Imaging materials -- Optical discs -- Care and handling for extended storage

ISO 18938:2008 establishes general principles for the care and handling of digital optical discs during use. It addresses the issues of physical integrity of the medium necessary to preserve access to the recorded data (information). ISO 18938:2008 includes recommendations for handling procedures to maximize the effective life of optical discs. Faulty handling, packing and transporting techniques and methods often cause physical damage to the discs and to the content recorded thereon. Extending the longevity of optical discs requires the identification of appropriate handling methods, as well as well-developed and implemented training programs. For the purposes of ISO 18938:2008, the term “optical disc” includes the families of compact disc (CD), digital versatile disc (DVD), high definition digital versatile disc (HD DVD) and Blu-ray disc (BD), and any hybrids of these families. The term “optical disc” also includes each type of disc within a family, including injection moulded [read-only memory (ROM)], dye-layer [recordable (R)] and phase change [rewriteable (RW), random access memory (RAM)] technologies. While some of the recommendations in ISO 18938:2008 (e.g. those for staff training) apply specifically to large-scale or long term usage, the basics of all recommendations in ISO 18938:2008 are intended to be applied in circumstances where the desired result is long-term usage of the medium whether archival, commercial or personal. ISO 18938:2008 does not cover magneto-optical (MO) discs, laser discs (LD) or glass discs. At the time of writing, International Standards do not exist for HD DVD and Blu-ray discs. Nonetheless, it is believed that the recommendations in ISO 18938:2008 for care and handling can equally apply to them. It is recognized that some of these requirements are not necessarily possible for the individual user to achieve. The following are within the scope of ISO 18938:2008: use and handling environments, including pollutants, temperature and humidity and light exposure; contamination concerns; inspection; cleaning and maintenance, including cleaning methods and frequency; transportation; disasters, including water, fire, construction and post-disaster procedures; staff training.

Matériaux pour l'image -- Disques optiques -- Précautions et manipulation pour stockage étendu

Upodobitveni materiali - Optične plošče - Nega in ravnanje za dolgo shranjevanje

Ta mednarodni standard vzpostavlja splošna načela za nego in ravnanje z digitalnimi optičnimi ploščami med uporabo. Obravnava vprašanja fizikalne celovitosti medija, ki je potrebna za ohranjanje dostopa do posnetih podatkov (informacij). Ta mednarodni standard vključuje priporočila za postopke ravnanja, s katerimi se čim bolj podaljša efektivna življenjska doba optičnih plošč. Napačne tehnike in metode ravnanja, pakiranja in prevoza pogosto povzročajo fizično škodo na ploščah in vsebini, ki je na njih navedena. Za podaljšanje življenjske dobe optičnih plošč je potrebna identifikacija ustreznih metod ravnanja ter dobro razviti in izvajani programi usposabljanja. Za ta mednarodni standard izraz »optična plošča« vključuje družine kompaktnih diskov (CD), digitalnih prilagodljivih plošč (DVD, digitalnih prilagodljivih plošč z veliko ločljivostjo (HD DVD) in diskov Blu-ray (BD)2) ter hibride teh družin. Izraz »optična plošča« vključuje tudi vse vrste plošč v družini, vključno z brizganimi [plošča z bralnim pomnilnikom (ROM)], barvnoslojnimi [snemalna plošča (R)] in fazno spremenljivimi [zapisljiva plošča (RW), plošča z bralno-pisalnim pomnilnikom (RAM)] tehnologijami. Čeprav nekatera od priporočil v tem mednarodnem standardu (npr. priporočila za usposabljanje osebja) veljajo specifično za obsežno ali dolgotrajno uporabo, osnove vseh priporočil v tem mednarodnem standardu veljajo v okoliščinah, v katerih je želeni rezultat dolgotrajna uporaba medija, ne glede na to, ali gre za arhivsko, komercialno ali osebno rabo. Ta mednarodni standard ne zajema magnetno-optičnih (MO) plošč, laserskih plošč (LD) ali steklenih plošč. V času, ko to pišemo, mednarodni standardi za plošče HD DVD in Blu-ray ne obstajajo. Domneva pa se, da priporočila za nego in ravnanje iz tega mednarodnega standarda lahko veljajo tudi zanje. Priznava se, da nekaterih od teh zahtev posamezen uporabnik morda ne more izpolniti. V okvir tega mednarodnega standarda spada spodaj navedeno: - okolja za uporabo in ravnanje, vključno z izpostavljenostjo onesnaževalom, temperaturi in vlagi ter svetlobi; - pomisleki glede kontaminacije; - nadzor; - čiščenje in vzdrževanje, vključno z metodami in pogostostjo čiščenja; - prevoz; - nesreče, vključno s poplavami, požarom, nesrečami pri izdelavi in postopki po nesreči; - usposabljanje osebja. Kakovost podatkov, zapisanih na ploščo, ni predmet tega mednarodnega standarda. Vendar pa je visoka kakovost rezultatov med snemanjem pomembna za dolgoživost informacij. Priporočljivo je, da se izvaja strog program preskušanja celovitosti podatkov, saj je obvezen del vsakega dolgoročnega shranjevanja digitalnih zapisov. Poleg tega je pri shranjevanju digitalnih informacij v arhiv priporočljivo, da je vzpostavljena strategija več kopij/več lokacij.

