Hard coal -- Determination of total moisture

ISO 589:2003 describes two methods for the determination of the total moisture content of hard coals. Depending on the coal rank, there may be systematic differences between the results obtained by applying different methods on subsamples of the same sample. Methods using a nitrogen atmosphere are suitable for all hard coals; methods with drying in air are only suitable for hard coals not susceptible to oxidation.

Houille -- Détermination de l'humidité totale

Črni premog – Določevanje celotne vlage

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
09-Nov-2003
Withdrawal Date
09-Nov-2003
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
15-Sep-2003
Completion Date
10-Nov-2003

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 589
Third edition
2003-11-15
Hard coal — Determination of total
moisture
Houille — Détermination de l'humidité totale
Reference number
ISO 589:2003(E)
ISO 2003
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 589:2003(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2003

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 589:2003(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.1 Method A (two-stage methods) ........................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Method B (single-stage methods) ....................................................................................................... 2

5 Reagent .................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Apparatus............................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Sample.................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Sampling and sample preparation ...................................................................................................... 3

7.3 Precautions against loss of moisture................................................................................................. 3

7.4 Moisture determination with on-site treatment (method A only) ..................................................... 4

7.5 Moisture determination without on-site treatment (methods A and B)........................................... 4

8 Procedure............................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1 Methods A 1 and A 2 (two-stage methods) ........................................................................................ 4

8.2 Methods B (single-stage method) ....................................................................................................... 6

9 Precision ................................................................................................................................................ 7

9.1 Repeatability limit ................................................................................................................................. 7

9.2 Reproducibility critical difference ....................................................................................................... 7

10 Test report.............................................................................................................................................. 7

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 589:2003(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 589 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 27, Solid mineral fuels, Subcommittee SC 5, Methods

of analysis.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 589:1981), which has been technically revised.

iv © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 589:2003(E)
Introduction
Moisture is an important parameter in respect of coal quality.

The moisture content of coal is not an absolute value and conditions for its determination have to be

standardized. Results given by the different methods specified here should be comparable within the limits of

the tolerance quoted.

The determination of the total moisture content of hard coals is always to be considered in close connection

with sampling. Therefore this International Standard has been prepared in close relationship with the series

ISO 13909, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling.

A major problem with the preparation of test samples for the determination of moisture is the risk of bias due

to inadvertent loss of moisture. This is dependent on the tightness of the sealing of sampling containers, the

level of moisture content in the sample, the ambient conditions, the type of coal and the reduction and division

procedures used. This is described in detail in ISO 13909-4.

Depending on the mass, the nominal top size and the facilities available where samples are taken, it is

possible to dry the sample directly after sampling (air-drying), then to reduce the particle size and prepare a

test sample for determination of moisture in the air-dried sample. Alternatively, the whole sample may be

transported to the laboratory and the total moisture determined.
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 589:2003(E)
Hard coal — Determination of total moisture
1 Scope

This International Standard describes two methods for the determination of the total moisture content of hard

coals. Depending on the coal rank, there may be systematic differences between the results obtained by

applying different methods on subsamples of the same sample. Methods using a nitrogen atmosphere are

suitable for all hard coals; methods with drying in air are only suitable for hard coals not susceptible to

oxidation.

NOTE The term “not susceptible to oxidation” cannot be defined easily. Usually, coals very high in rank are not

oxidized under the conditions described in this standard. For all other types of coal this has to be verified by experiments.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1213-2, Solid mineral fuels — Vocabulary — Part 2: Terms relating to sampling, testing and analysis

ISO 1988, Hard coal — Sampling

ISO 11722, Solid mineral fuels — Hard coal — Determination of moisture in the general analysis test sample

by drying in nitrogen

ISO 13909-1:2001, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 1: General introduction

ISO 13909-2:2001, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 2: Coal — Sampling from moving

streams

ISO 13909-3:2001, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 3: Coal — Sampling from stationary

lots

ISO 13909-4:2001, Hard coal and coke — Sampling — Part 4: Coal — Preparation of test samples

ISO 13909-8:2001, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 8: Methods of testing for bias

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1213-2 apply.

