Hydraulic fluid power — Cleanliness of components — Inspection document and principles related to contaminant extraction and analysis, and data reporting

ISO 18413:2015 specifies the content of an inspection document that specifies both the cleanliness requirement for the specified hydraulic fluid power component and the inspection method to be used for evaluating its cleanliness level. In addition, guidelines for relevant extraction methods and analysis methods are given. Determination of what constitutes as an appropriate cleanliness level requirement for any particular component is beyond the scope of ISO 18413:2015. ISO 12669 provides a method of determining the required cleanliness of a hydraulic system. ISO TR 10686 provides a method of relating the required cleanliness of components to the required cleanliness of the hydraulic system. For the purposes of ISO 18413:2015, approved functional liquids are considered to be components. ISO 18413:2015 is applicable to the particulate contamination on the wetted surfaces and volumes of any hydraulic fluid power system component. Appearance defects and liquid or gaseous contamination are not covered by ISO 18413:2015. ISO 18413:2015 does not address safety problems that might arise from hazardous materials, operations, and equipment associated with its use. The user of ISO 18413:2015 is responsible for establishing appropriate safety and health practices and determining the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Transmissions hydrauliques — Propreté des composants — Documents d'inspection et principes d'extraction et d'analyse des contaminants et d'expression des résultats

L'ISO 18413:2015 spécifie le contenu d'un document de contrôle précisant tant les exigences de propreté applicables au composant de transmission hydraulique spécifié que la méthode de contrôle à employer pour évaluer son niveau de propreté. Elle fournit également des lignes directrices concernant les méthodes d'extraction et d'analyse pertinentes. L'ISO 18413:2015 ne couvre pas la détermination de ce qui constitue une exigence relative au niveau de propreté approprié pour tout composant spécifique. L'ISO 12669 fournit une méthode permettant de déterminer la propreté requise d'un système hydraulique. L'ISO/TR 10686 fournit une méthode permettant de relier la propreté requise des composants à la propreté requise du système hydraulique. Pour les besoins de l'ISO 18413:2015, les liquides fonctionnels ayant fait l'objet d'un accord sont considérés comme des composants. L'ISO 18413:2015 est applicable à la pollution particulaire des surfaces et volumes mouillés de tout composant d'un système de transmission hydraulique. Elle ne couvre pas les défauts d'aspect ni la pollution liquide ou gazeuse. L'ISO 18413:2015 ne traite pas des questions de sécurité que peuvent entraîner les matières, les opérations et les matériels dangereux associés à son utilisation. L'utilisateur de l'ISO 18413:2015 est chargé d'établir des pratiques de sécurité et d'hygiène appropriées et de déterminer l'applicabilité des restrictions légales avant l'utilisation.

Fluidna tehnika - Hidravlika - Snažnost delov in komponent - Kontrolni dokument in postopki izločanja, analiza umazanije in poročanje o rezultatih

Ta mednarodni standard določa vsebino kontrolnega dokumenta, ki določa zahteve glede snažnosti in kontrolno metodo za vrednotenje ravni snažnosti za določeno hidravlično pogonsko komponento. Poleg tega podaja navodila za ustrezne metode izločanja in analiziranja.
Določitev dejavnikov, ki oblikujejo zahtevo za ustrezno raven snažnosti določene komponente, je zunaj področja uporabe tega mednarodnega standarda. ISO 12669 podaja metodo za ugotavljanje zahtevane snažnosti hidravličnega sistema. ISO TR 10686 podaja metodo za povezavo
zahtevane snažnosti komponent z zahtevano snažnostjo hidravličnega sistema.
Za namene tega mednarodnega standarda se kot komponente obravnavajo odobrene funkcionalne tekočine. Ta mednarodni standard se uporablja za onesnaženost z delci na namočenih površinah in v predelih katere koli komponente hidravličnega pogonskega sistema. Pomanjkljivosti glede videza in onesnaženost s tekočinami ali plini niso zajete v tem mednarodnem standardu.
Ta mednarodni standard ne obravnava varnostnih težav, do katerih lahko pride zaradi nevarnih materialov, postopkov in opreme, povezane z njegovo uporabo. Za vzpostavitev ustreznih varnostnih in zdravstvenih praks ter za določitev uporabnosti regulativnih omejitev pred uporabo je odgovoren uporabnik tega mednarodnega standarda.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Mar-2015
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
23-Oct-2020
Completion Date
23-Oct-2020

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18413
Second edition
2015-03-15
Hydraulic fluid power — Cleanliness
of components — Inspection
document and principles related to
contaminant extraction and analysis,
and data reporting
Transmissions hydrauliques — Propreté des composants —
Documents d’inspection et principes d’extraction et d’analyse des
contaminants et d’expression des résultats
Reference number
ISO 18413:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Inspection document principles .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Content ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Component cleanliness requirement................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Inspection method ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Effectivity ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.6 Verification of conformance to specified component cleanliness requirements ........................... 5

4.7 Additional information .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Guidelines for selecting contamination extraction and analysis procedures ......................................6

5.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Contaminant extraction ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Contaminant analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Contaminant extraction principles ................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Extraction procedure setup and validation .................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.1 Setup environment......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.2 Validation ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Agitation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Pressure rinse .......................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6 Ultrasonic vibration .........................................................................................................................................................................12

6.7 Functional test method .................................................................................................................................................................12

7 Contaminant analysis principles ......................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3 Gravimetric analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4 Determination of the largest particle size ....................................................................................................................13

7.5 Chemical composition ...................................................................................................................................................................13

7.6 Particle size distribution .............................................................................................................................................................14

8 Data reporting principles .........................................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.3 Contaminant mass ............................................................................................................................................................................15

8.4 Particle size .............................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.5 Particle size distribution .............................................................................................................................................................15

8.6 Chemical composition ...................................................................................................................................................................15

9 Criterion for acceptance ............................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Identification statement (reference of this International Standard) .........................................................15

Annex A (normative) Contaminant extraction principles — Agitation method ...................................................16

Annex B (normative) Contaminant extraction principles — Pressure rinse method ....................................21

Annex C (normative) Contaminant extraction principles — Ultrasonic vibration method .....................26

Annex D (normative) Contaminant extraction principles — Functional test method ...................................32

Annex E (normative) Contaminant analysis principles and data reporting principles ................................38

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 18413:2015(E)

Annex F (informative) Guidelines for the design of a functional test method test stand ...........................40

Annex G (informative) Determination of geometric characteristics of components ......................................43