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
31-Aug-2008
Withdrawal Date
31-Aug-2008
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
18-Aug-2008
Completion Date
01-Sep-2008

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18938
First edition
2008-09-15
Imaging materials — Optical discs — Care
and handling for extended storage
Matériaux pour l'image — Disques optiques — Précautions et
manipulation pour stockage étendu
Reference number
ISO 18938:2008(E)
ISO 2008
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall

not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the

unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2008

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................................... 2

4 Composition of optical discs .............................................................................................................. 6

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Polycarbonate substrate (plastic) layer ............................................................................................. 6

4.3 Data layer ............................................................................................................................................. 6

4.4 Reflective layer .................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Protective layers .................................................................................................................................. 7

4.6 Adhesive layers ................................................................................................................................... 7

4.7 Additional layers .................................................................................................................................. 8

5 Failure mechanisms ............................................................................................................................ 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.2 Physical stress .................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Layer sensitivity .................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4 Scratches ............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.5 Effects of disc play .............................................................................................................................. 9

6 Handling techniques ......................................................................................................................... 10

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 10

6.2 Flexing ................................................................................................................................................ 10

6.3 Contamination ................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4 Disc enclosures ................................................................................................................................. 10

7 Identification ...................................................................................................................................... 11

7.1 Basic concepts .................................................................................................................................. 11

7.2 Adhesive labels ................................................................................................................................. 11

7.3 Printing on optical discs ................................................................................................................... 11

7.4 Thermal printing ................................................................................................................................ 11

7.5 Inkjet printable surface ..................................................................................................................... 12

7.6 Silk screening .................................................................................................................................... 12

7.7 Marking ............................................................................................................................................... 12

8 Contamination .................................................................................................................................... 12

8.1 Fingerprints, smudges, dirt, dust .................................................................................................... 12

8.2 Moisture ............................................................................................................................................. 12

8.3 Organic solvents ............................................................................................................................... 12

8.4 Gaseous impurities ........................................................................................................................... 13

8.5 Consumables ..................................................................................................................................... 13

9 Use environment ................................................................................................................................ 13

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 13

9.2 Temperature and humidity ............................................................................................................... 13

ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)

9.3 Water avoidance ................................................................................................................................ 14

9.4 Air quality ........................................................................................................................................... 14

9.5 Light exposure ................................................................................................................................... 14

9.6 Acclimatization .................................................................................................................................. 14

9.7 Vibrations ........................................................................................................................................... 15

10 Transportation and shipping ............................................................................................................. 15

10.1 Enclosures ....................................................................................................................................... 15

10.2 Cartons ............................................................................................................................................. 15

10.3 Exposure .......................................................................................................................................... 16

10.4 Security ............................................................................................................................................ 16

10.5 External fields .................................................................................................................................. 16

10.6 Biological irradiation ....................................................................................................................... 16

11 Inspection ........................................................................................................................................... 16

11.1 General requirements ..................................................................................................................... 16

11.2 Error rate monitoring ....................................................................................................................... 17

12 Cleaning and maintenance ............................................................................................................... 17