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 589:2003(E)
4 Principle
4.1 Method A (two-stage methods)
4.1.1 Method A 1: Drying under nitrogen

The sample is dried in air at ambient temperatures or at elevated temperatures not exceeding 40 °C (first

stage or free moisture) and the loss in mass recorded. The air-dried sample is crushed to 2,8 mm nominal top

size and subsamples are dried at 105 - 110 °C in a nitrogen-flushed oven (second stage or residual moisture).

NOTE Residual moisture is often called moisture in the air-dried sample.

Provided that the result obtained for the determination of moisture in the analysis sample in accordance with

ISO 11722 can be shown to give the same result as that for the second-stage moisture determination, the

former may be used.
The moisture is calculated from the loss in mass at each of the two stages.
4.1.2 Method A 2: Drying in air

The sample is dried in air at ambient temperatures or at elevated temperatures not exceeding 40 °C (first

stage or free moisture) and the loss in mass in recorded. The air-dried sample is crushed to 2,8 mm nominal

top size and subsamples are dried at 105 - 110 °C (second stage or residual moisture).

The moisture is calculated from the loss in mass at each of the two stages.
NOTE This method is only suitable for hard coals not susceptible to oxidation.
4.2 Method B (single-stage methods)
4.2.1 Method B 1: Drying under nitrogen

The sample is crushed to 11,2 mm nominal top size. A subsample is dried in a nitrogen-flushed oven at a

temperature of 105 - 110 °C. The moisture is calculated from the loss in mass.
4.2.2 Method B 2: Drying in air

The sample is crushed to 11,2 mm nominal top size. A subsample is dried at a temperature of 105 - 110 °C.

The moisture is calculated from the loss in mass.
NOTE This method is only suitable for hard coals not susceptible to oxidation.
5 Reagent
Nitrogen, moisture-free, having an oxygen content of less than 30 µl/l.

NOTE Commercially available nitrogen with a water content of less than 5 µl/l does not require further drying.

6 Apparatus
Methods A

6.1 Oven, capable of being controlled at a temperature of 30 - 40 °C and with a sufficiently rapid rate of

atmosphere change (e.g. 5 times per hour). The air velocity should be such that the sample particles are not

dislodged from their tray.
2 © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 589:2003(E)
6.2 Nitrogen-flushed ov
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 589:2005
01-november-2005
ýUQLSUHPRJ±'RORþHYDQMHFHORWQHYODJH
Hard coal -- Determination of total moisture
Houille -- Détermination de l'humidité totale
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 589:2003
ICS:
73.040 Premogi Coals
SIST ISO 589:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 589
Third edition
2003-11-15
Hard coal — Determination of total
moisture
Houille — Détermination de l'humidité totale
Reference number
ISO 589:2003(E)
ISO 2003
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
ISO 589:2003(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2003

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
ISO 589:2003(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.1 Method A (two-stage methods) ........................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Method B (single-stage methods) ....................................................................................................... 2

5 Reagent .................................................................................................................................................. 2

6 Apparatus............................................................................................................................................... 2

7 Sample.................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Sampling and sample preparation ...................................................................................................... 3

7.3 Precautions against loss of moisture................................................................................................. 3

7.4 Moisture determination with on-site treatment (method A only) ..................................................... 4

7.5 Moisture determination without on-site treatment (methods A and B)........................................... 4

8 Procedure............................................................................................................................................... 4

8.1 Methods A 1 and A 2 (two-stage methods) ........................................................................................ 4

8.2 Methods B (single-stage method) ....................................................................................................... 6

9 Precision ................................................................................................................................................ 7

9.1 Repeatability limit ................................................................................................................................. 7

9.2 Reproducibility critical difference ....................................................................................................... 7

10 Test report.............................................................................................................................................. 7

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
ISO 589:2003(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 589 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 27, Solid mineral fuels, Subcommittee SC 5, Methods

of analysis.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 589:1981), which has been technically revised.

iv © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
ISO 589:2003(E)
Introduction
Moisture is an important parameter in respect of coal quality.

The moisture content of coal is not an absolute value and conditions for its determination have to be

standardized. Results given by the different methods specified here should be comparable within the limits of

the tolerance quoted.