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 131, Fluid power systems, Subcommittee SC 6,

Contamination control.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 18413:2002), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Introduction

In hydraulic fluid power systems, power is transmitted and controlled through a pressurized liquid

within an enclosed circuit. Contaminants present in the circulating working liquid can degrade system

performance. The presence of particles residual from the manufacturing and assembly processes can

cause a substantial increase in the wear rates to the system during the initial run-up and early life and can

even cause catastrophic failures. In order to achieve reliable performance of components and the system,

control over the amount of particles introduced during the build phase is necessary. Accurate assessment

of the effectiveness of part and component cleaning requires documentation of both the cleanliness

requirement and the methods used for contaminant extraction and analysis and data reporting.

vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18413:2015(E)
Hydraulic fluid power — Cleanliness of components
— Inspection document and principles related to
contaminant extraction and analysis, and data reporting
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the content of an inspection document that specifies both the

cleanliness requirement for the specified hydraulic fluid power component and the inspection method

to be used for evaluating its cleanliness level. In addition, guidelines for relevant extraction methods

and analysis methods are given.

Determination of what constitutes as an appropriate cleanliness level requirement for any particular

component is beyond the scope of this International Standard. ISO 12669 provides a method of

determining the required cleanliness of a hydraulic system. ISO TR 10686 provides a method of relating

the required cleanliness of components to the required cleanliness of the hydraulic system.

For the purposes of this International Standard, approved functional liquids are considered to be components.

This International Standard is applicable to the particulate contamination on the wetted surfaces and

volumes of any hydraulic fluid power system component. Appearance defects and liquid or gaseous

contamination are not covered by this International Standard.

This International Standard does not address safety problems that might arise from hazardous

materials, operations, and equipment associated with its use. The user of this International Standard is

responsible for establishing appropriate safety and health practices and determining the applicability

of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3722, Hydraulic fluid power — Fluid sample containers — Qualifying and controlling cleaning methods

ISO 4021, Hydraulic fluid power — Particulate contamination analysis — Extraction of fluid samples from

lines of an operating system

ISO 4405, Hydraulic fluid power — Fluid contamination — Determination of particulate contamination by

the gravimetric method

ISO 4407, Hydraulic fluid power — Fluid contamination — Determination of particulate contamination by

the counting method using an optical microscope
ISO 5598, Fluid power systems and components — Vocabulary

ISO 11500, Hydraulic fluid power — Determination of the particulate contamination level of a liquid sample

by automatic particle counting using the light-extinction principle

ISO 11171, Hydraulic fluid power — Calibration of automatic particle counters for liquids

ISO 11943, Hydraulic fluid power — On-line automatic particle-counting systems for liquids — Methods of

calibration and validation

ISO 12103-1, Road vehicles — Test dust for filter evaluation — Part 1: Arizona test dust

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)

ISO 14644-1, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness

ISO 21018 (all parts), Hydraulic fluid power — Monitoring the level of particulate contamination in the fluid

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5598 and the following apply.

3.1
blank level

amount of contaminant introduced from sources other than the test component, such as reagents,

glassware, preparation of test units, and the environment
3.2
blank test

analysis carried out in the same operating conditions as on the test component but without the test component

Note 1 to entry: The blank test enables quantification of the contamination introduced from sources other than

the test component, such as reagents, glassware, preparation of test units, and the environment.

3.3
clean

state of cleanliness of a component or fluid that meets the specified cleanliness level

3.4
cleanliness

condition of a product, surface, device, liquid, etc., characterized by the absence of particulate

contamination
3.5
component

general term to cover a part, a component, a sub-assembly, or a part assembly used in a hydraulic system

Note 1 to entry: This definition differs from that given for the same term in ISO 5598.

3.6
component contamination

amount or nature of contaminants extracted from the wetted or controlled surfaces of a component, as

measured by an applicable analysis method
3.7
contaminant

undesirable solid substance that is in suspension in a fluid or in a component or on a controlled surface

of a component

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this International Standard, contaminants include solid material suspended

in liquids, but exclude liquids and gases. This definition differs from ISO 5598 in its exclusion of liquids and gases.

3.8
controlled surface
wetted surface of a component that is subject to a cleanliness requirement
3.9
controlled volume
wetted volume of a component that is subject to a cleanliness requirement
3.10
end-point sample

last in a series of repetitive samples, which produces a result that is ≤10 % of all the samples

2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)
3.11
external surface

surface of the component which is not wetted by the system fluid in normal operation

3.12
extraction

operation required to transfer as much contaminant as possible that is present within a controlled

volume or on a controlled surface into a test liquid and its collection for subsequent analysis

3.13
extraction curve

progress curve of the cleanliness level of an extraction liquid applied to the test component as a function

of the number of extractions

Note 1 to entry: This is related to the extraction time or to the volume of test liquid passed through or over the

test component.
3.14
extraction liquid
test liquid loaded with contaminants extracted from the test component
3.15
fluid contamination monitor
FCM

instrument that quantitatively evaluates the particulate contamination level of a liquid in an on-line mode

3.16
inspection document

written description of the component cleanliness requirement and the agreed inspection method

3.17
inspection method

procedure for contaminant extraction, contaminant analysis, and data reporting which is used to

evaluate component cleanliness as specified by the inspection document
3.18
representative sample

material extracted such that it is typical of the amount and nature of the contaminant contained in or

on a component
3.19
test liquid

suitable liquid of known initial cleanliness used to remove, suspend, and extract contaminant from a

component and which is compatible with the component being tested and the apparatus used

3.20
validation

process by which a test method evaluates the capability of the contaminant removal process

3.21
wetted surface area
surface area of the component that is exposed to system liquid
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Figure 1 — Wetted surface area (A )
3.22
wetted volume
volume of the component that is exposed to system liquid
Figure 2 — Wetted volume (V )
4 Inspection document principles
4.1 Content

This International Standard specifies the content of the inspection document, not its format. The

inspection document may exist as a single document or as a series of related documents. Regardless of

format, the inspection document shall clearly identify the component cleanliness requirement and the

agreed inspection method.
4.2 Component cleanliness requirement

The inspection document shall define the component cleanliness requirement when this is known. The

cleanliness requirement shall be consistent with the known or anticipated function or application of the

component. ISO TR 10686 and ISO 12669 give guidance and tools to establish such requirements. The

component cleanliness requirement shall be established and agreed upon by the parties involved.

