the UFP measurement [s]
6 © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
V ETC volume [m ]
V Sampled air volume [m ]
V Sampled air volume [m ] for determination of C
bg bg
V Sampled air volume [m ] in pre-operating phase
pre
V Sampled air volume [m ] in operating and optionally post-operating phase
ope
5 Conformance

Determinations of emission rates and total number of emitted particles conform to this document

(Part 1) when:

1. Executed using a Quality Assurance Project Plan, Quality Assurance and Quality Control as

specified in ISO 16000-9;
2. Tested in a controlled ETC as specified in Clause 7;
3. Sampled/monitored and calculated as specified in Clause 8 and Annex B;
4. Reported as specified in Clause 9.

For EUT using consumables, determinations according to additional requirements identified by “RAL-

UZ 205 Option” herein conform to the RAL-UZ 205 Option.
6 Method overview

The flowchart in Figure 1 illustrates the method; clause numbers are indicated in brackets.

© ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
Figure 1 — Determination method overview
7 ETC requirements
7.1 Construction materials
ETC construction materials shall comply with ISO 16000-9.
7.2 Air tightness
The ETC air tightness shall be as specified in ISO 16000-9.
8 © ISO/IEC 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 28360-1:2018(E)
7.3 Air mixing efficiency
The air mixing efficiency in the ETC shall be as specified in ISO 16000-9.
8 Determination method
8.1 Test conditions
8.1.1 General

To meet the operational requirements specified herein, ETC parameters such as temperature, r

...

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