12.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 17

12.2 Solvents and cleaning compounds ............................................................................................... 17

12.3 Cleaning methods ........................................................................................................................... 17

13 Disasters ............................................................................................................................................. 18

13.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 18

13.2 Water ................................................................................................................................................. 18

13.3 Fire .................................................................................................................................................... 18

13.4 Dry debris ......................................................................................................................................... 18

13.5 Impact from disasters ..................................................................................................................... 19

13.6 Repair ............................................................................................................................................... 19

14 Disaster response .............................................................................................................................. 19

14.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 19

14.2 Wet discs .......................................................................................................................................... 19

14.3 Dry discs .......................................................................................................................................... 19

15 Staff training ....................................................................................................................................... 19

15.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 19

15.2 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................ 20

15.3 Training paths .................................................................................................................................. 20

15.4 Schedule for training ....................................................................................................................... 20

15.5 Update of training ............................................................................................................................ 20

15.6 Content of training .......................................................................................................................... 20

16 Minimum handling requirements checklist ..................................................................................... 21

16.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 21

16.2 Do list ................................................................................................................................................ 21

16.3 Not-to-do list .................................................................................................................................... 21

Annex A (informative) Disc structure ........................................................................................................ 22

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 24

iv ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 18938 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 42, Photography.
ISO 2008 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)
Introduction

In addition to storage conditions, the proper care and handling of optical discs is also vital to prolonged disc

life. This is becoming increasingly important as optical discs are widely used for the recording and storage of

information. This International Standard gives guidelines for their recommended care and handling and will be

beneficial for all digital optical discs, regardless of their inherent stability.

Probably no form of data storage has been accepted and adopted as rapidly as the optical disc. It has become

the medium of choice for numerous applications with ever increasing use for the recording and storage of

information. Information is recorded in digital format that not only provides high storage density, but also allows

duplication without information loss, ease of data manipulation and facilitates transmission. It is of tremendous

benefit for audio usage since it permits uninterrupted playback for long periods of time. Information in a disc

format can be accessed very quickly, unlike that in a roll format such as magnetic tape, which requires longer

search time.

While the advantages are many, as with other media, there are nevertheless concerns about the life expectancy

of recorded information on optical discs. This depends upon three independent components, namely the

permanence of the disc itself, the disc drive and the software. Obsolescence of the disc drive and software, lack

of playback device or inoperability of the playback device are all serious uncertainties. Another important issue

is the quality of the initial data recorded onto the disc, which needs to be as high as possible. In addition, the

very popularity of recordable optical discs has led to their wide availability, and wide variability in the quality of

discs for long term preservation of information. Many discs may not be of sufficient quality for long term use.

The finite life of optical discs is well recognized and one approach to addressing this issue is by periodically

transferring or reformatting the information. In addition, the ability to play back a disc in the future depends on

the existence of functional playback equipment. As newer formats and equipment become popular, equipment

manufacturers will probably discontinue production and support of the older, superseded equipment. Eventually,

usable equipment to play obsolete optical disc formats will become difficult to find. Before this occurs, it is

advisable that a migration plan be in place. However, these issues are outside the scope of this International

Standard, which is only concerned with the stability of the optical disc itself. A primary objective of those

involved with the preservation of information on this media is to ensure that the disc is not the weak link among

the necessary components. To support this objective, it is advisable that steps be taken to maximize the optical

disc's potential to be more stable than either the hardware or the software.

As with paper records, photographic film and magnetic tape, optical discs are subject to both damage and

decay. They have a finite life. Predictions of the life expectancy of optical discs have involved extrapolations of

property retention after high temperature and humidity incubations back to practical conditions. These

extrapolations follow mathematical treatments that were developed for simpler chemical reactions, and

therefore the results need to be interpreted with some caution. Predictions cover a very wide range, from

25 years to over 250 years, which vary with the manufacturer and the disc type. Their effective life can be

increased or decreased significantly depending upon the conditions under which they are stored. Storage

recommendations for optical discs are given in ISO 18925. Following these recommendations promotes the

physical integrity of the media and increases their effective life.