International Standards should be used in preference to other references sources (e.g. example historical

data, existing company, industry, and national standards, functional performance, reliability, and

durability requirements of the component, and data on similar components to determine the cleanliness

requirement for a particular component).
4.3 Inspection method

4.3.1 The inspection document shall specify the inspection method to be used to evaluate component

cleanliness. The inspection method shall be established and agreed upon by the parties involved. The

inspection method shall be consistent with the design and the cleanliness requirement of the component.

4.3.2 The inspection document shall specify the appropriate parameters applicable to extracting

contaminants, conducting analyses, and reporting results. Typical reference sources for consideration in

determining the agreed inspection method include: International Standards, previously used methods

of contaminant extraction, contaminant analysis, and data reporting; existing company, industry, and

4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)

national, standards; functional, reliability, and durability requirements of the component; and methods

used on similar parts or components.
4.4 Effectivity

The inspection document shall become effective upon mutual agreement between the parties involved,

both of which shall maintain a copy of the applicable inspection document.
4.5 Conformance
Unless otherwise stated in the inspection document,

a) all components for which a cleanliness level has been specified shall meet that requirement when

evaluated in accordance with the agreed inspection method and

b) it is not necessary to inspect those components for which no cleanliness level has been specified (it is

possible that some components are required to meet a specified cleanliness level and others are not).

4.6 Verification of conformance to specified component cleanliness requirements

4.6.1 Conformance to component cleanliness requirements can be verified either by the use of industry-

accepted statistical sampling methods or by joint purchaser-supplier monitoring of the inspection processes.

4.6.2 Verification of test results requires special care because differences in method of contaminant

extraction or analysis of the same component affect the results obtained. In addition, because the

contaminant extraction process results in cleaning of the component used as a test item, that same test

item shall not be reused for subsequent conformance verification.
4.7 Additional information

4.7.1 Unless otherwise agreed by purchaser and supplier, 4.7.2 to 4.7.5 shall apply.

4.7.2 The inspection document shall specify both the required cleanliness level for the component and

the scope of its applicability. The points in the process at which the cleanliness requirement applies shall

be stated in the inspection document. Because prolonged or improper storage of components can result

in the introduction of new contaminants, such as oxidation products, the inspection document shall, when

applicable, address these factors.

4.7.3 Temporary shipping covers are excluded from the inspection process; however, any contaminants

contributed by such covers shall be included in the evaluation of component cleanliness.

4.7.4 Contaminants contributed by such defects as nicks, blemishes, and discoloration shall be included

in the evaluation of component cleanliness.

4.7.5 Where applicable, a requirement for allowable residual magnetic density may be included as part

of the inspection document.

NOTE Residual magnetism can cause retention of contaminant on component surfaces and the formation of

agglomerates, both of which affect contaminant extraction or analysis or both.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)
5 Guidelines for selecting contamination extraction and analysis procedures
5.1 Overview

The following information is intended to be neither exhaustive nor restrictive. It is intended only to assist

the user of this International Standard by indicating methods of sample extraction, sample analysis, and

data reporting that are widely recognized as appropriate under selected conditions. The requirements

applicable to a specific component shall be stated in the inspection document.
5.2 Contaminant extraction

Select the extraction method most suited to the component being inspected from Table 1. The method of

contaminant extraction shall be agreed upon and stated in the inspection document.

NOTE Table 1 is a summary of guidelines for selection of contaminant extraction methods as they relate to

categories of hydraulic components.
Table 1 — Guidelines for selection of contaminant extraction methods
Contaminant extraction method
Component
Ultrasonic
Agitation Pressure rinse Functional test
vibration
Assemblies
Pumps and motors NR NR NA R
Valves and cylinders NR NR NA R
Manifold and body assemblies NR A A R
Accumulators A NR NA R
Simple shapes and housings
Gears, plates, and shafts A R R NA
Spools, rods, and pistons A R R NA
Hardware and seals A R R NA
Tanks and reservoirs A R NA NR
Hollow parts
Manifolds and bodies R A A A
Hoses and tubes R A A R
Fittings A R A A
Filtration components

Filter elements — cleanable Method shall be agreed between the supplier and purchaser

Filter elements — non-clean- Method shall be agreed between the supplier and purchaser

able
Filter housings R A A R
R = Recommended
A = Acceptable
NR = Not recommended
NA = Not applicable
5.3 Contaminant analysis

Select the contaminant analysis method from Table 2. The method of contaminant analysis shall be

agreed upon and stated in the inspection document.
6 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Table 2 — Guidelines for selection of contaminant analysis methods
Contaminant analysis method
Contaminant Particle size distribution
Gravimetric Chemical
extraction method
Particle size
a b
APC APC or FCM
analysis composition
Microscopy
(bottle) (on line)
Agitation R R R R R NA
Pressure rinse R R R R R A
Ultrasonic vibration R R R R R NA
Functional test A A A R A R
R = Recommended
A = Acceptable
NR = Not recommended
NA = Not applicable
Determined using a light extinction APC used in accordance with ISO 11500.

Determined using a fluid contamination monitor used in accordance with one of the parts of ISO 21018.

6 Contaminant extraction principles
6.1 General

The method of contaminant extraction shall be agreed upon and stated in the inspection document.

The measured component cleanliness level depends upon the effectiveness of the extraction procedures

chosen and upon whether those extraction methods have been validated (see 6.3). The effectiveness of

the contaminant extraction process should be validated by using the end point concept (see 3.10). Testing

personnel shall follow the contaminant extraction method(s) specified in the inspection document.

Inspection facilities and environment shall be as clean as practicable so as not to significantly affect the

measurement of component cleanliness, which is quantified by the blank test (see 6.4.).