The determination of the total moisture content of hard coals is always to be considered in close connection

with sampling. Therefore this International Standard has been prepared in close relationship with the series

ISO 13909, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling.

A major problem with the preparation of test samples for the determination of moisture is the risk of bias due

to inadvertent loss of moisture. This is dependent on the tightness of the sealing of sampling containers, the

level of moisture content in the sample, the ambient conditions, the type of coal and the reduction and division

procedures used. This is described in detail in ISO 13909-4.

Depending on the mass, the nominal top size and the facilities available where samples are taken, it is

possible to dry the sample directly after sampling (air-drying), then to reduce the particle size and prepare a

test sample for determination of moisture in the air-dried sample. Alternatively, the whole sample may be

transported to the laboratory and the total moisture determined.
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 589:2003(E)
Hard coal — Determination of total moisture
1 Scope

This International Standard describes two methods for the determination of the total moisture content of hard

coals. Depending on the coal rank, there may be systematic differences between the results obtained by

applying different methods on subsamples of the same sample. Methods using a nitrogen atmosphere are

suitable for all hard coals; methods with drying in air are only suitable for hard coals not susceptible to

oxidation.

NOTE The term “not susceptible to oxidation” cannot be defined easily. Usually, coals very high in rank are not

oxidized under the conditions described in this standard. For all other types of coal this has to be verified by experiments.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1213-2, Solid mineral fuels — Vocabulary — Part 2: Terms relating to sampling, testing and analysis

ISO 1988, Hard coal — Sampling

ISO 11722, Solid mineral fuels — Hard coal — Determination of moisture in the general analysis test sample

by drying in nitrogen

ISO 13909-1:2001, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 1: General introduction

ISO 13909-2:2001, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 2: Coal — Sampling from moving

streams

ISO 13909-3:2001, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 3: Coal — Sampling from stationary

lots

ISO 13909-4:2001, Hard coal and coke — Sampling — Part 4: Coal — Preparation of test samples

ISO 13909-8:2001, Hard coal and coke — Mechanical sampling — Part 8: Methods of testing for bias

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 1213-2 apply.

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 589:2005
ISO 589:2003(E)
4 Principle
4.1 Method A (two-stage methods)
4.1.1 Method A 1: Drying under nitrogen

The sample is dried in air at ambient temperatures or at elevated temperatures not exceeding 40 °C (first

stage or free moisture) and the loss in mass recorded. The air-dried sample is crushed to 2,8 mm nominal top

size and subsamples are dried at 105 - 110 °C in a nitrogen-flushed oven (second stage or residual moisture).

NOTE Residual moisture is often called moisture in the air-dried sample.

Provided that the result obtained for the determination of moisture in the analysis sample in accordance with

ISO 11722 can be shown to give the same result as that for the second-stage moisture determination, the

former may be used.
The moisture is calculated from the loss in mass at each of the two stages.
4.1.2 Method A 2: Drying in air

The sample is dried in air at ambient temperatures or at elevated temperatures not exceeding 40 °C (first

stage or free moisture) and the loss in mass in recorded. The air-dried sample is crushed to 2,8 mm nominal

top size and subsamples are dried at 105 - 110 °C (second stage or residual moisture).

The moisture is calculated from the loss in mass at each of the two stages.
NOTE This method is only suitable for hard coals not susceptible to oxidation.
4.2 Method B (single-stage methods)
4.2.1 Method B 1: Drying under nitrogen

The sample is crushed to 11,2 mm nominal top size. A subsample is dried in a nitrogen-flushed oven at a

temperature of 105 - 110 °C. The moisture is calculated from the loss in mass.
4.2.2 Method B 2: Drying in air

The sample is crushed to 11,2 mm nominal top size. A subsample is dried at a temperature of 105 - 110 °C.

The moisture is calculated from the loss in mass.
NOTE This method is only suitable for hard coals not susceptible to oxidation.
5 Reagent
Nitrogen, moisture-free, having an oxygen content of less than 30 µl/l.

NOTE Commercially available nitrogen with a water content of less than 5 µl/l does not require further drying.

6 Appar
...

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