1) It is recognized that both “optical discs” and “optical disks” are acceptable spellings. In this International Standard, the

former spelling is used.
vi ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18938:2008(E)
Imaging materials — Optical discs — Care and handling for
extended storage
1Scope

This International Standard establishes general principles for the care and handling of digital optical discs

during use. It addresses the issues of physical integrity of the medium necessary to preserve access to the

recorded data (information). This International Standard includes recommendations for handling procedures to

maximize the effective life of optical discs. Faulty handling, packing and transporting techniques and methods

often cause physical damage to the discs and to the content recorded thereon. Extending the longevity of

optical discs requires the identification of appropriate handling methods, as well as well-developed and

implemented training programs.

For the purposes of this International Standard, the term “optical disc” includes the families of compact disc

(CD), digital versatile disc (DVD), high definition digital versatile disc (HD DVD) and Blu-ray disc (BD) , and any

hybrids of these families. The term “optical disc” also includes each type of disc within a family, including

injection moulded [read-only memory (ROM)], dye-layer [recordable (R)] and phase change [rewriteable (RW),

random access memory (RAM)] technologies.

While some of the recommendations in this International Standard (e.g. those for staff training) apply

specifically to large-scale or long term usage, the basics of all recommendations in this International Standard

are intended to be applied in circumstances where the desired result is long-term usage of the medium whether

archival, commercial or personal.

This International Standard does not cover magneto-optical (MO) discs, laser discs (LD) or glass discs. At the

time of writing, International Standards do not exist for HD DVD and Blu-ray discs. Nonetheless, it is believed

that the recommendations in this International Standard for care and handling can equally apply to them. It is

recognized that some of these requirements are not necessarily possible for the individual user to achieve.

The following are within the scope of this International Standard:

— use and handling environments, including pollutants, temperature and humidity and light exposure;

— contamination concerns;
— inspection;
— cleaning and maintenance, including cleaning methods and frequency;
— transportation;
— disasters, including water, fire, construction and post-disaster procedures;
— staff training.

The quality of the data written on the disc is outside the scope of this International Standard. However, a high

quality result of the recording phase is important to the longevity of information. It is advisable that a rigorous

program of data integrity testing be implemented, as this forms an obligatory part of all digital long-term storage.

In addition, when keeping digital information for archival purposes, it is advisable that a multiple copy/multiple

location strategy be in place.

2) Blu-ray disc and HD DVD are examples of suitable products available commercially. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this International Standard and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of these products.

ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14644-1, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness

ISO 18925, Imaging materials — Optical disc media — Storage practices
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
Amaray case
case designed for DVD discs slightly larger than a jewel case
3.2
acclimatization
staging

process of conditioning material from one set of temperature-moisture conditions to another

3.3
balance
precision vertical position of the disc as it spins
3.4
blister
localized delamination that looks like a bubble
3.5
Blu-ray disc

optical disc in which one or more information layers are located between two layers and the data can be read by

an optical beam with a wave length of 405 nm
3.5.1
read only memory BD-ROM

optical disc to which information is transferred during manufacture to moulded areas in the Blu-ray disc format

and can be read multiple times by an optical beam
3.5.2
recordable BD-R

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded once to areas in the Blu-ray disc format and read

many times
3.5.3
rewriteable BD-RE

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded to areas in the Blu-ray disc format and can be

erased, rerecorded and read many times

3) Amaray case is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this International Standard and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of this product.

2 ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)
3.6
carton

box outer container that can hold one or more individual units and can be a fabrication of paper, card stock or

plastic
3.7
compact disc

optical disc in which the information layer is located near one surface of a substrate and the data can be read by

an optical beam
NOTE Described in IEC 60908.
3.7.1
read only memory CD-ROM

optical disc to which information is transferred during manufacture to moulded areas in the compact disc format

and can be read multiple times by an optical beam
NOTE Described in ISO/IEC 10149.
3.7.2
recordable CD-R

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded once to areas in the compact disc format and read

many times
3.7.3
rewritable CD-RW

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded to areas in the compact disc format and can be

erased, rerecorded and read many times
3.8
conditioning

exposure of a material to air at a given relative humidity and temperature until equilibrium is reached