6.2 Overview

Contaminant extraction consists of various techniques for removing contaminants from controlled

surfaces of components by the hydraulic and chemical action of a suitable liquid, suspending contaminant

in the test liquid, then collecting the extraction liquid and suspended contaminant for analysis. This

International Standard describes four basic contaminant extraction techniques: agitation, pre

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18413:2016
01-maj-2016
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SIST ISO 18413:2003
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LQSRVWRSNLL]ORþDQMDDQDOL]DXPD]DQLMHLQSRURþDQMHRUH]XOWDWLK

Hydraulic fluid power - Cleanliness of components - Inspection document and principles

related to contaminant extraction and analysis, and data reporting
Transmissions hydrauliques - Propreté des composants - Documents d'inspection et

principes d'extraction et d'analyse des contaminants et d'expression des résultats

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18413:2015
ICS:
23.100.60 )LOWULWHVQLODLQ Filters, seals and
RQHVQDåHYDQMHWHNRþLQ contamination of fluids
SIST ISO 18413:2016 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18413:2016
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18413:2016
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18413
Second edition
2015-03-15
Hydraulic fluid power — Cleanliness
of components — Inspection
document and principles related to
contaminant extraction and analysis,
and data reporting
Transmissions hydrauliques — Propreté des composants —
Documents d’inspection et principes d’extraction et d’analyse des
contaminants et d’expression des résultats
Reference number
ISO 18413:2015(E)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18413:2016
ISO 18413:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18413:2016
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Inspection document principles .......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 Content ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Component cleanliness requirement................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Inspection method ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Effectivity ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.5 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.6 Verification of conformance to specified component cleanliness requirements ........................... 5

4.7 Additional information .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Guidelines for selecting contamination extraction and analysis procedures ......................................6

5.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Contaminant extraction ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Contaminant analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Contaminant extraction principles ................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Extraction procedure setup and validation .................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.1 Setup environment......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.2 Validation ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Agitation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Pressure rinse .......................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6 Ultrasonic vibration .........................................................................................................................................................................12

6.7 Functional test method .................................................................................................................................................................12

7 Contaminant analysis principles ......................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3 Gravimetric analysis ........................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4 Determination of the largest particle size ....................................................................................................................13

7.5 Chemical composition ...................................................................................................................................................................13

7.6 Particle size distribution .............................................................................................................................................................14

8 Data reporting principles .........................................................................................................................................................................14

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.2 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................14

8.3 Contaminant mass ............................................................................................................................................................................15

8.4 Particle size .............................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.5 Particle size distribution .............................................................................................................................................................15

8.6 Chemical composition ...................................................................................................................................................................15

9 Criterion for acceptance ............................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Identification statement (reference of this International Standard) .........................................................15

Annex A (normative) Contaminant extraction principles — Agitation method ...................................................16

Annex B (normative) Contaminant extraction principles — Pressure rinse method ....................................21

Annex C (normative) Contaminant extraction principles — Ultrasonic vibration method .....................26

Annex D (normative) Contaminant extraction principles — Functional test method ...................................32

Annex E (normative) Contaminant analysis principles and data reporting principles ................................38

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Annex F (informative) Guidelines for the design of a functional test method test stand ...........................40

Annex G (informative) Determination of geometric characteristics of components ......................................43

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18413:2016
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 131, Fluid power systems, Subcommittee SC 6,

Contamination control.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 18413:2002), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 18413:2016
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Introduction

In hydraulic fluid power systems, power is transmitted and controlled through a pressurized liquid

within an enclosed circuit. Contaminants present in the circulating working liquid can degrade system

performance. The presence of particles residual from the manufacturing and assembly processes can

cause a substantial increase in the wear rates to the system during the initial run-up and early life and can

even cause catastrophic failures. In order to achieve reliable performance of components and the system,

control over the amount of particles introduced during the build phase is necessary. Accurate assessment

of the effectiveness of part and component cleaning requires documentation of both the cleanliness

requirement and the methods used for contaminant extraction and analysis and data reporting.

vi © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18413:2016
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18413:2015(E)
Hydraulic fluid power — Cleanliness of components
— Inspection document and principles related to
contaminant extraction and analysis, and data reporting
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the content of an inspection document that specifies both the

cleanliness requirement for the specified hydraulic fluid power component and the inspection method

to be used for evaluating its cleanliness level. In addition, guidelines for relevant extraction methods

and analysis methods are given.

Determination of what constitutes as an appropriate cleanliness level requirement for any particular

component is beyond the scope of this International Standard. ISO 12669 provides a method of

determining the required cleanliness of a hydraulic system. ISO TR 10686 provides a method of relating

the required cleanliness of components to the required cleanliness of the hydraulic system.

For the purposes of this International Standard, approved functional liquids are considered to be components.

This International Standard is applicable to the particulate contamination on the wetted surfaces and

volumes of any hydraulic fluid power system component. Appearance defects and liquid or gaseous

contamination are not covered by this International Standard.

This International Standard does not address safety problems that might arise from hazardous

materials, operations, and equipment associated with its use. The user of this International Standard is

responsible for establishing appropriate safety and health practices and determining the applicability

of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3722, Hydraulic fluid power — Fluid sample containers — Qualifying and controlling cleaning methods

ISO 4021, Hydraulic fluid power — Particulate contamination analysis — Extraction of fluid samples from

lines of an operating system

ISO 4405, Hydraulic fluid power — Fluid contamination — Determination of particulate contamination by

the gravimetric method

ISO 4407, Hydraulic fluid power — Fluid contamination — Determination of particulate contamination by

the counting method using an optical microscope
ISO 5598, Fluid power systems and components — Vocabulary

ISO 11500, Hydraulic fluid power — Determination of the particulate contamination level of a liquid sample

by automatic particle counting using the light-extinction principle

ISO 11171, Hydraulic fluid power — Calibration of automatic particle counters for liquids

ISO 11943, Hydraulic fluid power — On-line automatic particle-counting systems for liquids — Methods of

calibration and validation

ISO 12103-1, Road vehicles — Test dust for filter evaluation — Part 1: Arizona test dust

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 18413:2016
ISO 18413:2015(E)

ISO 14644-1, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness

ISO 21018 (all parts), Hydraulic fluid power — Monitoring the level of particulate contamination in the fluid

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5598 and the following apply.

3.1
blank level

amount of contaminant introduced from sources other than the test component, such as reagents,

glassware, preparation of test units, and the environment
3.2
blank test

analysis carried out in the same operating conditions as on the test component but without the test component

Note 1 to entry: The blank test enables quantification of the contamination introduced from sources other than

the test component, such as reagents, glassware, preparation of test units, and the environment.

3.3
clean

state of cleanliness of a component or fluid that meets the specified cleanliness level

3.4
cleanliness

condition of a product, surface, device, liquid, etc., characterized by the absence of particulate

contamination
3.5
component

general term to cover a part, a component, a sub-assembly, or a part assembly used in a hydraulic system

Note 1 to entry: This definition differs from that given for the same term in ISO 5598.

3.6
component contamination

amount or nature of contaminants extracted from the wetted or controlled surfaces of a component, as

measured by an applicable analysis method
3.7
contaminant

undesirable solid substance that is in suspension in a fluid or in a component or on a controlled surface

of a component

Note 1 to entry: For the purposes of this International Standard, contaminants include solid material suspended

in liquids, but exclude liquids and gases. This definition differs from ISO 5598 in its exclusion of liquids and gases.

3.8
controlled surface
wetted surface of a component that is subject to a cleanliness requirement
3.9
controlled volume
wetted volume of a component that is subject to a cleanliness requirement
3.10
end-point sample

last in a series of repetitive samples, which produces a result that is ≤10 % of all the samples

2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18413:2015(E)
3.11
external surface

surface of the component which is not wetted by the system fluid in normal operation

3.12
extraction

operation required to transfer as much contaminant as possible that is present within a controlled

volume or on a controlled surface into a test liquid and its collection for subsequent analysis

3.13
extraction curve

progress curve of the cleanliness level of an extraction liquid applied to the test component as a function

of the number of extractions

Note 1 to entry: This is related to the extraction time or to the volume of test liquid passed through or over the

test component.
3.14
extraction liquid
test liquid loaded with contaminants extracted from the test component
3.15
fluid contamination monitor
FCM

instrument that quantitatively evaluates the particulate contamination level of a liquid in an on-line mode

3.16
inspection document

written description of the component cleanliness requirement and the agreed inspection method

3.17
inspection method

procedure for contaminant extraction, contaminant analysis, and data reporting which is used to

evaluate component cleanliness as specified by the inspection document
3.18
representative sample

material extracted such that it is typical of the amount and nature of the contaminant contained in or

on a component
3.19
test liquid

suitable liquid of known initial cleanliness used to remove, suspend, and extract contaminant from a

component and which is compatible with the component being tested and the apparatus used

3.20
validation

process by which a test method evaluates the capability of the contaminant removal process

3.21
wetted surface area
surface area of the component that is exposed to system liquid
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SIST ISO 18413:2016
ISO 18413:2015(E)
Figure 1 — Wetted surface area (A )
3.22
wetted volume
volume of the component that is exposed to system liquid
Figure 2 — Wetted volume (V )
4 Inspection document principles
4.1 Content

This International Standard specifies the content of the inspection document, not its format. The

inspection document may exist as a single document or as a series of related documents. Regardless of

format, the inspection document shall clearly identify the component cleanliness requirement and the

agreed inspection method.
4.2 Component cleanliness requirement

The inspection document shall define the component cleanliness requirement when this is known. The

cleanliness requirement shall be consistent with the known or anticipated function or application of the

component. ISO TR 10686 and ISO 12669 give guidance and tools to establish such requirements. The

component cleanliness requirement shall be established and agreed upon by the parties involved.

International Standards should be used in preference to other references sources (e.g. example historical

data, existing company, industry, and national standards, functional performance, reliability, and

durability requirements of the component, and data on similar components to determine the cleanliness

requirement for a particular component).
4.3 Inspection method

4.3.1 The inspection document shall specify the inspection method to be used to evaluate component

cleanliness. The inspection method shall be established and agreed upon by the parties involved. The

inspection method shall be consistent with the design and the cleanliness requirement of the component.

4.3.2 The inspection document shall specify the appropriate parameters applicable to extracting

contaminants, conducting analyses, and reporting results. Typical reference sources for consideration in

determining the agreed inspection method include: International Standards, previously used methods

of contaminant extraction, contaminant analysis, and data reporting; existing company, industry, and

4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18413:2016
ISO 18413:2015(E)

national, standards; functional, reliability, and durability requirements of the component; and methods

used on similar parts or components.
4.4 Effectivity

The inspection document shall become effective upon mutual agreement between the parties involved,

both of which shall maintain a copy of the applicable inspection document.
4.5 Conformance
Unless otherwise stated in the inspection document,

a) all components for which a cleanliness level has been specified shall meet that requirement when

evaluated in accordance with the agreed inspection method and

b) it is not necessary to inspect those components for which no cleanliness level has been specified (it is

possible that some components are required to meet a specified cleanliness level and others are not).

4.6 Verification of conformance to specified component cleanliness requirements

4.6.1 Conformance to component cleanliness requirements can be verified either by the use of industry-

accepted statistical sampling methods or by joint purchaser-supplier monitoring of the inspection processes.

4.6.2 Verification of test results requires special care because differences in method of contaminant

extraction or analysis of the same component affect the results obtained. In addition, because the

contaminant extraction process results in cleaning of the component used as a test item, that same test

item shall not be reused for subsequent conformance verification.
4.7 Additional information

4.7.1 Unless otherwise agreed by purchaser and supplier, 4.7.2 to 4.7.5 shall apply.

4.7.2 The inspection document shall specify both the required cleanliness level for the component and

the scope of its applicability. The points in the process at which the cleanliness requirement applies shall

be stated in the inspection document. Because prolonged or improper storage of components can result

in the introduction of new contaminants, such as oxidation products, the inspection document shall, when

applicable, address these factors.

4.7.3 Temporary shipping covers are excluded from the inspection process; however, any contaminants

contributed by such covers shall be included in the evaluation of component cleanliness.

4.7.4 Contaminants contributed by such defects as nicks, blemishes, and discoloration shall be included

in the evaluation of component cleanliness.

4.7.5 Where applicable, a requirement for allowable residual magnetic density may be included as part

of the inspection document.

NOTE Residual magnetism can cause retention of contaminant on component surfaces and the formation of

agglomerates, both of which affect contaminant extraction or analysis or both.
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5 Guidelines for selecting contamination extraction and analysis procedures
5.1 Overview

The following information is intended to be neither exhaustive nor restrictive. It is intended only to assist

the user of this International Standard by indicating methods of sample extraction, sample analysis, and

data reporting that are widely recognized as appropriate under selected conditions. The requirements

applicable to a specific component shall be stated in the inspection document.
5.2 Contaminant extraction

Select the extraction method most suited to the component being inspected from Table 1. The method of

contaminant extraction shall be agreed upon and stated in the inspection document.