3.9
container
box, can or carton used for storage and shipping of recording materials
EXAMPLE The box into which a reel, cassette, cartridge or shell is placed.
3.10
delamination
separation of a laminate into its constituent layers
3.11
digital versatile disc
DVD

optical disc in which one or more information layers are located between two substrates and the data can be

read by an optical beam with a wave length of between 635 nm and 650 nm
NOTE Formerly called digital video disc.
3.11.1
read only memory DVD-ROM

optical disc in which information is transferred during manufacture to certain areas in the DVD format and can

be read multiple times by an optical beam
NOTE Described in ISO/IEC 16448 and ISO/IEC 16449.
ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)
3.11.2
recordable DVD-R, +R

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded once to areas in the DVD disc format and read

many times
NOTE Described in ISO/IEC 23912, ISO/IEC 17344 and ISO/IEC 25434.
3.11.3
rewriteable DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, +RW

DVD optical discs that can be written, read and overwritten many times using phase change technology

NOTE 1 See Annex A.
NOTE 2 Described in ISO/IEC 17592, ISO/IEC 17341 and ISO/IEC 26925.
3.12
enclosure

case, cartridge, folder, envelope, sleeve or clam shell that is intended for physical protection against mechanical

damage
3.13
extended-term storage conditions

storage conditions suitable for the preservation of recorded information having permanent value

3.14
high definition digital versatile disc
HD DVD

optical disc in which one or more information layers are located between two substrates and the data can be

read by an optical beam with a wave length of 405 nm
NOTE Sometimes called high density digital versatile disc.
3.14.1
read only memory HD DVD-ROM

optical disc in which information is transferred during manufacture to certain areas in the HD DVD format and

can be read multiple times by an optical beam
3.14.2
recordable HD DVD-R

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded once to areas in the HD DVD disc format and read

many times
3.14.3
rewriteable HD DVD-RW

DVD optical discs that can be written, read and overwritten many times using phase change technology

3.15
information
data recorded using the system
3.16
insulated record container

storage box designed to provide an environmental buffer against temperature and humidity fluctuations

3.17
jewel case

plastic enclosure featuring a hinged lid and one or more trays, each containing a hub clamp to secure and

protect the disc surface
4 ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 18938:2008(E)
3.18
macroenvironment
atmospheric conditions in a large area in which records are kept
NOTE Atmospheric conditions are temperature, relative humidity and pollutants.
3.19
medium
material on which information is recorded
3.20
microenvironment
atmospheric conditions inside a storage enclosure in which records are kept
NOTE Atmospheric conditions are temperature, relative humidity and pollutants.
3.21
optical disc

disc that will accept and retain information from light modulation changes in a recording or reflective layer that

can be read with an optical beam
3.22
optical disc cartridge
ODC
optical disc enclosure required for the operation of the disc
3.23
recording layer

layer of an optical disc on which data is written either during manufacture or in u

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18938:2011
01-julij-2011
8SRGRELWYHQLPDWHULDOL2SWLþQHSORãþH1HJDLQUDYQDQMH]DGROJRVKUDQMHYDQMH
Imaging materials - Optical discs - Care and handling for extended storage

Matériaux pour l'image - Disques optiques - Précautions et manipulation pour stockage

étendu
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18938:2008
ICS:
35.220.30 2SWLþQHVKUDQMHYDOQH Optical storage devices
QDSUDYH
37.040.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
fotografijo photography
SIST ISO 18938:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18938:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18938:2011
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18938
First edition
2008-09-15
Imaging materials — Optical discs — Care
and handling for extended storage
Matériaux pour l'image — Disques optiques — Précautions et
manipulation pour stockage étendu
Reference number
ISO 18938:2008(E)
ISO 2008
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18938:2011
ISO 18938:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall

not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the

unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2008

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18938:2011
ISO 18938:2008(E)
Contents Page

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................................... 2

4 Composition of optical discs .............................................................................................................. 6

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.2 Polycarbonate substrate (plastic) layer ............................................................................................. 6

4.3 Data layer ............................................................................................................................................. 6

4.4 Reflective layer .................................................................................................................................... 7

4.5 Protective layers .................................................................................................................................. 7

4.6 Adhesive layers ................................................................................................................................... 7

4.7 Additional layers .................................................................................................................................. 8

5 Failure mechanisms ............................................................................................................................ 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.2 Physical stress .................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Layer sensitivity .................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4 Scratches ............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.5 Effects of disc play .............................................................................................................................. 9