NOTE Table 1 is a summary of guidelines for selection of contaminant extraction methods as they relate to

categories of hydraulic components.
Table 1 — Guidelines for selection of contaminant extraction methods
Contaminant extraction method
Component
Ultrasonic
Agitation Pressure rinse Functional test
vibration
Assemblies
Pumps and motors NR NR NA R
Valves and cylinders NR NR NA R
Manifold and body assemblies NR A A R
Accumulators A NR NA R
Simple shapes and housings
Gears, plates, and shafts A R R NA
Spools, rods, and pistons A R R NA
Hardware and seals A R R NA
Tanks and reservoirs A R NA NR
Hollow parts
Manifolds and bodies R A A A
Hoses and tubes R A A R
Fittings A R A A
Filtration components

Filter elements — cleanable Method shall be agreed between the supplier and purchaser

Filter elements — non-clean- Method shall be agreed between the supplier and purchaser

able
Filter housings R A A R
R = Recommended
A = Acceptable
NR = Not recommended
NA = Not applicable
5.3 Contaminant analysis

Select the contaminant analysis method from Table 2. The method of contaminant analysis shall be

agreed upon and stated in the inspection document.
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ISO 18413:2015(E)
Table 2 — Guidelines for selection of contaminant analysis methods
Contaminant analysis method
Contaminant Particle size distribution
Gravimetric Chemical
extraction method
Particle size
a b
APC APC or FCM
analysis composition
Microscopy
(bottle) (on line)
Agitation R R R R R NA
Pressure rinse R R R R R A
Ultrasonic vibration R R R R R NA
Functional test A A A R A R
R = Recommended
A = Acceptable
NR = Not recommended
NA = Not applicable
Determined using a light extinction APC used in accordance with ISO 11500.
Determi
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 18413
Deuxième édition
2015-03-15
Transmissions hydrauliques —
Propreté des composants — Documents
d’inspection et principes d’extraction
et d’analyse des contaminants et
d’expression des résultats
Hydraulic fluid power — Cleanliness of components — Inspection
document and principles related to contaminant extraction and
analysis, and data reporting
Numéro de référence
ISO 18413:2015(F)
ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18413:2015(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2015

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée

sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie, l’affichage sur

l’internet ou sur un Intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Les demandes d’autorisation peuvent être adressées à l’ISO à

l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
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Web www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2015 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18413:2015(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principes du document de contrôle.................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.1 Contenu ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Exigence de propreté du composant .................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Méthode de contrôle .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.4 Entrée en vigueur ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.5 Conformité .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.6 Vérification de la conformité aux exigences de propreté spécifiées pour un composant ...... 5

4.7 Informations supplémentaires.................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Éléments de choix des méthodes d’extraction et d’analyse des polluants ...............................................6

5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Extraction des polluants ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.3 Analyse des polluants ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Principes d’extraction des polluants ............................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Installation et validation de la méthode d’extraction ............................................................................................ 8

6.3.1 Environnement de l’installation ......................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.2 Validation ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Agitation ....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.5 Rinçage sous pression....................................................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Vibrations ultrasonores ................................................................................................................................................................13

6.7 Méthode d’essai fonctionnel.....................................................................................................................................................13

7 Principes d’analyse des polluants ...................................................................................................................................................14

7.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Analyse gravimétrique ..................................................................................................................................................................14

7.4 Détermination de la plus grande taille de particules ..........................................................................................14

7.5 Composition chimique ..................................................................................................................................................................15

7.6 Distribution granulométrique ................................................................................................................................................15

8 Principes d’expression des résultats ............................................................................................................................................15

8.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.2 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.3 Masse de polluants ...........................................................................................................................................................................16

8.4 Taille des particules .........................................................................................................................................................................16

8.5 Distribution granulométrique ................................................................................................................................................16

8.6 Composition chimique ..................................................................................................................................................................16

9 Critère d’acceptation .....................................................................................................................................................................................17

10 Phrase d’identification (référence à la présente Norme internationale) ..............................................17

Annexe A (normative) Principes d’extraction des polluants — Méthode par agitation ..............................18

Annexe B (normative) Principes d’extraction des polluants — Méthode par rinçage

sous pression .........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

Annexe C (normative) Principes d’extraction des polluants — Méthode par

vibrations ultrasonores..............................................................................................................................................................................28

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ISO 18413:2015(F)

Annexe D (normative) Principes d’extraction des polluants — Méthode d’essai fonctionnel ..............34

Annexe E (normative) Principes d’analyse des polluants et d’expression des résultats ............................40

Annexe F (informative) Lignes directrices pour la conception d’un banc d’essai pour la

méthode d’essai fonctionnel .................................................................................................................................................................42

Annexe G (informative) Détermination des caractéristiques géométriques des composants..............45

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................48

iv © ISO 2015 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 18413:2015(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui concerne

la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant les

références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de l’élaboration

du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de brevets reçues par

l’ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données pour

information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un engagement.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation

de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes de l’OMC

concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: Avant-propos – Informations

supplémentaires.

Le comité chargé de l’élaboration du présent document est l’ISO/TC 131, Transmissions hydrauliques et

pneumatiques, sous-comité SC 6, Contrôle de la contamination.

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 18413:2002), qui a fait l’objet d’une

révision mineure.
© ISO 2015 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 18413:2015(F)
Introduction

Dans les systèmes de transmissions hydrauliques, l’énergie est transmise et commandée par

l’intermédiaire d’un fluide sous pression circulant en circuit fermé. La présence de polluants dans le

liquide de service en mouvement peut dégrader les performances du système. La présence de particules

résiduelles issues des processus de fabrication et d’assemblage peut entraîner une augmentation notable

des taux d’usure du système pendant le rodage et le début du cycle de vie et peut même provoquer des

défaillances catastrophiques. Pour atteindre des performances fiables des composants et du système, il

est nécessaire de maîtriser la quantité de particules introduites pendant la phase de construction. Pour

permettre l’estimation précise de l’efficacité du nettoyage des pièces et des composants, il est nécessaire

de documenter tant les exigences de propreté que les méthodes employées pour l’extraction et l’analyse

des polluants et l’enregistrement des résultats.
vi © ISO 2015 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 18413:2015(F)
Transmissions hydrauliques — Propreté des composants
— Documents d’inspection et principes d’extraction et
d’analyse des contaminants et d’expression des résultats
1 Domaine d’application

La présente Norme internationale spécifie le contenu d’un document de contrôle précisant tant les

exigences de propreté applicables au composant de transmission hydraulique spécifié que la méthode

de contrôle à employer pour évaluer son niveau de propreté. Elle fournit également des lignes directrices

concernant les méthodes d’extraction et d’analyse pertinentes.

La présente Norme internationale ne couvre pas la détermination de ce qui constitue une exigence

relative au niveau de propreté approprié pour tout composant spécifique. L’ISO 12669 fournit une

méthode permettant de déterminer la propreté requise d’un système hydraulique. L’ISO/TR 10686

fournit une méthode permettant de relier la propreté requise des composants à la propreté requise du

système hydraulique.

Pour les besoins de la présente Norme internationale, les liquides fonctionnels ayant fait l’objet d’un

accord sont considérés comme des composants.

La présente Norme internationale est applicable à la pollution particulaire des surfaces et volumes

mouillés de tout composant d’un système de transmission hydraulique. Elle ne couvre pas les défauts

d’aspect ni la pollution liquide ou gazeuse.

La présente Norme internationale ne traite pas des questions de sécurité que peuvent entraîner les

matières, les opérations et les matériels dangereux associés à son utilisation. L’utilisateur de la présente

Norme internationale est chargé d’établir des pratiques de sécurité et d’hygiène appropriées et de

déterminer l’applicabilité des restrictions légales avant l’utilisation.
2 Références normatives

Les documents ci-après, dans leur intégralité ou non, sont des références normatives indispensables à

l’application du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).

ISO 3722, Transmissions hydrauliques — Flacons de prélèvement — Homologation et contrôle des

méthodes de nettoyage

ISO 4021, Transmissions hydrauliques — Analyse de la pollution par particules — Prélèvement des

échantillons de fluide dans les circuits en fonctionnement

ISO 4405, Transmissions hydrauliques — Pollution des fluides — Détermination de la pollution particulaire

par la méthode gravimétrique

ISO 4407, Transmissions hydrauliques — Pollution des fluides — Détermination de la pollution particulaire

par comptage au microscope optique
ISO 5598, Transmissions hydrauliques et pneumatiques — Vocabulaire

ISO 11500, Transmissions hydrauliques — Détermination du niveau de pollution particulaire d’un échantillon

liquide par comptage automatique des particules par absorption de lumière

ISO 11171, Transmissions hydrauliques — Étalonnage des compteurs automatiques de particules en

suspension dans les liquides
© ISO 2015 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 18413:2015(F)

ISO 11943, Transmissions hydrauliques — Systèmes de comptage automatique en ligne de particules en

suspension dans les liquides — Méthode d’étalonnage et de validation

ISO 12103-1, Véhicules routiers — Poussière pour l’essai des filtres — Partie 1: Poussière d’essai d’Arizona

ISO 14644-1, Salles propres et environnements maîtrisés apparentés — Partie 1: Classification de la

propreté de l’air

ISO 21018 (toutes les parties), Transmissions hydrauliques — Surveillance du niveau de pollution

particulaire des fluides
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l’ISO 5598 ainsi que les

suivants s’appliquent.
3.1
niveau de blanc

quantité de polluant introduite à partir de sources autres que le composant d’essai, telles que les réactifs,

la verrerie, la préparation des unités d’essai et l’environnement
3.2
essai à blanc

analyse réalisée dans les mêmes conditions de fonctionnement que pour le composant d’essai, mais

sans celui-ci

Note 1 à l’article: L’essai à blanc permet de quantifier la pollution introduite à partir de sources autres que le

composant d’essai, telles que les réactifs, la verrerie, la préparation des unités d’essai et l’environnement.

3.3
propre

état de propreté d’un composant ou d’un fluide correspondant au niveau de propreté spécifié

3.4
propreté

état d’un produit, d’une surface, d’un dispositif, d’un liquide, etc. caractérisé par l’absence de

pollution particulaire
3.5
composant

terme général désignant une pièce, un composant, un sous-ensemble ou un assemblage de pièces utilisé

dans un système hydraulique

Note 1 à l’article: Cette définition diffère de celle donnée pour le même terme dans l’ISO 5598.

3.6
contamination d’un composant

quantité ou type de polluants extraits des surfaces mouillées ou de contrôle d’un composant, tel(le) que

mesuré(e) selon une méthode d’analyse applicable
3.7
polluant

substance solide indésirable en suspension dans un fluide ou présente dans un composant ou sur une

surface de contrôle d’un composant

Note 1 à l’article: Pour les besoins de la présente Norme internationale, les polluants comprennent des matières

solides en suspension dans des liquides, mais ne comprennent pas les liquides et les gaz. Cette définition diffère

de celle donnée dans l’ISO 5598 par l’exclusion des liquides et des gaz.
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ISO 18413:2015(F)
3.8
surface de contrôle
surface mouillée d’un composant faisant l’objet d’une exigence de propreté
3.9
volume de contrôle
volume mouillé d’un composant faisant l’objet d’une exigence de propreté
3.10
échantillon final

dernier échantillon d’une série d’échantillons répétitifs, produisant un résultat qui est ≤ 10 % de tous

les échantillons
3.11
surface extérieure

surface du composant qui n’est pas mouillée par le fluide du système pendant le fonctionnement normal

3.12
extraction

opération requise pour transférer une quantité aussi grande que possible d’un polluant présent dans

un volume de contrôle ou sur une surface de contrôle dans un liquide d’essai et son prélèvement en vue

d’une analyse ultérieure
3.13
courbe d’extraction

courbe de progression du niveau de propreté d’un liquide d’extraction appliqué sur un composant d’essai

en fonction du nombre d’extractions

Note 1 à l’article: Cette courbe est liée au temps d’extraction ou au volume de liquide d’essai circulant dans ou sur

le composant d’essai.
3.14
liquide d’extraction
liquide d’essai chargé de polluants extrait du composant d’essai
3.15
dispositif de surveillance de la pollution des fluides
FCM

instrument qui évalue quantitativement en ligne le niveau de pollution particulaire d’un liquide

3.16
document de contrôle

description écrite de l’exigence de propreté du composant et de la méthode de contrôle convenue

3.17
méthode de contrôle

procédure d’extraction et d’analyse des polluants et d’enregistrement de données utilisée pour évaluer

la propreté du composant conformément aux spécifications du document de contrôle
3.18
échantillon représentatif

matière extraite de manière à être représentative de la quantité et du type du polluant contenu dans ou

sur un composant
3.19
liquide d’essai

liquide approprié, d’une propreté initiale connue, utilisé pour enlever, mettre en suspension et extraire tout

polluant d’un composant, et qui est compatible avec le composant soumis à l’essai et l’équipement utilisé

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ISO 18413:2015(F)
3.20
validation

processus permettant, dans le cadre d’une méthode d’essai, d’évaluer la capacité du processus

d’extraction du polluant
3.21
surface mouillée
superficie du composant exposée au liquide du système
Figure 1 — Surface mouillée (A )
3.22
volume mouillé
volume du composant exposé au liquide du système
Figure 2 — Volume mouillé (V )
4 Principes du document de contrôle
4.1 Contenu

La présente Norme internationale définit le contenu du document de contrôle et non pas sa présentation.