6 Handling techniques ......................................................................................................................... 10

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 10

6.2 Flexing ................................................................................................................................................ 10

6.3 Contamination ................................................................................................................................... 10

6.4 Disc enclosures ................................................................................................................................. 10

7 Identification ...................................................................................................................................... 11

7.1 Basic concepts .................................................................................................................................. 11

7.2 Adhesive labels ................................................................................................................................. 11

7.3 Printing on optical discs ................................................................................................................... 11

7.4 Thermal printing ................................................................................................................................ 11

7.5 Inkjet printable surface ..................................................................................................................... 12

7.6 Silk screening .................................................................................................................................... 12

7.7 Marking ............................................................................................................................................... 12

8 Contamination .................................................................................................................................... 12

8.1 Fingerprints, smudges, dirt, dust .................................................................................................... 12

8.2 Moisture ............................................................................................................................................. 12

8.3 Organic solvents ............................................................................................................................... 12

8.4 Gaseous impurities ........................................................................................................................... 13

8.5 Consumables ..................................................................................................................................... 13

9 Use environment ................................................................................................................................ 13

9.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 13

9.2 Temperature and humidity ............................................................................................................... 13

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9.3 Water avoidance ................................................................................................................................ 14

9.4 Air quality ........................................................................................................................................... 14

9.5 Light exposure ................................................................................................................................... 14

9.6 Acclimatization .................................................................................................................................. 14

9.7 Vibrations ........................................................................................................................................... 15

10 Transportation and shipping ............................................................................................................. 15

10.1 Enclosures ....................................................................................................................................... 15

10.2 Cartons ............................................................................................................................................. 15

10.3 Exposure .......................................................................................................................................... 16

10.4 Security ............................................................................................................................................ 16

10.5 External fields .................................................................................................................................. 16

10.6 Biological irradiation ....................................................................................................................... 16

11 Inspection ........................................................................................................................................... 16

11.1 General requirements ..................................................................................................................... 16

11.2 Error rate monitoring ....................................................................................................................... 17

12 Cleaning and maintenance ............................................................................................................... 17

12.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 17

12.2 Solvents and cleaning compounds ............................................................................................... 17

12.3 Cleaning methods ........................................................................................................................... 17

13 Disasters ............................................................................................................................................. 18

13.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 18

13.2 Water ................................................................................................................................................. 18

13.3 Fire .................................................................................................................................................... 18

13.4 Dry debris ......................................................................................................................................... 18

13.5 Impact from disasters ..................................................................................................................... 19

13.6 Repair ............................................................................................................................................... 19

14 Disaster response .............................................................................................................................. 19

14.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 19

14.2 Wet discs .......................................................................................................................................... 19

14.3 Dry discs .......................................................................................................................................... 19

15 Staff training ....................................................................................................................................... 19

15.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 19

15.2 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................ 20

15.3 Training paths .................................................................................................................................. 20

15.4 Schedule for training ....................................................................................................................... 20

15.5 Update of training ............................................................................................................................ 20

15.6 Content of training .......................................................................................................................... 20

16 Minimum handling requirements checklist ..................................................................................... 21

16.1 General ............................................................................................................................................. 21

16.2 Do list ................................................................................................................................................ 21

16.3 Not-to-do list .................................................................................................................................... 21

Annex A (informative) Disc structure ........................................................................................................ 22

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................... 24

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 18938 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 42, Photography.
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Introduction

In addition to storage conditions, the proper care and handling of optical discs is also vital to prolonged disc

life. This is becoming increasingly important as optical discs are widely used for the recording and storage of

information. This International Standard gives guidelines for their recommended care and handling and will be

beneficial for all digital optical discs, regardless of their inherent stability.

Probably no form of data storage has been accepted and adopted as rapidly as the optical disc. It has become

the medium of choice for numerous applications with ever increasing use for the recording and storage of

information. Information is recorded in digital format that not only provides high storage density, but also allows

duplication without information loss, ease of data manipulation and facilitates transmission. It is of tremendous

benefit for audio usage since it permits uninterrupted playback for long periods of time. Information in a disc

format can be accessed very quickly, unlike that in a roll format such as magnetic tape, which requires longer

search time.