Le document de contrôle peut se présenter sous la forme d’un document unique ou sous la forme d’une

série de documents associés. Quel que soit son format, le document de contrôle doit identifier clairement

l’exigence de propreté du composant ainsi que la méthode de contrôle convenue.
4.2 Exigence de propreté du composant

Le document de contrôle doit définir l’exigence de propreté du composant lorsque celle-ci est connue.

L’exigence de propreté doit être compatible avec la fonction ou l’application connue ou prévue du

composant. L’ISO/TR 10686 et l’ISO 12669 fournissent des lignes directrices et des outils permettant

d’établir de telles exigences. L’exigence de propreté du composant doit être établie et convenue entre les

parties intéressées.

Il convient d’utiliser des Normes internationales plutôt que d’autres sources de référence (par exemple

des données historiques, des normes internes, industrielles et nationales existantes, les exigences de

performances de fonctionnement, de fiabilité et de durabilité du composant et des données relatives à

des composants semblables) pour déterminer l’exigence de propreté d’un composant spécifique.

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ISO 18413:2015(F)
4.3 Méthode de contrôle

4.3.1 Le document de contrôle doit spécifier la méthode de contrôle à utiliser pour évaluer la propreté

d’un composant. La méthode de contrôle doit être établie et convenue entre les parties intéressées. Elle

doit être compatible avec la conception et l’exigence de propreté du composant.

4.3.2 Le document de contrôle doit spécifier les paramètres appropriés applicables à l’extraction des

polluants, à la réalisation des analyses et à l’expression des résultats. Les sources d’informations types à consulter

pour déterminer la méthode de contrôle convenue comprennent, par exemple, des Normes internationales,

des méthodes d’extraction et d’analyse des polluants et d’expression des résultats déjà utilisées, des normes

internes, industrielles et nationales existantes, les exigences de fonctionnement, de fiabilité et de durabilité du

composant et des méthodes utilisées pour des pièces ou des composants semblables.

4.4 Entrée en vigueur

Les parties intéressées doivent convenir ensemble de l’entrée en vigueur du document de contrôle et

doivent chacune conserver un exemplaire du document de contrôle applicable.
4.5 Conformité
Sauf spécification contraire dans le document de contrôle,

a) tous les composants pour lesquels un niveau de propreté a été spécifié doivent satisfaire à cette

exigence lorsqu’ils sont évalués selon la méthode de contrôle convenue et

b) il n’est pas nécessaire de contrôler les composants pour lesquels aucun niveau de propreté n’a

été spécifié (il est possible d’exiger que certains composants satisfassent à un niveau de propreté

spécifié et d’autres non).

4.6 Vérification de la conformité aux exigences de propreté spécifiées pour un composant

4.6.1 Il est possible de vérifier la conformité aux exigences de propreté du composant en employant

des méthodes d’échantillonnage statistique courantes dans l’industrie ou au moyen d’une surveillance

conjointe des processus de contrôle par l’acheteur et le fournisseur.

4.6.2 Un soin particulier est nécessaire lors de la vérification des résultats d’essai étant donné que

des différences dans la méthode d’extraction ou d’analyse des polluants d’un même composant ont une

incidence sur les résultats obtenus. De plus, étant donné que le processus d’extraction des polluants a

pour résultat de nettoyer le composant utilisé comme éprouvette, cette même éprouvette ne doit pas être

réutilisée pour une vérification ultérieure de conformité.
4.7 Informations supplémentaires

4.7.1 Sauf accord contraire entre l’acheteur et le fournisseur, 4.7.2 à 4.7.5 doivent s’appliquer.

4.7.2 Le document de contrôle doit spécifier le niveau de propreté requis pour le composant ainsi que

le domaine d’application. Les points du processus auxquels l’exigence de propreté s’applique doivent

être précisés dans le document de contrôle. Étant donné qu’un stockage prolongé ou inapproprié des

composants peut entraîner l’introduction de nouveaux polluants, tels que des produits d’oxydation, le

document de contrôle doit, le cas échéant, traiter de ces facteurs.

4.7.3 D’éventuels caches et bouchons provisoires destinés à l’expédition sont exclus du processus de

contrôle; les polluants dus à de tels caches et bouchons doivent en revanche être inclus dans l’évaluation

de la propreté du composant.
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ISO 18413:2015(F)

4.7.4 Les polluants dus à des défauts tels que des rainures, des imperfections et des décolorations

doivent être inclus dans l’évaluation de la propreté du composant.

4.7.5 Le cas échéant, il est possible d’intégrer une exigence relative à la densité magnétique résiduelle

admissible dans le document de contrôle.

NOTE Le magnétisme résiduel peut retenir un polluant sur les surfaces du composant et contribuer à la

formation d’agglomérats, deux phénomènes affectant l’extraction ou l’analyse des polluants.

5 Éléments de choix des méthodes d’extraction et d’analyse des polluants
5.1 Introduction

Les informations suivantes ne prétendent pas être exhaustives et n’ont pas pour objet d’être restrictives.

Elles sont uniquement destinées à aider l’utilisateur de la présente Norme internationale en lui indiquant

des méthodes d’extraction et d’analyse de la pollution ainsi que la présentation des données les plus

couramment utilisées selon les conditions choisies. Les exigences applicables à un composant spécifique

doivent être précisées dans le document de contrôle.
5.2 Extraction des polluants

Choisir la méthode d’extraction la plus adaptée au composant à contrôler dans le Tableau 1. La méthode

d’extraction des polluants doit faire l’objet d’un accord et être précisée dans le document de contrôle.

NOTE Le Tableau 1 résume les éléments de choix des méthodes d’extraction des polluants en fonction du type

de composant hydraulique à analyser.
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ISO 18413:2015(F)
Tableau 1 — Éléments de choix des méthodes d’extraction des polluants
Composant Méthode d’extraction des polluants
Agitation Rinçage sous pres- Vibrations ultra- Essai fonction-
sion sonores nel
Assemblages
Pompes et moteurs NR NR NA R
Clapets et vérins NR NR NA R
Collecteur et corps NR A A R
Accumulateurs A NR NA R
Formes simples et logements
Engrenages, tôles et arbres A R R NA
Tiroirs cylindriques, tiges de A R R NA
manœuvre et pistons
Équipements et joints A R R NA
Cuves et réservoirs A R NA NR
Pièces
...

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