While the advantages are many, as with other media, there are nevertheless concerns about the life expectancy

of recorded information on optical discs. This depends upon three independent components, namely the

permanence of the disc itself, the disc drive and the software. Obsolescence of the disc drive and software, lack

of playback device or inoperability of the playback device are all serious uncertainties. Another important issue

is the quality of the initial data recorded onto the disc, which needs to be as high as possible. In addition, the

very popularity of recordable optical discs has led to their wide availability, and wide variability in the quality of

discs for long term preservation of information. Many discs may not be of sufficient quality for long term use.

The finite life of optical discs is well recognized and one approach to addressing this issue is by periodically

transferring or reformatting the information. In addition, the ability to play back a disc in the future depends on

the existence of functional playback equipment. As newer formats and equipment become popular, equipment

manufacturers will probably discontinue production and support of the older, superseded equipment. Eventually,

usable equipment to play obsolete optical disc formats will become difficult to find. Before this occurs, it is

advisable that a migration plan be in place. However, these issues are outside the scope of this International

Standard, which is only concerned with the stability of the optical disc itself. A primary objective of those

involved with the preservation of information on this media is to ensure that the disc is not the weak link among

the necessary components. To support this objective, it is advisable that steps be taken to maximize the optical

disc's potential to be more stable than either the hardware or the software.

As with paper records, photographic film and magnetic tape, optical discs are subject to both damage and

decay. They have a finite life. Predictions of the life expectancy of optical discs have involved extrapolations of

property retention after high temperature and humidity incubations back to practical conditions. These

extrapolations follow mathematical treatments that were developed for simpler chemical reactions, and

therefore the results need to be interpreted with some caution. Predictions cover a very wide range, from

25 years to over 250 years, which vary with the manufacturer and the disc type. Their effective life can be

increased or decreased significantly depending upon the conditions under which they are stored. Storage

recommendations for optical discs are given in ISO 18925. Following these recommendations promotes the

physical integrity of the media and increases their effective life.

1) It is recognized that both “optical discs” and “optical disks” are acceptable spellings. In this International Standard, the

former spelling is used.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18938:2008(E)
Imaging materials — Optical discs — Care and handling for
extended storage
1Scope

This International Standard establishes general principles for the care and handling of digital optical discs

during use. It addresses the issues of physical integrity of the medium necessary to preserve access to the

recorded data (information). This International Standard includes recommendations for handling procedures to

maximize the effective life of optical discs. Faulty handling, packing and transporting techniques and methods

often cause physical damage to the discs and to the content recorded thereon. Extending the longevity of

optical discs requires the identification of appropriate handling methods, as well as well-developed and

implemented training programs.

For the purposes of this International Standard, the term “optical disc” includes the families of compact disc

(CD), digital versatile disc (DVD), high definition digital versatile disc (HD DVD) and Blu-ray disc (BD) , and any

hybrids of these families. The term “optical disc” also includes each type of disc within a family, including

injection moulded [read-only memory (ROM)], dye-layer [recordable (R)] and phase change [rewriteable (RW),

random access memory (RAM)] technologies.

While some of the recommendations in this International Standard (e.g. those for staff training) apply

specifically to large-scale or long term usage, the basics of all recommendations in this International Standard

are intended to be applied in circumstances where the desired result is long-term usage of the medium whether

archival, commercial or personal.

This International Standard does not cover magneto-optical (MO) discs, laser discs (LD) or glass discs. At the

time of writing, International Standards do not exist for HD DVD and Blu-ray discs. Nonetheless, it is believed

that the recommendations in this International Standard for care and handling can equally apply to them. It is

recognized that some of these requirements are not necessarily possible for the individual user to achieve.

The following are within the scope of this International Standard:

— use and handling environments, including pollutants, temperature and humidity and light exposure;

— contamination concerns;
— inspection;
— cleaning and maintenance, including cleaning methods and frequency;
— transportation;
— disasters, including water, fire, construction and post-disaster procedures;
— staff training.

The quality of the data written on the disc is outside the scope of this International Standard. However, a high

quality result of the recording phase is important to the longevity of information. It is advisable that a rigorous

program of data integrity testing be implemented, as this forms an obligatory part of all digital long-term storage.

In addition, when keeping digital information for archival purposes, it is advisable that a multiple copy/multiple

location strategy be in place.

2) Blu-ray disc and HD DVD are examples of suitable products available commercially. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this International Standard and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of these products.

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2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14644-1, Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments — Part 1: Classification of air cleanliness

ISO 18925, Imaging materials — Optical disc media — Storage practices
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
amaray case
case designed for DVD discs slightly larger than a jewel case
3.2
acclimatization
staging

process of conditioning material from one set of temperature-moisture conditions to another

3.3
balance
precision vertical position of the disc as it spins
3.4
blister
localized delamination that looks like a bubble
3.5
blu-ray disc

optical disc in which one or more information layers are located between two layers and the data can be read by

an optical beam with a wave length of 405 nm
3.5.1
read only memory bd-rom

optical disc to which information is transferred during manufacture to moulded areas in the Blu-ray disc format

and can be read multiple times by an optical beam
3.5.2
recordable BD-R

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded once to areas in the Blu-ray disc format and read

many times
3.5.3
rewriteable bd-re

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded to areas in the Blu-ray disc format and can be

erased, rerecorded and read many times

3) Amaray case is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the convenience of

users of this International Standard and does not constitute an endorsement by ISO of this product.

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3.6
carton

box outer container that can hold one or more individual units and can be a fabrication of paper, card stock or

plastic
3.7
compact disc

optical disc in which the information layer is located near one surface of a substrate and the data can be read by

an optical beam
NOTE Described in IEC 60908.
3.7.1
read only memory CD-ROM

optical disc to which information is transferred during manufacture to moulded areas in the compact disc format

and can be read multiple times by an optical beam
NOTE Described in ISO/IEC 10149.
3.7.2
recordable CD-R

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded once to areas in the compact disc format and read

many times
3.7.3
rewritable CD-RW

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded to areas in the compact disc format and can be

erased, rerecorded and read many times
3.8
conditioning

exposure of a material to air at a given relative humidity and temperature until equilibrium is reached

3.9
container
box, can or carton used for storage and shipping of recording materials
EXAMPLE The box into which a reel, cassette, cartridge or shell is placed.
3.10
delamination
separation of a laminate into its constituent layers
3.11
digital versatile disc
DVD

optical disc in which one or more information layers are located between two substrates and the data can be

read by an optical beam with a wave length of between 635 nm and 650 nm
NOTE Formerly called digital video disc.
3.11.1
read only memory DVD-ROM

optical disc in which information is transferred during manufacture to certain areas in the DVD format and can

be read multiple times by an optical beam
NOTE Described in ISO/IEC 16448 and ISO/IEC 16449.
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3.11.2
recordable DVD-R, +R

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded once to areas in the DVD disc format and read

many times
NOTE Described in ISO/IEC 23912, ISO/IEC 17344 and ISO/IEC 25434.
3.11.3
rewriteable DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, +RW

DVD optical discs that can be written, read and overwritten many times using phase change technology

NOTE 1 See Annex A.
NOTE 2 Described in ISO/IEC 17592, ISO/IEC 17341 and ISO/IEC 26925.
3.12
enclosure

case, cartridge, folder, envelope, sleeve or clam shell that is intended for physical protection against mechanical

damage
3.13
extended-term storage conditions

storage conditions suitable for the preservation of recorded information having permanent value

3.14
high definition digital versatile disc
HD DVD

optical disc in which one or more information layers are located between two substrates and the data can be

read by an optical beam with a wave length of 405 nm
NOTE Sometimes called high density digital versatile disc.
3.14.1
read only memory HD DVD-ROM

optical disc in which information is transferred during manufacture to certain areas in the HD DVD format and

can be read multiple times by an optical beam
3.14.2
recordable HD DVD-R

recordable optical disc in which information can be recorded once to areas in the HD DVD disc format and read

many times
3.14.3
rewriteable HD DVD-RW

DVD optical discs that can be written, read and overwritten many times using phase change technology

3.15
information
data recorded using the system
3.16
insulated record container

storage box designed to provide an environmental buffer against temperature and humidity fluctuations

3.17
jewel case
plastic
...

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